Difference between revisions of "Atheism"

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(Just putting that out there :))
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[[File:Atheism.jpg|thumb|alt=atheism|right|205px|[[Portrait]] of [[Paul-Henri Thiry]], Baron d'Holbach (1723 - 1789) was an early advocate of atheism in [[Europe]]. ]]
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When debate is lost, slander becomes the tool of the loser.
'''Atheism''', as defined by the ''[[Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]]'', the ''[[Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy]]'', and other [[philosophy]] reference works, is the denial of the existence of [[God]].<ref>Multiple references:
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*Smart, J. J. C. (August 8, 2011). [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/atheism-agnosticism "Atheism and agnosticism"]. ''The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).
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*Merriam-Webster dictionary: Atheism -  a disbelief in the existence of deity; the doctrine that there is no deity. Origin of atheism: Middle French athéisme, from athée atheist, from Greek atheos godless, from a- + theos god [http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/atheism]
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*Atheism: a + theos, denying god, (Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology-1966).
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*Sarfati, Jonathan, Ph.D. (23 June 2007). [http://creation.com/atheism-is-more-rational "Atheism is more rational?"].  See [[Creation Ministries International]], [[Jonathan Sarfati]].
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*Day, Donn R. (2007). [http://www.thedivineconspiracy.org/athart3.htm "Atheism - etymology"].
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*[http://www.reasonablefaith.org/definition-of-atheism Definition of atheism] by [[William Lane Craig]]
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*[http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/web/crj0131a.html Putting the Atheist on the Defensive] by Kenneth R. Samples, Christian Research Institute Journal, Fall 1991, and Winter 1992, page 7.
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</ref>  [[Paul Edwards (philosopher)|Paul Edwards]], who was a prominent atheist and editor of the ''[[Encyclopedia of Philosophy]]'', defined an atheist as "a person who maintains that there is no God."<ref name="CRI">[http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/web/crj0131a.html Putting the Atheist on the Defensive] by Kenneth R. Samples, Christian Research Institute Journal, Fall 1991, and Winter 1992, page 7.</ref>
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Beginning in the latter portion of the 20th century and continuing beyond, many [[agnosticism|agnostics]]/atheists have argued that the [[definition of atheism]] should be defined as a lack of belief in God or gods.<ref name="CRI"/><ref name="Divine">Day, Donn R. (2007).  [http://www.thedivineconspiracy.org/athart3.htm "Atheism - etymology"].</ref><ref>[http://www.reasonablefaith.org/definition-of-atheism Definition of atheism] by [[William Lane Craig]]</ref><ref>Britain is a less religious country than the United States and the online Oxford Dictionaries offers both the narrow/broad definitions of atheism (As noted in a previous footnote the Merriam-Webster dictionary, which is a traditional American dictionary, offers a more narrow definition of atheism similar to the definition that major encyclopedias of philosophy use). Oxford Dictionaries: Disbelief or lack of belief in the existence of God or gods.[http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/atheism]</ref>
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[[Socrates]]
  
Atheism has been examined by many disciplines in terms [[Atheism statistics|of its effects]] on individuals and [[Atheism and culture|on societies]] and these effects will be covered shortly.
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This website full of loathsome fundamentalist hatemongers has demonstrated this :)
 
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As far as individuals adopting an [[Atheist worldview|atheistic worldview]], atheism has a number [[causes of atheism|of causal factors]] and these will be elaborated on below.
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==Types of atheism==
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''See also:'' [[Schools of atheist thought]] and [[Atheist factions]]
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[[File:Diagoras of melos.jpg|thumbnail|150px|right|[[Diagoras of Melos]] was an [[Ancient Greece|ancient Greek]] atheist, poet and [[Sophism|Sophist]] of the 5th century BC.
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See: [[History of Atheism|History of atheism]] ]]
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The [[History of Atheism|history of atheism]] can be dated to as early as the 5th century B.C. [[Diagoras of Melos]] was a 5th century B.C. [[Greek]] atheist, poet and [[Sophism|Sophist]]. Since this time, there have been many [[schools of atheist thought]] that have developed.
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===Atheism and why do atheists state they disbelieve?===
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''See also:'' [[Weak Atheism|Weak atheism]] and [[Strong atheism]]
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Atheists claim there are two main reasons for their denial of the existence of God and/or disbelief in God: the conviction that there is positive evidence or argument that God does not exist ([[strong atheism]], which is also sometimes called positive atheism), and their claim that [[theism|theists]] bear the burden of proof to show that God exists, that they have failed to do so, and that belief is therefore unwarranted ([[Weak Atheism|weak atheism]]).
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As alluded to above, theists and others have posited a number of [[causes of atheism]] and this matter will be further addressed in this article.
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=== Attempts to broaden the definition of atheism ===
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In 1876, [[Charles Bradlaugh]] proposed that atheism does not assert "there is no God," and by doing so he endeavored to dilute the traditional definition of atheism.<ref name="Divine"/><ref>
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*Discussion on Atheism: Report of a Public Discussion Between the Rev. Brewin Grant, B.A., and C. Bradlaugh, Esq., Held in South Place Chapel, Finsbury, London, on Tuesday Evenings, Commencing June 22, and Ending July 27, 1875, on the Question, "Is Atheism Or is Christianity the True Secular Gospel, as Tending to the Improvement and Happiness of Mankind in this Life by Human Efforts and Material Means.". Brewin Grant Charles Bradlaugh, January 1, 1890, Anti-liberation Society, page 10-12 [https://books.google.com/books?id=Dwk3yV5MOaAC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=Charles+Bradlaugh+definition+of+atheism&source=bl&ots=JtjIlK7qaJ&sig=E0HjYgfEyKXdEA4zlLAd9m41cQU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CEgQ6AEwB2oVChMIrcijucWLyAIVCXA-Ch00NACw#v=onepage&q=Charles%20Bradlaugh%20definition%20of%20atheism&f=false]
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</ref>  As noted above, in the latter portion of the 20th century, the proposition that the definition of atheism be defined as a mere lack of belief in God or gods began to be commonly advanced by agnostics/atheists.<ref name="Divine"/><ref>
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*[http://www.reasonablefaith.org/definition-of-atheism Definition of atheism] by [[William Lane Craig]]</ref>  It is now common for atheists/agnostics and theists to debate the meaning of the word atheism.<ref name="Divine"/><ref>
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*[http://www.apatheticagnostic.com/articles/meds2/med40/med796.html The Atheism Vs. Agnosticism “Debate”]
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*[http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/atheism Oxford Dictionaries]. Oxford Dictionaries, due to their British influence (Atheism is more popular in Britain than in the United States and many other countries where English is spoken, see: [[Atheist Population|Atheist population]] and [[Secular Europe]] and [[Atheism statistics]]), now offers the definition of atheism to be "Disbelief or lack of belief in the existence of God or gods." which is a departure from its historical meaning before a broader definition of atheism began to be more widely advocated in the latter portion of the 20th century (see: [http://www.thedivineconspiracy.org/athart3.htm "Atheism - etymology"])</ref>
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Critics of a broader definition of atheism to be a mere lack of belief often point out that such a definition is contrary to the traditional/historical meaning of the word and that such a definition makes atheism indistinguishable from agnosticism.<ref name="CRI"/><ref name="Divine"/><ref>
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*[http://www.apatheticagnostic.com/articles/meds2/med40/med796.html The Atheism Vs. Agnosticism “Debate”]
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*[http://www.reasonablefaith.org/definition-of-atheism Definition of atheism] by [[William Lane Craig]]
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*[http://carm.org/cut-atheism Atheism] by Matt Slick
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</ref>
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For more information, please see:
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*[[Definition of atheism]]
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*[[Definitions of Atheist and Agnostic|Definitions of atheist and agnostic]]
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=== Some common types of atheism ===
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Below are a few common ways that atheism manifests itself:
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'''1.''' [[Militant atheism]], which continues to suppress and oppress religious believers today.
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Topics related to militant atheism:
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* [[Atheism and communism]]
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* [[Atheism and intolerance]]
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* [[New Atheism]]
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'''2.''' Philosophical atheism - Atheist philosophers assert that God does not exist. (See also: [[Naturalism (philosophy)|Naturalism]] and [[Materialism]])
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[[Secular humanism]]  is a philosophy which holds that human beings are the most important figures, and that social problems are best solved without the involvement of religious doctrine.
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The philosophy of [[postmodernism]] is atheistic (see: [[Atheism and postmodernism]]).
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'''3.''' Atheistic [[Buddhism]] (some schools of Buddhism are theistic)
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'''4.''' [[Practical atheism]]: atheism of the life - that is, ''living'' as though God does not exist.<ref>Dr. [[Martin Luther King]] in his sermon ''Rediscovering Lost Values'' spoke of "practical atheism".  King, Dr. Martin Luther (1954). [http://www.globatron.org/truth/rediscovering-lost-values-martin-luther-king-early-sermon "Rediscovering lost values"]</ref>
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'''5.''' Other schools of atheist thought: [[Schools of atheist thought]]
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=== Atheist factions ===
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''See also:'' [[Atheist factions]] and [[Western atheism, schisms and political polarization]] and [[Atheist organizations]]
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[[File:Richard Dawkins Stockholm.JPG|alt=Richard Dawkins|thumbnail|250px|right|[[Richard Dawkins]] was a central figure in the [[Elevatorgate]] controversy.]]
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In 2015, Dr. J. Gordon Melton said about the [[atheist movement]] (organized atheism) that atheism is not a movement which tends to create community, but in the last few years there has been some growth of organized atheism.<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P0i4kuN9XSc Baylor ISR- J. Gordon Melton - End of Religion? (May 5, 2015)]</ref> See also: [[Atheist factions]] and [[Atheist organizations]]
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Jacques Rousseau wrote in the ''Daily Maverick'': "[[Elevatorgate]]..has resulted in three weeks of infighting in the secular community. Some might observe that we indulge in these squabbles fairly frequently."<ref>Rousseau, Jacques (July 13, 2011). [http://dailymaverick.co.za/opinionista/2011-07-13-sticks-and-stones-may-break-my-bones-but-words-can-rip-my-soul "Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words can rip my soul"]. Daily Maverick [South Africa].</ref> An ex-atheist wrote: "As an Atheist for 40 years, I noticed that there is not just a wide variety of [[Schools of atheist thought|Atheist positions]], but there exists an actual battle between certain [[Atheist factions]]."<ref>[http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2013/04/internet-atheism-is-still-hostile.html "The atheist community and internet atheism is still a hostile wasteland"] (April 7, 2013).  Question Evolution Campaign [blog].</ref>
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==== Atheist infighting ====
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''See also:'' [[Atheist movement]] and [[Atheism and anger]]
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Blair Scott served on the [[American Atheists]] board of directors.<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20140701062412/http://atheists.org/about-us/board-of-directors "Board of directors"] (July 1, 2014).  American Atheists</ref>  Mr. Scott formerly served as a State Director for the [[American Atheists]] organization in the state of [[Alabama]].  On December 1, 2012, he quit his post as a director of outreach for the American Atheists due to infighting within the American [[atheist movement]].<ref name="Blair Scott">Scott, Blair (December 1, 2012). [http://news.atheists.org/2012/12/01/an-open-letter-from-blair-scott/ "An open letter from Blair Scott"].  American Atheists.</ref>
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Mr. Blair wrote:
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{{cquote|I have spent the last week mulling over what I want to do at this point in the movement. I’m tired of the in-fighting: at every level. I am especially tired of allowing myself to get sucked into it and engaging in the very behavior that is irritating...me.<ref name="Blair Scott"/>}}
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The atheist Neil Carter wrote:
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{{Cquote|Friends of mine have noted lately how biting and critical the atheist community can be, not only toward outsiders, but even toward its own members. Has there ever been a subculture more prone to eating its own than this one? I really don’t know.<ref>[http://www.patheos.com/blogs/godlessindixie/2016/06/12/its-past-time-for-atheism-to-grow-up/ It’s Past Time for Atheism to Grow Up] by Neil Carter</ref>}}
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The atheist [[David Smalley]] said about the atheist movement: "We're eating our own... We’re disintegrating."<ref name="patheos.com">[http://www.patheos.com/blogs/dogmadebate/2017/06/reasonably-controversial-regressive-left-killing-atheist-movement/ Reasonably Controversial: How the Regressive Left Is Killing the Atheist Movement] by David Smalley</ref>
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{{See also|Antitheism and antisocial behavior}}
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==== Atheist infighting causing fundraising difficulties ====
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''See also:'' [[Atheist fundraising vs. religious fundraising]] and [[Atheism and charity]]
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In 2017, the atheist activist Lee Moore declared about [[American atheism|American atheist]] organizations:
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{{Cquote|If you look at the major atheist groups right now, like the national groups, the ones that are doing the real activist work... They are not bringing in the kind of donations they used to.  Most of them are starved for cash. They're downsizing left and right. Because people aren't just giving like they used to. And I talked to a lot of the major donors out there and they said, "Well, we're kind of tired of seeing the atheist community just fight amongst itself and not really get anything done. We'd rather not give money if we don't think it's going to go somewhere."<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvG6LKUbOdk Lee Moore and Steve Shives Talk About the Future of the Atheist Movement],
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- video quote comes 21 minutes and 13 seconds into the video</ref>}}
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==== Eddie Tabash on atheist argumentativeness ====
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''See also:'' [[Atheism and social/interpersonal intelligence|Atheism and social intelligence]] and [[Atheism and emotional/intrapersonal intelligence|Atheism and emotional intelligence]]
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The [[American atheism|American atheist]] activist [[Eddie Tabash]] said in a speech to the Michigan Atheists State Convention, "Since we are a bit of a cantankerous, opinionated lot...".<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ld9Rfw5HUs Atheists Speak Up - Eddie Tabash - Part 2 of 4]</ref>
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==== Angry and bitter demeanor of militant atheists ====
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''See also:'' [[Atheism and anger]] and [[Atheism and forgiveness|Atheism and unforgiveness]]
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[[File:Angry atheist.jpg|thumbnail|right|200px|An angry atheist speaking to a woman with a Bible in her hand.
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The Christian philosopher James S. Spiegel says that the path from Christianity to atheism among several of his friends involved moral slippage such as resentment or unforgiveness.<ref>[http://www.christianpost.com/news/christian-philosopher-explores-causes-of-atheism-44353/ Christian Philosopher Explores Causes of Atheism]</ref> See:  [[Atheism and forgiveness|Atheism and unforgiveness]]]]
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On January 1, 2011, [[CNN]] reported:
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{{cquote|People unaffiliated with organized religion, atheists and agnostics also report anger toward God either in the past, or anger focused on a hypothetical image - that is, what they imagined God might be like - said lead study author Julie Exline, Case Western Reserve University psychologist.
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In studies on college students, atheists and agnostics reported more anger at God during their lifetimes than believers.<ref>Landau, Elizabeth (January 1, 2011).  [http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/01/01/anger-at-god-common-even-among-atheists/ "Anger at God common, even among atheists"].  CNN/The Chart website.</ref>}}
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Various studies found that traumatic events in people's lives has a positive correlation with "emotional atheism".<ref>Carter, Joe (January 12, 2011). [http://www.firstthings.com/web-exclusives/2011/01/when-atheists-are-angry-at-god "When atheists are angry at God"].  First Things [The Institute on Religion and Public Life] website.</ref>
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The atheist and [[lesbianism|lesbian]] [[Greta Christina]] told the journalist Chris Mooney on the Point of Inquiry podcast, "there isn't one emotion" that affects atheists "but anger is one of the emotions that many of us have ...[it] drives others to participate in the movement."<ref>Mooney, Chris (May 14, 2012).  [http://www.pointofinquiry.org/greta_christina_why_are_you_atheists_so_angry/ "Greta Christina—Why are you atheists so angry?"] [interview of Greta Christina] Point of Inquiry website.</ref>
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Social science research indicates that [[Antitheism|antitheists]] score the highest among atheists when it comes to personality traits such as [[narcissism]], dogmatism, and anger.<ref>Multiple references:
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*[http://shadowtolight.wordpress.com/2013/07/18/science-shows-new-atheists-to-be-mean-and-closed-minded/ "Science shows new atheists to be mean and closed-minded"] (July 18, 2013).  Shadow to Light [blog].
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*Haidt, Jonathan (March 5, 2014).  [https://evolution-institute.org/article/why-sam-harris-is-unlikely-to-change-his-mind10/  "Why Sam Harris is unlikely to change his mind"]</ref>  Furthermore, they scored lowest when it comes to agreeableness and positive relations with others.<ref>[http://shadowtolight.wordpress.com/2013/07/18/science-shows-new-atheists-to-be-mean-and-closed-minded/ "Science shows new atheists to be mean and closed-minded"] (July 18, 2013).  Shadow to Light [blog].</ref>
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For additional information, please see: [[Atheism and interpersonal intelligence|Atheism and social intelligence]] and  [[Atheism and emotional/intrapersonal intelligence|Atheism and emotional intelligence]] and [[Atheism and forgiveness|Atheism and unforgiveness]] and [[Atheism and bitterness]]
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== Atheism and its retention rate in individuals  ==
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''See also:'' [[Atheism and its retention rate in individuals]] and [[Desecularization]] and [[Atheism and apathy]]
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[[File:Georgetown 2.jpg|thumbnail|right|200px|In 2012, a [[Georgetown University]] study was published indicating that about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household in the United States remain atheists as adults.<ref name="retention rate">Nazworth, Nap (July 11, 2012). [http://www.christianpost.com/news/study-atheists-have-lowest-retention-rate-compared-to-religious-groups-78029/ "Study: atheists have lowest 'retention rate' compared to religious groups"]. christianpost.com.</ref>
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See: [[Atheism and its retention rate in individuals]] ]]
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In 2012, a [[Georgetown University]] study was published indicating that only about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household remain atheists as adults.<ref name="retention rate"/>
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A 2012 study by the General Social Survey of the social science research organization NORC at the University of Chicago found that belief in God rises with age, even in atheistic nations.<ref>Harms, William (April 18, 2012). [http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2012/04/18/belief-god-rises-age-even-atheist-nations "Belief in God rises with age, even in atheist nations".] UChicagoNews.</ref> The Pew Forum reports about [[American atheism|American atheists]]: "Among self-identified atheists and agnostics, the median age is 34, and roughly four-in-ten adults in these categories are between the ages of 18 and 29."<ref>[http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/chapter-3-demographic-profiles-of-religious-groups/ Chapter 3: Demographic Profiles of Religious Groups], Pew Forum</ref> See also: [[Atheism and immaturity]].
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In addition, in atheistic Communist China, [[Christianity]] is experiencing rapid growth (see: [[Growth of Christianity in China]]).  Also, there was a collapse of atheism in the former [[Soviet Union]] (see: [[Collapse of atheism in the former Soviet Union]]).
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See also:
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*[[Desecularization]]
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*[[Atheist pessimism about the atheist movement]]
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*[[Atheism and inspiration]]
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*[[Atheist indoctrination]]
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=== Difficulty in participating in atheist community ===
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''See also:'' [[Atheism and loneliness]] and [[Atheism and apathy]] and [[Internet atheism]] and [[American atheists and church attendance]]
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According to an international study done by William Bainbridge, atheism is frequent among people whose interpersonal social obligations are weak and is also linked to lower fertility rates in advanced industrial nations (See also: [[Atheism and fertility rates]]).<ref>Bainbridge, William (2005). "[http://www.religjournal.com/pdf/ijrr01002.pdf Atheism]" (PDF). Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 1 (Article 2): 1–26.</ref> See also: [[Atheism and loneliness]] and [[Atheism and interpersonal intelligence|Atheism and social skills]]
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In comparison to many religious groups, which have many meetings/conferences in numerous places in a given day or week which are convenient to attend, atheist meetings and [[atheist conferences]] are sparse.  One of the causes of this situation is the apathy of many atheists (see: [[Atheism and apathy]]).
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In recent times, the number of people attending atheist conferences has grown smaller.<ref>[http://www.patheos.com/blogs/tippling/2017/07/13/10923/ Whoever I Don’t Like Is Ruining the Atheist Movement] by Jeremiah Traeger
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*[http://www.patheos.com/blogs/dogmadebate/2017/06/reasonably-controversial-regressive-left-killing-atheist-movement/ Reasonably Controversial: How the Regressive Left Is Killing the Atheist Movement] by David Smalley
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*[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luT2vQ3ctKU #ReasonRally Crash n burn. Thanks SJWs!] by [[Thunderf00t]]</ref> Atheist [[David Smalley]] wrote: "And we wonder why we’re [[Atheism and politics|losing elections]], [[Atheist fundraising vs. religious fundraising#Atheist organizations and fundraising|losing funding]], and our conferences are getting smaller."<ref name="patheos.com"/> In 2017, the atheist activist Lee Moore said about atheist conferences, "Most conferences are gone now. They're either gone or in some kind of life support form."<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvG6LKUbOdk Lee Moore and Steve Shives Talk About the Future of the Atheist Movement], video, quote comes at the 11 minute and 44 seconds point of the video</ref>
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[[File:Jerry Coyne at The Amazing Meeting - 2013.jpg|thumbnail|left|200px|[[Jerry Coyne]] speaking at a 2013 [[Atheist conferences|atheist meeting]] entitled The Amazing Meeting (TAM). TAM is an annual meeting. ]]
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Atheist Francois Tremblay wrote about the difficulty of motivating atheists to engage in activities related to atheism: "One last problem that undermines any propagation of atheism is inspiration. Let's be honest here, "there is no god!" is not a very motivating call for most people." (see also: [[Atheism and inspiration]]).<ref>[http://www.liberator.net/articles/TremblayFrancois/herdingcats.html Herding Cats: Why Atheism Will Lose] by Francois Tremblay</ref>  The atheist [[Jerry Coyne]] said about atheist meetings/conferences, "But to me the speakers and talks have often seemed repetitive: the same crew of jet-set skeptics giving the same talks."<ref>[https://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2011/06/10/are-there-too-many-atheist-meetings/ Are there too many atheist meetings?] by Jerry Coyne</ref>
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In an essay entitled ''How the [[Atheist movement|Atheist Movement]] Failed Me'', an [[atheism and women|atheist woman]] noted that participation in the atheist community is often expensive due to the cost of attending [[atheist conferences]] and even local atheist meetings in restaurants and bars challenged her modest budget.<ref>Amanda (August 10, 2012).  [http://www.patheos.com/blogs/friendlyatheist/2012/08/10/how-the-atheist-movement-failed-me-part-1-cost/ "How the atheist movement failed me–part 1: cost"].  Friendly Atheist blog.</ref>  As a result of the challenges that atheists commonly have in terms of socializing in person, many atheists [[Internet atheism|turn to the internet]] in terms of communicating with other atheists.<ref>Norris, Chuck (May 21, 2007).  [http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=55789 "How to outlaw Christianity (steps 2 & 3)"].  WorldNetDaily. See: [[Chuck Norris]].</ref> Often internet communication between atheists turns turns contentious (see: [[Atheist factions]]).
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For more information, please see: [[Atheism and loneliness]]
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=== Abandonment of atheism and communist regimes ===
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*[[Growth of Christianity in China]]
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*[[Collapse of atheism in the former Soviet Union]]
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*[[Collapse of atheism in the former Soviet Union#Growth of Protestantism in Russia|Growth of Protestantism/Evangelicalism in Russia]]
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==Atheism and communism ==
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''see also:'' [[Atheism and communism]] and [[Militant atheism]] and [[Atheism and economics]] and [[Atheism and Mass Murder|Atheism and mass murder]] and [[Atheist cults]] and [[Atheism and Karl Marx]]
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[[Image:Khvhkgfiy.jpg|left|thumbnail|200px|[[Vladimir Lenin]]]]
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=== Atheists Karl Marx, Vladmir Lenin and Zhou Enlai ===
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[[Karl Marx]] said "[Religion] is the opium of the people."  Marx also stated: "[[Communism]] begins from the outset (Owen) with atheism; but atheism is at first far from being communism; indeed, that atheism is still mostly an abstraction."<ref>Mulligan, Martin (1959). [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/manuscripts/comm.htm "Private property and communism"] translation of Marx, Karl (1932), ''Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844'' (Moscow:  Progress Publishers).</ref>
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[[Vladimir Lenin]] similarly wrote regarding atheism and communism: "A Marxist must be a [[materialism|materialist]], i.e., an enemy of religion, but a dialectical materialist, i.e., one who treats the struggle against religion not in an abstract way, not on the basis of remote, purely theoretical, never varying preaching, but in a concrete way, on the basis of the [[class struggle]] which is going on in practice and is educating the masses more and better than anything else could."<ref>Rothstein, Andrew and Issacs, Bernard (1973). [http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1909/may/13.htm "The attitude of the worker's party to religion"] translation of Lenin, Vladimir (1909), ''Proletary'', No. 45, May 13 (26), ''Collected Works'', (Moscow: Progress Publishers) vol. 15, pp. 402-13.</ref>
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In 1955, the [[China|Chinese]] communist leader Zhou Enlai declared, "We Communists are atheists".<ref>Noebel, David, The Battle for Truth, Harvest House, 2001.</ref> 
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In 2014, the Communist Party of China reaffirmed that members of their party must be atheists.<ref>
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*[http://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/asia/item/19567-china-s-communist-party-reaffirms-marxism-maoism-atheism China’s Communist Party Reaffirms Marxism, Maoism, Atheism], ''New American'', 2014
+
*[http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/02/china-communist-party-atheism-zhejiang-ban-religious-members-christianity_n_6599722.html China's Communist Party Bans Believers, Doubles Down On Atheism]</ref>
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+
In 2016, the ''International Business Times'' reported:
+
{{cquote|A senior Chinese advisor on religious affairs has said the country should promote atheism throughout society, in remarks that appear to reflect a deepening campaign to reinforce traditional Marxist values in China — and could add to concern about official attitudes among believers in the country’s five officially recognized religions.<ref>[http://www.ibtimes.com/senior-chinese-religious-advisor-calls-promotion-atheism-society-2363850 Senior Chinese Religious Advisor Calls For Promotion Of Atheism In Society], ''International Business Times''</ref>}}
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+
=== Russian revolution caused the most notable spread of atheism ===
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+
According to the [[University of Cambridge]], historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 [[Russian Revolution]], which brought the [[Marxism-Leninism|Marxist-Leninists]] to power."<ref name="Marxism-Leninism">{{cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20130728215151/http://www.investigatingatheism.info/marxism.html|title=Investigating atheism: Marxism|publisher = [[University of Cambridge]]|quote=The most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power. For the first time in history, atheism thus became the official ideology of a state.|year=2008|accessdate=July 17, 2014}}</ref>
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+
Vitalij Lazarʹevič Ginzburg, a Soviet physicist, wrote that the "[[Bolshevik]] communists were not merely atheists but, according to [[Lenin]]'s terminology, militant atheists."<ref name="Lenin & militant atheism">{{cite book|url = http://books.google.com/books?id=ufC9Ar8iuDcC&pg=PA161&dq=The+Bolshevik+communists+were+not+merely+atheists+but,+according+to+Lenin%27s+terminology,+militant+atheists.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1oFUUdj6PIiK0QGvq4CAAw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=The%20Bolshevik%20communists%20were%20not%20merely%20atheists%20but%2C%20according%20to%20Lenin's%20terminology%2C%20militant%20atheists.&f=false|title =''On Superconductivity and Superfluidity: A Scientific Autobiography'' |author=Vitalij Lazarʹevič Ginzburg|publisher = Springer Science+Business Media|pages=161|year=2009|quote=The Bolshevik communists were not merely atheists but, according to Lenin's terminology, militant atheists.|accessdate = July 17, 2014}}</ref> However, prior to this, the [[Reign of Terror]] of the [[French Revolution]] established a state which was anti-[[Roman Catholicism]]/Christian in nature <ref>Multiple references:
+
*Tallet, Frank and Atkin, Nicholas (1991). [http://books.google.com/books?id=aL4lsWdd-rAC&dq=&hl=en ''Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789''] (London: A & C Black), pp. 1-17. GoogleBooks archive.
+
*Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2006).  [http://books.google.com/books?id=ni4PSpOxb6MC&dq ''Western Civilization: Combined Volume''] (Belmont, CA:  Thomson Wadsworth), p. 549.  GoogleBooks archive.
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*Latreille, A. (2002).  "French Revolution", ''New Catholic Encyclopedia'' (2nd ed., Farmington Hills, MI:  Thomson/Gale), vol. 5, pp. 972–973.  ISBN 0-7876-4004-2</ref> (anti-clerical [[deism]] and anti-religious atheism and played a significant role in the French Revolution<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Hunt, Lynn and Censer, Jack (2001).  [http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap7c.html "War, Terror and Resistence", ch. 7, p. 3].  Liberty, Equality, Fraternity:  Exploring the French Revolution website.  George Mason University website/Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media website.
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*O'Leary, Margaret R. (June 1, 2012).  ''Forging Freedom: The Life of Cerf Berr of M Delsheim'' (iUniverse), pp. 1-2.</ref>), with the official ideology being the [[Cult of Reason]]; during this time thousands of believers were suppressed and executed by the [[guillotine]].<ref>Multiple references:
+
<!-- Guillotine -->*{{cite book|url = http://books.google.com/books?id=bf3m7IVAa9gC&pg=PA461&dq=France+atheism+guillotine++Christians+executed&hl=en&sa=X&ei=l4lUUaTRBufG0QGe0IHACA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=France%20atheism%20guillotine%20%20Christians%20executed&f=false|title =''Christianity: The eBook''|author=James Adair|publisher = JBE Online Books|year=2007|quote=Although the Civil Constitution called for religious liberty, which was extended to Jews as well as Christians, many revolutionaries pushed for the establishment of a new state religion, either the Cult of Reason (atheists) or the Cult of the Supreme Being (Deists). Changes to the calendar eliminated references to Christian holidays, and even the ancient seven-day week, and a list of officially recognized saints included such famous thinkers such as Socrates, Jesus, Marcus Aurelius, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. A period of political persecution, often with religious overtones, broke out, known as the Reign of Terror. Thousands of people were executed by the guillotine, including many of the original leaders of the French Revolution.|pages=461|accessdate = July 18, 2014}}
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<!-- France -->*{{cite book|url = http://books.google.com/books?id=9WkBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA105&dq=Reign+of+Terror+atheism&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HoRUUcD0NeXX0gGNo4HIDQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Reign%20of%20Terror%20atheism&f=false|title =''Memoirs of the Reign of George III. to the Session of Parliament ending A.D. 1793'', Volume 5|page=105|author=William Belsham|publisher = G.G. & J. Robinson|year=1801|quote=In allusion to the monstrous transactions of this portentous period, it has been eloquently and energetically observed, 'that the reign of atheism in France was avowed the reign of terror. In the full madness of their career, in the highest climax of their horrors, they shut up the temples of God, abolished His worship, and proclaimed death to be an eternal sleep:—in the very centre of Christendom, Revelation underwent a total eclipse, while atheism, performing on a darkened theatre its strange and fearful tragedy, confounded the first elements of society, blended every age, rank, and sex, indiscriminate proscription and massacre, and convulsed all Europe to its centre, that the imperishable memorial of these events might teach the last generations of mankind to consider religion as the pillar of society, the parent of social order, and the safe-guard of nations.'<br>"It is wonderful that, amid the horrors of this dismal period, while 'the death dance of democratic revolution' was still in rapid movement, among the tears of affliction, and the cries of despair, 'the masque, the song, the theatric scene, the buffoon laughter, went on as regularly as in the gay hour of festive peace.'|pages=105–6|accessdate = July 18, 2014}}
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<!-- Reign of Terror -->*{{cite book|url = http://books.google.com/books?id=Tt5rqiCP1p8C&pg=PA57&dq=Reign+of+Terror+atheism&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HoRUUcD0NeXX0gGNo4HIDQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Reign%20of%20Terror%20atheism&f=false|title =''Christianity, Islam, and Atheism: The Struggle for the Soul of the West''|author=William Kilpatrick|publisher = Ignatius Press|year=2012|quote=Actually, it's helpful to think in terms of two Enlightenments: the Enlightenment that cut itself off from God. The former led to the American Revolution, the Declaration of Independence, the abolition of slavery, and the civil rights movement. The latter led to the French Revolution, the Reign of Terror, the suppression of church by state, and the godless philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche and their offspring—National Socialism and communism. More recently the abandonment of God has led to the regime of cultural relativism that regards rights as arbitrary constructions.<br>"It's this second Enlightenment tradition that Cardinal Ratzinger referred to when he wrote, 'The radical detachment of the Enlightenment philosophy from its roots ultimately leads it to dispense with man.' Actually this transition happened not 'ultimately' but almost immediately. The first instance occurred when Enlightenment worship of abstract 'reason' and 'liberty' degenerated quickly into the mass murders committed during the antireligious Reign of Terror in France. 'Liberty, what crimes are committed in your name', said Madam Rolande as she faced the statue of Liberty in the Place de la Revolution movements before her death at the guillotine. She was one of the early victims of a succession of secular systems based on rootless notions of 'liberty', 'equality', and 'reason'.<br>"As many historians have pointed out, the atheist regimes of modern times are guilty of far more crimes than any committed in the name of religion. Communist governments alone were guilty of more than one hundred million murders, most of them committed against their own people.|pages=57|accessdate = July 18, 2014}}</ref>
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=== Atheistic communism and mass murder ===
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''See also:'' [[Atheism and Mass Murder|Atheism and mass murder]] and [[Atheist atrocities]]
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[[File:Stalin-Lenin.jpg|right|202px|thumb|The militant atheistic regime of [[Joseph Stalin]] killed tens of millions of people.
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<br />
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<br />
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Joseph Stalin is the figure on the right and [[Vladimir Lenin]] is the figure on the left,
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<br />
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<br />
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See: [[Atheism and Mass Murder|Atheism and mass murder]] ]]
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It has been estimated that in less than the past 100 years, governments under the banner of communism have caused the death of somewhere between 40,472,000 and 259,432,000 human lives.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*[http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hpcws/lelivrenoir.htm "''The Black Book of Communism''"].  Harvard University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences website:  Cold War Studies. 
+
*Rummel, R. J. (November 1993).  [http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/COM.ART.HTM "How many did communist regimes murder?"]  University of Hawaii website; Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War
+
*White, Matthew (February 2011).  [http://necrometrics.com/20c5m.htm "Source list and detailed death tolls for the primary megadeaths of the twentieth century"].  Necrometrics
+
*Radosh, Ronald (February 2000).  [http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=2526 "''The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression''"]. First Things [journal] website.</ref> Dr. R. J. Rummel, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii, is the scholar who first coined the term democide (death by government). Dr. R. J. Rummel's mid estimate regarding the loss of life due to communism is that communism caused the death of approximately 110,286,000 people between 1917 and 1987.<ref>Rummel, R. J. (November 1993).  [http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/COM.ART.HTM "How many did communist regimes murder?"]  University of Hawaii website; Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War.</ref> [[Richard Dawkins]] has attempted to [[Richard Dawkins, atheist atrocities, and historical revisionism|engage in historical revisionism concerning atheist atrocities]] and Dawkins was shown to be in gross error. See also: [[Atheism and historical revisionism]]
+
 
+
Christian apologist Gregory Koukl wrote relative to [[Atheism and Mass Murder|atheism and mass murder]] that "the assertion is that religion has caused most of the killing and bloodshed in the world.
+
There are people who make accusations and assertions that are empirically false. This is one of them."<ref name="Koukl">Koukl, Gregory (February 20, 2013). [http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5527 "The real murderers:  atheism or Christianity?"] Stand to Reason.</ref>
+
Koukl details the number of people killed in various events involving theism and compares them to the much higher tens of millions of people killed under regimes which advocated atheism.<ref name="Koukl" />  As noted earlier, Richard Dawkins has attempted to [[Richard Dawkins, atheist atrocities, and historical revisionism|engage in historical revisionism concerning atheist atrocities]] and Dawkins was shown to be in gross error.
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+
Koukl summarized by stating:
+
{{cquote|It is true that it's possible that religion can produce evil, and generally when we look closer at the detail it produces evil because the individual people are actually living in a rejection of the tenets of Christianity and a rejection of the God that they are supposed to be following. So it can produce it, but the historical fact is that outright rejection of God and institutionalizing of atheism actually does produce evil on incredible levels. We're talking about tens of millions of people as a result of the rejection of God.<ref name="Koukl" />}}
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The [[ex-atheists|ex-atheist]] [[Vox Day|Theodore Beale]] notes concerning atheism and mass murder:
+
{{cquote|Apparently it was just an amazing coincidence that every Communist of historical note publicly declared his atheism … .there have been twenty-eight countries in world history that can be confirmed to have been ruled by regimes with avowed atheists at the helm … These twenty-eight historical regimes have been ruled by eighty-nine atheists, of whom more than half have engaged in democidal acts of the sort committed by Stalin and [[Mao Zedong|Mao]] …
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The total body count for the ninety years between 1917 and 2007 is approximately 148 million dead at the bloody hands of fifty-two atheists, three times more than all the human beings killed by war, civil war, and individual crime in the entire twentieth century combined.
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The historical record of collective atheism is thus 182,716 times worse on an annual basis than Christianity’s worst and most infamous misdeed, the Spanish Inquisition. It is not only Stalin and Mao who were so murderously inclined, they were merely the worst of the whole [[Atheism and Hell|Hell]]-bound lot. For every Pol Pot whose infamous name is still spoken with horror today, there was a Mengistu, a Bierut, and a Choibalsan, godless men whose names are now forgotten everywhere but in the lands they once ruled with a red hand.
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Is a 58 percent chance that an atheist leader will murder a noticeable percentage of the population over which he rules sufficient evidence that atheism does, in fact, provide a systematic influence to do bad things? If that is not deemed to be conclusive, how about the fact that the average atheist crime against humanity is 18.3 million percent worse than the very worst depredation committed by Christians, even though atheists have had less than one-twentieth the number of opportunities with which to commit them. If one considers the statistically significant size of the historical atheist set and contrasts it with the fact that not one in a thousand religious leaders have committed similarly large-scale atrocities, it is impossible to conclude otherwise, even if we do not yet understand exactly why this should be the case. Once might be an accident, even twice could be coincidence, but fifty-two incidents in ninety years reeks of causation!<ref name="marry">Ammi, Ken (June 11, 2009).  [http://creation.com/atheism "Atheism"].  Creation Ministries International.</ref>}}
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See also:
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*[[Militant atheism]]
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*[[Atheism and communism]]
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*[[Soviet Union and morality]]
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*[[Secular left]]
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*[[Atheism and politics]]
+
 
+
=== Communism and religious oppression ===
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''See also:'' [[Communism and religious persecution]] and [[Atheistic communism and torture]] and [[Atheism and forced labor]] and [[China and involuntary organ harvesting]]
+
 
+
The atheism in communist regimes has been and continues to be militant atheism and various acts of repression including the razing of thousands of religious buildings and the killing, imprisoning, and oppression of religious leaders and believers.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Kent, Jo Ling (April 28, 2011). [http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/04/28/china.church.crackdown/index.html?hpt=T2 "Underground Christians fear China crackdown"]. CNN.com
+
*Yakovlev, Alexander N. (2002). [http://books.google.com/books?visbn=0300103220&id=ChRk43tVxTwC&pg=PA165&lpg=PA165&ots=ICIxg28Jud&dq=a+century+of+violence+in+soviet+russia+the+Russian+Orthodox+clergy&ie=ISO-8859-1&sig=C9k9Hr7Vn222WCHf_1iSJOHVsgo#v=onepage&q=&f=false ''A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia''] translated by Austin, Anthony (New Haven: Yale University Press), p. 165. 
+
*Braga, Fr. Roman (1996). [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/frroman1.aspx "On compromise in the hierarchy during the Communist yoke"].  Orthodox Christian Information Center. 
+
*Clyne, Meghan (November 16, 2005). [http://www.nysun.com/article/23082?page_no=1 "Korean reds targeting Christians"]. The New York Sun
+
*Siemon-Netto, Uwe (May 7, 2003). [http://northkoreanchristians.com/chinese-atrocities.html "North Korean and Chinese atrocities against Christians worsen"].  NewsMax.  NorthKoreanChristians.com
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*[http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=35818 "China sends Bible owners to labor camp"] (November 26, 2003). WorldNetDaily.
+
*[http://www.epm.org/resources/2003/Jun/12/chinese-police-proudly-record-their-torture-christ/ Chinese Police Proudly Record Their Torture of Christians], By Voice of the Marytrs|June 12, 2003</ref> 
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+
==== Religious persecution in the Soviet Union ====
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Soviet atheism]]
+
 
+
The [[persecution of Christians in the USSR|persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union]] was the result of the violently atheist [[Soviet]] government.  In the first five years after the [[October Revolution]], 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were murdered, many on the orders of [[Leon Trotsky]].  When [[Joseph Stalin]] came to power in 1927, he ordered his secret police, under [[Genrikh Yagoda]] to intensify persecution of Christians.  In the next few years, 50,000 clergy were murdered, many were [[torture]]d, including [[crucifixion]].  "Russia turned red with the blood of martyrs", said Father Gleb Yakunin of the [[Russian Orthodox Church]].<ref>Ostling, Richard N. (December 4, 1989).  [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,150718,00.html "Cross meets Kremlin: Gorbachev and Pope John Paul II"]. ''Time''. Time magazine website.</ref>  According to Orthodox Church sources, as many as fifty million Orthodox believers may have died in the twentieth century, mainly from persecution by [[Communists]].<ref>Moore, Rev. Fr. Raphael (October 1999). [http://www.serfes.org/printerVersion2.asp?URL=/orthodox/memoryof.htm "In memory of the 50 million victims of the Orthodox Christian Holocaust"], Spiritual Nourishment for the Soul, Serfes, Rev. Archimandrite Nektarios, compiler.</ref>
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[[File:China location.png|thumbnail|left|205px|With its large population, China has the largest population of atheists.<ref>[http://www.thechapmans.nl/news/Atheist.pdf "The largest atheist/agnostic populations"].  Chris & Terri Chapman. Countries with the largest atheist populations.</ref>
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<br />
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<br />
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The religious landscape of China is quickly changing, however, due to the rapid growth of Christianity. See also: [[China and atheism]] and [[Global atheism]] ]]
+
In addition, in the atheistic and communist Soviet Union, 44 anti-religious museums were opened and the largest was the 'The Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism' in [[Leningrad]]’s Kazan cathedral.<ref>Humphrey (December 16, 2008). [http://bedejournal.blogspot.com/2008/12/merry-anti-christmas.html "Merry Anti-Christmas!"] Quodlibeta.</ref>  Despite intense effort by the atheistic leaders of the Soviet Union, their efforts were not effective in converting the masses to atheism.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Humphrey (December 16, 2008). [http://bedejournal.blogspot.com/2008/12/merry-anti-christmas.html "Merry Anti-Christmas!"] Quodlibeta.
+
*Froese, Paul (March 2004). [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/jssr/2004/00000043/00000001/art00003?crawler=true "Forced secularization in Soviet Russia:  why an atheistic monopoly failed" [abstract&#93;].  ''Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion'', vol. 43, 1, pp. 35-50.  Abstract: Ingentaconnect</ref>
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+
====  Religious persecution in Communist China ====
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[China and atheism]]
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+
[[China]] has the world's largest atheist population (see: [[China and atheism]]).<ref>[http://www.thechapmans.nl/news/Atheist.pdf Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)]</ref><ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/05/23/a-surprising-map-of-where-the-worlds-atheists-live/ A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live], ''Washington Post'' By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013</ref>  China is a communist country. In 1999, the publication [[Christian Century]] reported that "China has persecuted religious believers by means of harassment, prolonged detention, and incarceration in prison or 'reform-through-labor' camps and police closure of places of worship." In 2003, owners of [[Bible]]s in China were sent to prison camps and 125 Chinese churches were closed.<ref>[http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=35818 "China sends Bible owners to labor camp"] (November 26, 2003). ''WorldNetDaily''.</ref>  China continues to practice religious oppression today.<ref>[http://www.epm.org/resources/2003/Jun/12/chinese-police-proudly-record-their-torture-christ/ Chinese Police Proudly Record Their Torture of Christians], By Voice of the Martyrs|June 12, 2003</ref> 
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The efforts of China's atheist leaders in promoting atheism, however, is increasingly losing its effectiveness and the number of Christians in China is rapidly growing (see: [[Growth of Christianity in China]]).  China's state sponsored atheism and atheistic indoctrination has been a failure and a 2007 religious survey in China indicated that only 15% of Chinese identified themselves as atheists.<ref>Briggs, David (January 23, 2011).  [http://life.nationalpost.com/2011/01/23/huffington-post-chinas-state-sponsored-atheism-a-failure/ "Huffington Post: China’s state-sponsored atheism a failure" [excerpt&#93;].  National Post website.</ref>
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Researchers estimate that tens of thousands of [[Falun Gong]] prisoners in communist China have been killed to supply a financially lucrative trade in human organs and cadavers, and that these human rights abuses may be ongoing concern.<ref>[http://www.nyjournalofbooks.com/book-review/slaughter-mass-killings-organ-harvesting Review of: Ethan Gutmann, “''The Slaughter: Mass Killings, Organ Harvesting and China’s Secret Solution to Its Dissident Problem''”, (Prometheus Books, 2014).]</ref>
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==== Religious persecution in North Korea ====
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[[File:Martyred in the USSR Poster.jpg|thumbnail|right|200px|The above photograph shows the Russian Nikolai Khmara, a new Baptist convert in the [[Soviet Union]], after his arrest by the [[KGB]]. He was tortured to death and his tongue cut out.<ref>[http://martyredintheussr.com/ Martyred in the USSR]</ref><ref>[http://www.anabaptists.org/books/russians/trs-1.html The Russians' Secret by Peter Hoover with Serguei V. Petrov, Speaking Without a Tongue, Chapter 1 (Pages 1-3)]</ref> ]]
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[[North Korea]] is a repressive communist state and is officially atheistic.<ref>Lee, Sunny (May 12, 2007). [http://web.archive.org/web/20130521065544/http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Korea/IE12Dg01.html "God forbid, religion in North Korea?"]  Asia Times Online.  Archived at Internet Archive on May 21, 2013.</ref> The North Korean government practices brutal repression and atrocities against North Korean Christians.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Clyne, Meghan (November 16, 2005). [http://www.nysun.com/article/23082?page_no=1 "Korean reds targeting Christians"]. The New York Sun.
+
*Siemon-Netto, Uwe (May 7, 2003). [http://northkoreanchristians.com/chinese-atrocities.html "North Korean and Chinese atrocities against Christians worsen"].  NewsMax.  NorthKoreanChristians.com</ref>  Open Doors, an organization based in the United States, has put North Korea at the very top of its list of countries where Christians face significant persecution - for 12 years in a row.<ref>[http://www.pri.org/stories/2014-10-22/repressive-atheist-north-korea-has-surprising-relationship-christian-missionaries Repressive, atheist North Korea has a surprising relationship with Christian missionaries]</ref>
+
 
+
=== Atheistic communism and torture ===
+
 
+
See: [[Atheistic communism and torture]]
+
 
+
=== Atheistic communist regimes and forced labor ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and forced labor]] and [[Atheism and slavery]]
+
 
+
In atheistic communist regimes forced labor has often played a significant role in their economies and this practice continues to this day (see: [[Atheism and forced labor]]).<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Caplan, Bryan (2010).  [http://econfaculty.gmu.edu/bcaplan/museum/comfaq.htm "Museum of Communism FAQ version 1.3"]. George Mason University website/Department of Economics/Bryan Caplan/Museum of Communism.
+
*[http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/06/13/north-korea-economic-system-built-forced-labor "North Korea: Economic system built on forced labor: New testimonies say even children must work or face detention camps"] (June 13, 2012).  Human Rights Watch website.
+
*Pattisson, Pete (November 7, 2014).  [http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/nov/07/qatar-north-korean-forced-labour "Qatar’s ambitious future driven on by North Korean ‘forced labour’"].  ''The Guardian'' website/World/Global Development.
+
*[http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/china.50/red.giant/prisons/wu.essay "Labor camps reinforce China's totalitarian rule"] (1999).  Cnn.com
+
*[http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-01/07/c_132086402.htm "China to reform re-education through labor system"] (January 8, 2013).  Xinhua.</ref>
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+
== Atheism and politics ==
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[[File:Xi Jinping March 2017.jpg|thumbnail|right|180px|[[Xi Jinping]] is the President of the [[People's Republic of China]], current General Secretary of the [[Communist Party of China]], and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
+
<br />
+
<br />
+
The Communist Party of China requires that all their members be atheists and this is strictly enforced.<ref>[https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/asia/item/19567-china-s-communist-party-reaffirms-marxism-maoism-atheism China’s Communist Party Reaffirms Marxism, Maoism, Atheism], New American, 2014</ref>]]
+
Historically, atheists have favored the [[leftism|left]] side of the political aisle (see: [[Atheism and politics]]).
+
 
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According to the Pew Forum, in the [[United States]]: "About two-thirds of atheists (69%) identify as [[Democrats]] (or lean in that direction), and a majority (56%) call themselves political [[liberal]]s (compared with just one-in-ten who say they are [[conservative]]s)."<ref>[http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/11/05/7-facts-about-atheists/ 7 facts about atheists], Pew Forum</ref>
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In some regions where the [[secular left]] has considerable influence, they [[Decline of the secular left|are losing]] an increasing amount of their power. For example, in [[secular Europe]] right-wing, nationalist parties are growing and in China conservative [[Protestantism]] is growing rapidly (see: [[Growth of Christianity in China]]).<ref>[http://sputniknews.com/europe/20160114/1033149776/europe-rise-of-right-wing-parties-eu-failure.html EU Failures Fuel Rise of Right-Wing Populist Parties in Europe]. Sputnik News, 2016</ref> 
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For more information please see:
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and politics]]
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+
*[[Secular left]]
+
 
+
*[[Decline of the secular left]]
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*[[Western atheism, schisms and political polarization]]
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*[[Atheism and historical revisionism]]
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*[[Atheism and liberal Christianity alliances]]
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*[[Secular right]]
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*[[Atheist organizations]]
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== Atheism and history ==
+
[[File: Voroshilov, Molotov, Stalin, with Nikolai Yezhov.jpg|right|225px]]
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[[File: The Commissar Vanishes 2.jpg|thumbnail|right|220px|Nikolai Yezhov walking with [[Joseph Stalin]] in the top photo taken in the mid 1930s. Subsequent to his execution in 1940, Yezhov was edited out of the photo by Soviet Union censors.<ref>From the book  The Commissar Vanishes: The Falsification of Photographs and Art in Stalin's Russia by David King</ref>
+
 
+
See: [[Atheism and historical revisionism]] ]]
+
''See also:'' [[Atheists and historical illiteracy]] and [[History of Atheism|History of atheism]] and [[Atheist indoctrination]] and [[Atheism and historical revisionism]]
+
 
+
The history of atheism: [[History of Atheism|History of atheism]]
+
 
+
=== Atheists and historical illiteracy ===
+
 
+
A common complaint concerning many atheists is their lack of depth when it comes to knowledge of [[history]] and [[historiography]] - particularly in areas such as [[historicity of Jesus|historicity of Jesus Christ]] and [[Atheism and Mass Murder|atheist mass murders in history]].<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Day, Vox (March 10, 2014).  [http://voxday.blogspot.com/2014/03/the-ignorance-of-cosmos.html "The ignorance of ''Cosmos''"].  Vox Populi blog. See [[Vox Day]].
+
*Koukl, Gregory (February 20, 2013). [http://www.str.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=5527 "The real murderers:  atheism or Christianity?"] Stand to Reason.</ref>
+
 
+
For more information, please see:
+
 
+
*[[Atheists and historical illiteracy]]
+
 
+
*[[Historicity of Jesus|Historicity of Jesus Christ]]
+
 
+
=== Atheists and historical revisionism ===
+
 
+
Atheists commonly engage in [[historical revisionism]] in order to illegitimately distort the historical record (see: [[Atheism and historical revisionism]]).
+
=== Religion/irreligion and war ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Irreligion/religion and war]] and [[Atheism and world peace]]
+
 
+
Louise Ridley (assistant news editor at the ''Huffington Post UK''), [[Vox Day]] and others point out that academic studies and other research consistently challenge the link between religion and war.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Ridley, Louise [assistant news editor, ''Huffington Post'', UK] (November 18, 2014).  [http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2014/11/14/religions-war-cause-responsible-evidence_n_6156878.html "Does religion really cause war—and do atheists have something to answer for?"]  The Huffington Post, United Kingdom. 
+
*Day, Vox (August 13, 2012).  [http://voxday.blogspot.com/2012/08/atheists-abandon-religion-causes-war.html "Atheists abandon 'religion causes war' argument"].  Vox Populi blog. 
+
*Schumacher, Robin (April 2012).  [http://carm.org/religion-cause-war "The myth that religion is the #1 cause of war"].  Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry website.  Edited by Matt Slick. See [[CARM]].
+
*Price, Tom (2014).  [http://www.bethinking.org/is-religion-harmful/religion-causes-wars "'Religion causes wars'"].  Bethinking.</ref>
+
 
+
=== Darwinism and war ===
+
 
+
There is historical evidence indicating that [[Darwinism]] was a causal factor for [[WWI]] and [[WWII]] (see: [[Irreligion/religion and war]] and [[World War I and Darwinism]]).
+
 
+
== Atheism and economics ==
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and economics]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and sloth|Atheism and economic productivity]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and economic prosperity]]
+
 
+
== Analysis of atheism and common objections to atheism ==
+
 
+
=== Commonly Cited Arguments Against Atheism and For Theism ===
+
 
+
See: [[Arguments for theism and against atheism]]
+
[[Image:Anselm.jpg|thumbnail|right|150px|[[Anselm of Canterbury]]'s  version of the [[ontological argument]] appeared in his work ''Proslogium''.]]
+
The majority of philosophers of religion, or those who have extensively studied the issue of the existence of God, are [[theism|theists]] (72 percent).<ref>[http://www.strangenotions.com/atheist-scientists/ Does it matter that many scientists are atheists?]</ref>
+
 
+
In relation to the debate between theism and atheism, theists often criticize atheism as being contrary to persuasive argument and have a number of arguments against atheism (See: [[Arguments for theism and against atheism]]).
+
 
+
Within Christendom, the discipline of [[Christian apologetics]] has been developed. Christian apologetics is the defense of the [[Christianity|Christian]] faith through logic/evidence based arguments. The word [[apologetics]] comes from the Greek word apologia  (from Greek ἀπολογία), which means "speaking in defense".
+
 
+
[[Arguments for the existence of God]] include:
+
 
+
* [[Teleological argument]]: The universe exhibits overwhelming evidence of deliberate, intelligent, purposeful design, which implies an [[intelligent design]]er. See also: [[Evolution|Arguments against evolution]] and [[Origin of life]]
+
 
+
*[[Evidential apologetics]] is an approach in Christian apologetics which emphasizes the use of evidence to demonstrate that God exists and that there is compelling evidence to support Christianity and the Bible.  In addition, there are various arguments that atheists or other unbelievers weigh evidence improperly (see: [[Atheism and evidence]]).
+
 
+
*[[Moral Argument|Moral argument]]. [[Objective morality]] exists. Atheism lacks objective moral standards. Not possessing a coherent basis for [[morality]], atheists are fundamentally [[Moral relativism|incapable]] of having a coherent system of morality (See also: [[Atheism and morality]] and [[Atheist population and immorality]] and [[Atheism and hedonism]] and [[Atheist hypocrisy]]) .<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Copan, Paul (2008). [http://www.paulcopan.com/articles/pdf/God-naturalism-morality.pdf "God, naturalism, and the foundations of morality"].  ''The Future of Atheism'', ed. Robert Stewart (Minneapolis: Fortress Press), pp. 141-161.  PaulCopan.com
+
*Williams, Peter S. (2011). [http://www.bethinking.org/morality/can-moral-objectivism-do-without-god "Can moral objectivism do without God?"].  Bethinking.org
+
*Meister, Chad (2010).  [http://www.equip.org/articles/atheists-and-the-quest-for-objective-morality/ "Atheists and the quest for objective morality"].  ''Christian Research Journal'', vol. 33, no. 2.  Christian Research Institute website
+
*Slick, Matt (2009).  [http://carm.org/failure-of-atheism-to-account-for-morality "The failure of atheism to account for morality"].  Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry website.</ref> Atheism leads to moral and cultural decline (see: [[Atheism and culture]]).
+
 
+
* [[Cosmological argument]]: Every event in our [[universe]] necessarily has a cause. However, it is impossible that there should be an unending chain of causes going back. Therefore, there necessarily must be a cause ''distinct'' from the universe as we know it which is capable of causing all things and is itself uncaused. Atheism denies that that [[First Cause|first cause]] is God. Christians point out that the question "Who created God" is an illogical question.<ref>[http://creation.com/who-created-god Who created God] by Don Batten</ref> See also: [[Atheism and the origin of the universe]]
+
[[File:Autumn.jpg|200px|right|thumbnail|The [[argument from beauty]] is a commonly used argument for the existence of God. ]]
+
* Historical arguments for the existence of God (subset of evidential apologetics). For example, arguments stemming from historical accounts such as Christian historical apologetics, [[Christian Legal Apologetics|Christian legal apologetics]] and archaeological evidence such as [[Bible Archaeology|Bible archaeology]]
+
 
+
*[[Argument from beauty]]
+
 
+
*[[Argument from religious experience]]
+
 
+
* [[Bible prophecy]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and presuppositional apologetics]]
+
 
+
See also:
+
 
+
*[[Rebuttals to atheist arguments]]
+
 
+
*[[Pascal's wager]]
+
 
+
*[[Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian]]
+
 
+
=== Biblical statements concerning atheism ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Bible verses relating to atheism]]
+
 
+
The writers of the [[Bible]] considered the existence of God to be self-evident and [[Moses]] simply wrote: "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." ([[Genesis]] 1:1).<ref>Harr, Ken and Lisle, Dr. Jason (August 9, 2007). [http://www.answersingenesis.org/is-god-real/is-there-really-god/ "Chapter 1: Is there really a God?"] ''The New Answers Book''.  Answers in Genesis.</ref>
+
 
+
Accordingly, the psalmist [[David]] declared:
+
 
+
"The fool has said in his heart, 'There is no God.' They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good." — [[Psalms]] 14:1 ([[King James Bible|KJV]])
+
 
+
==Atheism and debate==
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism debates]]
+
[[Image:Bahnsen.jpg‎|thumb|right|150px|Dr. [[Greg Bahnsen]] became known as "the man atheists fear most" due to [[Michael Martin]]'s cancellation of their scheduled debate.<ref name="Bahsen at the Stein debate">[http://www.frame-poythress.org/frame_articles/Bahnsen.htm Bahsen at the Stein debate] by John Frame</ref><ref>[http://simpleapologetics.com/thegreatdebate.html The Great Debate: Greg Bahnsen vs Gordon Stein]</ref>]]
+
As far as [[atheism debates]], the majority of the public debates are [[Atheism vs. Christianity debates]] (although there have been a few [[Atheism vs. Islam debates]]). 
+
 
+
Beginning in the latter part of the 20th century, there were a number of notable instances of prominent atheists being reluctant to debate (see: [[Atheism and debate#Notable cases of prominent atheists being reluctant to debate|Notable cases of prominent atheists being reluctant to debate]]).
+
 
+
On May 14, 2011, the [[Great Britain|British]] newspaper ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]'' published a news story entitled ''Richard Dawkins accused of cowardice for refusing to debate existence of [[God]]''.<ref name="cowardice">Ross, Tim (May 14, 2011).  [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/8511931/Richard-Dawkins-accused-of-cowardice-for-refusing-to-debate-existence-of-God.html "Richard Dawkins accused of cowardice for refusing to debate existence of God"]. The Daily Telegraph website.  Retrieved July 25, 2014.  See ''[[Daily Telegraph]]''</ref> In ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]'' article Dr. [[Daniel Came]], a member of the Faculty of [[Philosophy]] at [[Oxford University]] was quoted as writing to fellow atheist Richard Dawkins concerning his refusal to debate Dr. [[William Lane Craig]],  "The absence of a debate with the foremost [[Christian apologetics|apologist]] for [[Christianity|Christian]] [[theism]] is a glaring omission on your [[Curriculum vitae|CV]] and is of course apt to be interpreted as cowardice on your part."<ref name="cowardice"/>
+
 
+
[[Greg Bahnsen]] became known as the "man atheists fear most".<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20080102084144/http://mywebpages.comcast.net/webpages54/ap/biobahn.html "A brief biography of Greg Bahnsen"] (2003).  Applied Presuppositionalism website.  Retrieved from January 2, 2008 archive at Internet Archive on May 14, 2015.</ref>
+
This is because [[Harvard]]-educated [[Michael Martin]] was scheduled to debate Bahnsen but pulled out of the debate at the "eleventh hour".
+
A [[Press Release Regarding Michael Martin Pulling Out of Martin-Bahnsen Debate|press release at the time]] said that Dr. Martin offered ruses on why he pulled out and didn't want the scheduled debate recorded but the real reason was that "...Michael Martin is afraid that he will be publicly humiliated just as his friend and fellow atheist, Dr. [[Gordon Stein]], was...".
+
 
+
In 1990, Michael Martin indicated there was a general [[Atheism and apathy|absence of an atheistic response]] to contemporary work in the [[philosophy]] of religion and in jest he indicated that it was his "cross to bear" to respond to [[theism|theistic]] arguments.<ref>''Open Questions: Diverse Thinkers Discuss God, Religion, and Faith'' by Luís F. Rodrigues, page 201</ref> See also: [[Stagnation of atheist apologetics]]
+
 
+
A majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the naturalistic [[evolution]]ary position since [[World War II]] have been atheists.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Batten, Don (December 1997).  [http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/737/ "A ''Who’s Who'' of evolutionists"]. ''Creation'', vol 20, no. 1, p. 32.  Retrieved from Creation.com [Creation Ministries International] on May 15, 2015.  Don Batten
+
*Sarfati, Jonathan, Ph. D. (1999).  [http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/3830 "Chapter 1: Facts and bias"].  ''Refuting Evolution''.  Retrieved from Creation.com [Creation Ministries International] on May 15, 2015.  See [[Jonathan Sarfati]]</ref> After doing poorly in a series of debates in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s,  evolutionists are generally reluctant to debate (see: [[Creation vs. evolution debates]]).
+
 
+
== Atheism and morality/ethics ==
+
 
+
See also: [[Atheism and morality]] and [[Atheist population and immorality]] and  [[Atheist hypocrisy]] and [[Religion and morality]]
+
 
+
=== Objective morality incompatible with atheism ===
+
[[File:Copan at Tyndale.jpeg|thumbnail|right|180px|Dr. [[Paul Copan]] wrote: "...the existence of a personal God is crucial for a coherent understanding of [[objective morality]]."<ref>[http://www.bethinking.org/morality/can-moral-objectivism-do-without-god Can Moral Objectivism Do Without God?] by Peter S. Williams, Bethinking.org</ref>]]
+
Under an atheist worldview, there is no logical basis for [[objective morality]] or ultimate meaning and purpose.<ref>
+
*[http://creation.com/atheism-no-objective-morality Atheism—no objective morality?], [[Creation Ministries International]]
+
*[http://www.bethinking.org/morality/can-moral-objectivism-do-without-god Can Moral Objectivism Do Without God?] by Peter S. Williams at Bethinking.org
+
*[http://www.equip.org/article/atheists-and-the-quest-for-objective-morality-2/ Atheists and the Quest for Objective Morality] by Chad Meister at Christian Research Institute
+
*[http://www.faithdefenders.com/articles/atheism/atheism_absolutes_at.html Atheism and absolutes]</ref> See also: [[Atheism and morality]] and [[Atheism and moral relativism]] and [[Atheism and meaninglessness]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and moral relativism ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and moral relativism]] and [[Atheism and morality]]
+
 
+
Dr. Phil Fernandes states the following regarding atheism and [[moral relativism]]:
+
{{cquote|[[Friedrich Nietzsche|Nietzsche]] preached that a group of "supermen" must arise with the courage to create their own values through their "will to power." Nietzsche rejected the "soft" values of Christianity (brotherly love, turning the other cheek, charity, compassion, etc.); he felt they hindered man's creativity and potential....
+
 
+
Many other atheists agree with Nietzsche concerning moral relativism. British philosopher [[Bertrand Russell]] (1872-1970) once wrote, "Outside human desires there is no moral standard." [[A. J. Ayer]] believed that moral commands did not result from any objective standard above man. Instead, Ayer stated that moral commands merely express one's subjective feelings. When one says that murder is wrong, one is merely saying that he or she feels that murder is wrong. [[Jean-Paul Sartre]], a French [[existentialism|existentialist]], believed that there is no objective meaning to life. Therefore, according to Sartre, man must create his own values.
+
 
+
There are many different ways that moral relativists attempt to determine what action should be taken. [[Hedonism]] is probably the most extreme. It declares that whatever brings the most pleasure is right. In other words, if it feels good, do it. If this position is true, then there is no basis from which to judge the actions of [[Adolph Hitler]] as being evil.<ref>Dr. Phil Fernandez, Web article: ''Refuting Moral relativism'', Institute for Bible Defense (Web article is no longer online. Pages 120-121 of the book ''God, Government, and the Road to Tyranny: A Christian View of Government and Morality'' By Phil Fernandes, Eric Purcell and Rorri Wiesinger relates the same thoughts of his former web article.[https://books.google.com/books?id=u6XBuAQAiYUC&pg=PA120&lpg=PA120&dq=Nietzsche+preached+that+a+group+of+%22supermen%22+must+arise+with+the+courage+to+create+their+own+values+through+their+%22will+to+power.%22+Nietzsche+rejected+the+%22soft%22+values+of+Christianity+(brotherly+love,+turning+the+other+cheek,+charity,+compassion,+etc.);+he+felt+they+hindered+man%27s+creativity+and+potential.&source=bl&ots=kwDnaTOHqd&sig=0ywArBSb87JFleWRXZRv6DG3ZVo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjty8qqyIzWAhXHg1QKHe8UAVYQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Nietzsche%20preached%20that%20a%20group%20of%20%22supermen%22%20must%20arise%20with%20the%20courage%20to%20create%20their%20own%20values%20through%20their%20%22will%20to%20power.%22%20Nietzsche%20rejected%20the%20%22soft%22%20values%20of%20Christianity%20(brotherly%20love%2C%20turning%20the%20other%20cheek%2C%20charity%2C%20compassion%2C%20etc.)%3B%20he%20felt%20they%20hindered%20man's%20creativity%20and%20potential.&f=false])</ref>}}
+
 
+
=== Atheism and various types of immorality ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and sexual immorality articles]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and violence articles]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and deception articles]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and unforgiveness articles]]
+
 
+
* [[Atheist population and immorality|Atheism and various types of immorality]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and psychopathy ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and psychopathy]]
+
 
+
[[Image:115523-004-FA619CA3.jpg|thumb|right|221px| The perverse and cruel atheist [[Marquis de Sade]] in prison, 18th century line engraving. See: [[Atheism and sadism]] ]]
+
A [[psychopath]] is someone with an anti-social [[personality disorder]] characterized by [[violent]], [[perverted]] or immoral behavior often leading to [[criminal]]ity. Psychopaths have little or no concern for other people. Some psychopaths equate [[love]] with sexual arousal.<ref>{{cite book |title=Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us |author=Robert D. Hare |publisher=Guilford Press |place=New York and London |year=2011 |pages=52 |isbn=978-16062-35782 |url=https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1606235788}}</ref>
+
 
+
A 2016 study relating to atheism and psychopathy published in ''Plus One'' indicates:
+
{{Cquote|Similarly, a survey of 312 college students examining the relationship between Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (RSWB) and ‘dark triad’ personality traits found that “RSWB was confirmed to be negatively correlated with these negative aspects of personality, in particular with subclinical psychopathy.”
+
 
+
...moral concern is associated with a spiritual worldview.<ref>[http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149989 Why Do You Believe in God? Relationships between Religious Belief, Analytic Thinking, Mentalizing and Moral Concern] by Anthony Ian Jack , Jared Parker Friedman, Richard Eleftherios Boyatzis, Scott Nolan Taylor, ''Plus One'', March 23, 2016</ref>}}
+
 
+
According to the 2014 journal article ''Correlates of psychopathic personality traits in everyday life: results from a large community survey'' published in the journal ''Frontiers of Psychology''  lack of belief in [[God]] is positively associated with [[Psychopath|psychopathy]].<ref>[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4106400/ Correlates of psychopathic personality traits in everyday life: results from a large community survey] by Scott O. Lilienfeld, Robert D. Latzman, Ashley L. Watts, Sarah F. Smith, and Kevin Dutton, ''Frontiers of Psychology'', 2014</ref>
+
 
+
=== Barna Group studies: Atheism and morality ===
+
 
+
'''Barna Group study on behavior of atheists vs. evangelical Christians:'''
+
 
+
[[Richard Deem]] wrote:
+
{{Cquote|A random sample of 1003 adults were surveyed in May, 2008 by The Barna Group for their participation in a number of negative behaviors within the previous week. The results showed that there were vast differences in the behaviors of evangelicals compared to agnostics/atheists.
+
 
+
These results show that atheists/agnostics participate in morally questionable behaviors to a much greater degree than [[evangelicalism|evangelical Christians]] - an average of nearly five times the frequency!<ref>[http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/atheists_more_immoral.html Atheism Doesn't Lead to Immoral Behavior - Or Does It?] by Richard Deem</ref>}}
+
 
+
'''Barna Group study related to atheist beliefs about behaviors:'''
+
 
+
The [[Barna Group]] found that atheists and [[agnostics]] in America were more likely, than [[theist]]s in America, to look upon the following behaviors as morally acceptable:  illegal drug use; excessive drinking; sexual relationships outside of marriage; [[abortion]]; cohabitating with someone of opposite sex outside of marriage; obscene language; gambling; [[pornography]] and obscene sexual behavior; and engaging in [[homosexuality]]/bisexuality.<ref>[https://www.barna.org/component/content/article/5-barna-update/45-barna-update-sp-657/58-practical-outcomes-replace-biblical-principles-as-the-moral-standard#.VumtJuYvK1s Practical outcomes replace biblical principles as the moral standard], Barna Group</ref>
+
 
+
Given the [[Homosexuality and health|many diseases]] associated with homosexuality, the [[Bible|biblical]] prohibition against homosexuality is quite arguably one of the many example where the Bible exhibited knowledge [http://creationwiki.org/Bible_scientific_foreknowledge that was ahead of its time].  See also: [[Atheism and sexual immorality]]
+
 
+
=== Study: U.S. public perception of atheist morality ===
+
 
+
In 2014, a University of Kentucky study was published by Will M. Gervais, which was entitled "Everything is permitted? People intuitively judge immorality as representative of atheists", and the study indicated that "even atheist participants viewed immorality as significantly more representative of atheists than of other people."<ref>Gervais, Will M. (April 9, 2014).  "Everything is permitted?  People intuitively judge immorality as representative of atheists". ''PLOS ONE'', {{doi|10.1371/journal.pone.0092302}}.</ref>
+
 
+
=== Atheism and uncharitableness  ===
+
:''See also: [[Atheism and charity]]'' and [[Atheist nonprofit scandals]] and [[Atheism, uncharitableness and depression]]
+
[[File:Beggar.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A child in [[Thailand]] where the nontheistic form of [[Buddhism]] called the Theravada school of Buddhism is prevalent. In 2010, the Pew Research Forum indicated that 93.2% of the people of Thailand were Buddhists.<ref name="pew2010">[http://www.pewforum.org/files/2012/12/globalReligion-tables.pdf Pew Research Center - Global Religious Landscape 2010 - religious composition by country].</ref>
+
<br /><br />
+
 
+
 
+
A comprehensive study by [[Harvard University]] professor Robert Putnam found that religious people are more charitable than their irreligious counterparts.<ref name="Burke Campbell">Multiple references:
+
*Burke, Daniel, Religion News Service (May 13, 2009). [http://web.archive.org/web/20130310113024/http://www.pewforum.org/Religion-News/Religious-people-make-better-citizens-study-says.aspx "Religious people make better citizens, study says"]. Pew Research Forum. Archived on March 10, 2013 by Internet Archive.
+
*Campbell, David and Putnam, Robert (November 14, 2010).  [http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/forum/2010-11-15-column15_ST_N.htm "Religious people are 'better neighbors'"]. USA Today website.</ref> See: [[Atheism and charity|Atheism and uncharitableness]] ]]
+
 
+
Concerning the issue of [[Atheism and charity|atheism and uncharitableness]], the evidence indicates that [[per capita]] charitable giving by atheists and agnostics in America is significantly less than by theists, according to a study by the [[Barna Group]]:
+
{{cquote|The typical no-faith American donated just $200 in 2006, which is more than seven times less than the amount contributed by the prototypical active-faith adult ($1500). Even when church-based giving is subtracted from the equation, active-faith adults donated twice as many dollars last year as did atheists and agnostics. In fact, while just 7% of active-faith adults failed to contribute any personal funds in 2006, that compares with 22% among the no-faith adults.<ref>[https://www.barna.org/barna-update/faith-spirituality/102-atheists-and-agnostics-take-aim-at-christians#.VwcO5jEn_7Y  "Atheists and agnostics take aim at Christians"] (June 11, 2007).  Barna Update.</ref>}}
+
 
+
A comprehensive study by [[Harvard University]] professor Robert Putnam found that religious people are more charitable than their irreligious counterparts.<ref name ="Burke Campbell"/>
+
 
+
See also: [[Atheism, social justice and hypocrisy]]
+
 
+
==== Church-state issues emphasis. Charity low priority ====
+
 
+
See also: [[Atheism and charity|Atheism and uncharitableness]] and [[Western atheism and race]] and [[Atheism and love]]
+
 
+
In June 2014, the African-American atheist woman [[Sikivu Hutchinson]] wrote in the ''Washington Post'' that atheist organizations generally focus on church-state separation and creationism issues and not the concerns the less affluent African American population faces.<ref name="Hutchinson">Hutchinson, Sikivu (June 16, 2014).  [http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/06/16/blacks-are-even-discriminated-against-by-atheists/ "Atheism has a big race problem that no one’s talking about"].  Washington Post website.</ref> Hutchinson also mentioned that church organizations do focus on helping poor African Americans.<ref name="Hutchinson"/>
+
 
+
==== Atheist nonprofit scandals ====
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheist nonprofit scandals]] and  ''[[Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science#Embezzlement allegation|Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science - Embezzlement allegation]]''
+
 
+
Two atheist nonprofit scandals which recently received some publicity were the organizations [[Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science]] and the We Are Atheism organization.<ref>[http://www.patheos.com/blogs/friendlyatheist/2011/07/24/richard-dawkins-drops-his-lawsuit-against-former-employee/ Richard Dawkins Drops His Lawsuit Against Former Employee]
+
*[http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2010/10/24/richard-dawkins-sues-josh-timonen/ Richard Dawkins sues Josh Timonen], Posted by David Gorski on October 24, 2010
+
*[http://www.patheos.com/blogs/friendlyatheist/2011/07/24/richard-dawkins-drops-his-lawsuit-against-former-employee/ Richard Dawkins Drops His Lawsuit Against Former Employee]
+
*[http://www.patheos.com/blogs/friendlyatheist/2015/09/15/an-update-on-we-are-atheism/ An Update on We Are Atheism] by Hemant Mehta, September 15, 2015]</ref>
+
 
+
In addition, David Gorski at Scienceblogs indicated that many atheist/skeptic organizations are poorly run from a financial standpoint.<ref>[http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2010/10/24/richard-dawkins-sues-josh-timonen/ Richard Dawkins sues Josh Timonen], Posted by David Gorski on October 24, 2010</ref>
+
 
+
For more information, please see: [[Atheist nonprofit scandals]]
+
 
+
=== Irreligion and domestic violence ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Irreligion and domestic violence]] and [[Atheism and women]] and [[Atheism and rape]]
+
[[Image:Cycle.gif|thumbnail|205px|right|Research suggests that irreligiousity is a causal factor for domestic violence.<ref name="vaw">Ellison, C. G., Trinitapoli, J. A., et al. (November 2007). [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17951587 "Race/ethnicity, religious involvement, and domestic violence"] [abstract with link to full article].  ''Violence Against Women'', doi: 10.1177/1077801207308259, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1094-1112.  Abstract from PubMed.gov</ref>]]
+
The abstract for the 2007 article in the journal ''Violence Against Women'' entitled ''Race/Ethnicity, Religious Involvement, and Domestic Violence'' indicated:
+
{{cquote|The authors explored the relationship between religious involvement and intimate partner violence by analyzing data from the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households. They found that: (a) religious involvement is correlated with reduced levels of domestic violence; (b) levels of domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; (c) the effects of religious involvement on domestic violence vary by race/ethnicity; and (d) religious involvement, specifically church attendance, protects against domestic violence, and this protective effect is stronger for African American men and women and for Hispanic men, groups that, for a variety of reasons, experience elevated risk for this type of violence.<ref name="vaw"/>}} 
+
 
+
===== Secular Europe and domestic violence =====
+
 
+
See also: [[Secular Europe and domestic violence]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and pornography ===
+
[[File:Larry Flynt Wheelchair.jpg|thumbnail|200px|right|The [[pornography|pornographer]] [[Larry Flynt]] is an atheist.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Flynt writes, "I have left my religious conversion behind and settled into a comfortable state of atheism": see the epilogue of Flynt, Larry and Ross, Kenneth (June 1, 2008).  ''An Unseemly Man: My Life as Pornographer, Pundit, and Social Outcast''. 
+
*"I am not saying he don't believe in God. I am just saying I don't believe in God. That puts me at odds with him." [http://www.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/9701/11/falwell.v.flynt/lkl.00.html "Larry Flynt and Jerry Falwell" [transcript&#93;] (January 10, 1996).  Larry King Live.  Transcript from CNN.com on October 3, 2014.</ref> See: [[Atheism and pornography]] ]
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and pornography]]
+
 
+
One of the causes of atheism is a [[hedonism|hedonistic]] lifestyle. See: [[Atheism and hedonism]].
+
 
+
The infamous [[pornography|pornographers]] [[Hugh Hefner]] and [[Larry Flynt]] are both atheists.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Gottesdiener, Laura (February 23, 2010).  [http://www.salon.com/2013/02/23/10_celebs_you_didnt_know_were_atheists_partner/ "10 celebs you didn't know were atheists"].  Salon. 
+
*Flynt writes, "I have left my religious conversion behind and settled into a comfortable state of atheism": see the epilogue of Flynt, Larry and Ross, Kenneth (June 1, 2008).  ''An Unseemly Man: My Life as Pornographer, Pundit, and Social Outcast''.
+
*"I am not saying he don't believe in God. I am just saying I don't believe in God. That puts me at odds with him." [http://www.cnn.com/SHOWBIZ/9701/11/falwell.v.flynt/lkl.00.html "Larry Flynt and Jerry Falwell" [transcript&#93;] (January 10, 1996).  Larry King Live.  Transcript from CNN.com</ref>
+
 
+
In 2003, ''Arena magazine'' magazine listed Flynt as #1 on the "50 Powerful People in Porn" list.<ref>[http://www.onenewspage.us/people/ms9j0/Larry-Flynt.htm "Larry Flynt"].  One News Page.</ref>  Flynt is paralyzed from the waist down due to injuries sustained from a 1978 assassination attempt by the serial killer Joseph Paul Franklin.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Flynt, Larry and Ross, Kenneth (June 1, 2008).  ''An Unseemly Man: My Life as Pornographer, Pundit, and Social Outcast'', pp. 170–171.
+
*[http://www.onenewspage.us/people/ms9j0/Larry-Flynt.htm "Larry Flynt"].  One News Page.</ref>
+
 
+
==== Atheism and child pornography ====
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and child pornography]]
+
 
+
In 2005 [[Denmark]] was ranked the third most atheistic country in the world and the website adherents.com reported that in 2005 43 - 80% of Danes are agnostics/atheists/non-believers in God.<ref>[http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_atheist.html Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics(Zuckerman, 2005)]</ref> 
+
 
+
The 2003 book entitled ''Overcoming Violence Against Women and Girls: The International Campaign to Eradicate a Worldwide Problem '' written by authors Rahel Nardos; Mary K. Radpour; William S. Hatcher and Michael L. Penn, declared:
+
{{cquote|The largest source of commercial child pornography is Denmark. Denmark became the world's leading producer of child pornography when, in 1969, it removed all restrictions on the production and sale of any type of pornographic material. "The result," notes Tim Tate, "was a short-lived explosion in adult pornography, and the birth of commercial child pornography. ....by 1979 when Denmark finally banned the production and sale of child pornography it had already become such a financial success on the international market that it has proven to be nearly impossible to bring its spread under control.<ref>Nardos, Rahel, et. al. (2003).  ''Overcoming Violence Against Women and Girls: The International Campaign to Eradicate a Worldwide Problem'', p. 59.</ref>}}
+
 
+
Suzanne Ost, in her 2009 book ''Child Pornography and Sexual Grooming: Legal and Societal Responses'' published by Cambridge University Press, wrote about the child pornography created by Denmark/Holland during this period: "Taylor and Quayle note that the material produced during this period still constitutes the largest part of child pornography that is currently available, having been transferred into digital format and uploaded onto the internet."<ref>''Child Pornography and Sexual Grooming: Legal and Societal Responses'' by Suzanne Ost, Cambridge University Press, page 29, 2009</ref>
+
 
+
=== Atheism, pedophilia and NAMBLA ===
+
[[Image:Harry Hay.jpg|thumbnail|150px|Many consider atheist [[Harry Hay]] to be the founder of the American homosexual movement.]]
+
''see also:'' [[Atheism, pederasty and NAMBLA]] and [[Teenage homosexuality]]
+
 
+
The [[North American Man-Boy Love Association]] (NAMBLA) was founded in December 1978 and is an activist homosexuality and [[pedophilia]]/pederasty coalition group.
+
 
+
Some of the well known atheist advocates of the North American Man-Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) are:
+
 
+
1. The atheist and homosexual [[David Thorstad]] was a founding member of the North American Man-Boy Love Association (NAMBLA).<ref>Abbott, Matt C. (August 22, 2010).  [http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/abbott/100822 "The mind of a pederast"]. RenewAmerica.</ref>
+
 
+
2. '''[[Harry Hay]]''' (1912 - 2002) was an [[liberal]] advocate of [[statutory rape]] and the widely acknowledged founder and progenitor of the  activist [[homosexual agenda]] in the [[United States]]. Hay joined the [[Communist Party of the United States]] (CPUSA) in 1934.<ref>Bronski, Michael (October 31, 2002).  [http://bostonphoenix.com/boston/news_features/other_stories/documents/02511115.htm "The real Harry Hay"].  The Phoenix.com.</ref>  Harry Hay was an atheist.<ref>Kincaid, Cliff, Accuracy in Media (January 7, 2010). [http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/WTARC/2010/ss_politics0010_01_07.asp "Twisted: administration's 'safe schools czar' and the North American Man-Boy Love Association"].  WorldTribune.com.</ref> He was a vociferous advocate of man/boy love.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Lord, Jeffrey (October 5, 2006).  [http://spectator.org/articles/46366/when-nancy-met-harry "Special report:  when Nancy met Harry"].  The American Spectator website.
+
*Kincaid, Cliff, Accuracy in Media (January 7, 2010). [http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/WTARC/2010/ss_politics0010_01_07.asp "Twisted: administration's 'safe schools czar' and the North American Man-Boy Love Association"].  WorldTribune.com.</ref> In 1986, Hay marched in a [[homosexual|gay]] parade wearing a shirt emblazoned with the words "[[NAMBLA]] walks with me."<ref>Baldwin, Hon. Steve (2002). [http://www.mega.nu/ampp/baldwin_pedophilia_homosexuality.pdf "Child molestation and the homosexual movement"]. ''Regent University Law Review'', vol. 14, pp. 267-282. The Architecture of Modern Political Power</ref>
+
 
+
3. The writer [[Samuel R. Delany]] is an atheist and a homosexual.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Delany, Samuel R. (2006).  ''About Writing:  Seven Essays, Four Letters, and Five Interviews'' (Middletown: Wesleyan), p. 36.
+
*[http://www.enotes.com/topics/samuel-r-delany/critical-essays/delany-samuel-r-vol-141#critical-essays-delany-samuel-r-vol-141-introduction "Introduction"] (2001).  ''Contemporary Literary Criticism'', ed. Hunter, Jeffrey W., vol. 141 (Gale Cengage).  eNotes.com</ref> Delaney said he was a supporter of NAMBLA.<ref>Freedman, Carl (2009).  ''Conversations with Samuel R. Delany'' (Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi), p. 143.</ref>
+
 
+
See also: [[Richard Dawkins on child molestation and so called "gentle pedophiles"]] and [[John Maynard Keynes and pederasty]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and slavery/forced labor ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and slavery]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and forced labor]]
+
 
+
=== Immorality of prominent atheists ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism, polyamory and other immoral relationships]]
+
[[File:JAMES RANDI.jpg|thumbnail|170px|left|[[James Randi]] ]]
+
[[James Randi]] is a leader within the atheist community. Brian Thompson, former James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) Outreach Coordinator, wrote:
+
{{cquote|But I no longer identify with this community of benevolent know-it-alls, because not all of them are the best folks in the world. In fact, a good percentage of the top ten worst humans I’ve ever met are prominent members of the skeptics’ club. They’re dishonest, mean-spirited, narcissistic, [[misogyny|misogynistic]]. Pick a personality flaw, and I can probably point you to someone who epitomizes it. And that person has probably had a speaking slot at a major skeptical conference.
+
 
+
I grew particularly disgusted with the boys’ club attitude I saw among skeptical leaders and luminaries. The kind of attitude that’s dismissive of women, sexually predatory, and downright gross. When I first started going to skeptical conferences as a fresh-faced know-it-all, I started hearing things about people I once admired. Then I started seeing things myself. Then I got a job with the JREF, and the pattern continued.<ref>Myers, P. Z. (March 31, 2014).  [http://freethoughtblogs.com/pharyngula/2014/03/31/when-will-this-situation-improve/ "When will this situation improve?"] Pharyngula.</ref>}}
+
 
+
See also:
+
 
+
*[[Atheism, polyamory and other immoral relationships]]
+
 
+
*[[Richard Carrier, adultery, divorce and polyamory]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheist conferences#Atheist events and inappropriate sexually related activities|Atheist conferences and inappropriate sexual activity]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and rape ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and rape]]
+
 
+
*[[Mass rape during the occupation of Germany|Mass rape of German women by the Soviet army]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and abortion ===
+
 
+
The ''Journal of Medical Ethics'' wrote this about the atheist and [[sadism|sadist]] [[Marquis de Sade]]:
+
{{cquote|In 1795 the Marquis de Sade published his ''La Philosophie dans le boudoir'', in which he proposed the use of induced abortion for social reasons and as a means of [[population control]]. It is from this time that medical and social acceptance of abortion can be dated, although previously the subject had not been discussed in public in modern times. It is suggested that it was largely due to de Sade's writing that induced abortion received the impetus which resulted in its subsequent spread in western society.<ref>Farr, A. D. (1980).  [http://jme.bmj.com/content/6/1/7.abstract "The Marquis de Sade and induced abortion"].  ''Journal of Medical Ethics'', 6, pp. 7-10.  Journal of Medical Ethics website</ref>}}
+
 
+
[[Population control]] is based on [[pseudoscience]] and ill founded [[economics|economic]] assumptions.<ref>Egnor, Michael (November 30, 2010).  [http://www.evolutionnews.org/2010/11/pz_myers_on_abortion040971.html "P. Z. Myers on abortion"].  Evolution News and Views.</ref> ''[[CBS News]]'' reported: "According to a mail-in survey of nearly 4,000 British doctors, those who were atheist or agnostic were almost twice as willing to take actions designed to hasten the end of life."<ref>Katz, Neil (August 26, 2010).  [http://www.cbsnews.com/news/study-atheist-doctors-twice-as-likely-to-pull-plug/ "Study: atheist doctors twice as likely to pull plug"]. CBSNews.com.</ref>
+
 
+
=== Atheism and profanity ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and profanity]] and [[Atheism and culture]]
+
 
+
Studies indicate that atheists engage in more [[profanity]] than Christians/theists and are more likely to believe that obscene language is acceptable to engage in.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*[https://www.barna.org/component/content/article/5-barna-update/45-barna-update-sp-657/58-practical-outcomes-replace-biblical-principles-as-the-moral-standard#.VwcQ8jEn_7Y  "Practical outcomes replace biblical principles as the moral standard"] (September 10, 2001).  Barna Update.
+
*Jay, Timothy and Janschewitz, Kristin (May/June 2012).  [http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publications/observer/2012/may-june-12/the-science-of-swearing.html "The Science of Swearing"].  ''Observer'', vol. 25, no. 5. The Association for Psychological Science website.
+
*Ritter, Ryan S., Preston, J. L. et al. (June 18, 2013). [http://spp.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/06/18/1948550613492345.full.pdf+html "Happy tweets: Christians are happier, more socially connected, and less analytical than atheists on Twitter" [abstract&#93;].  ''Social Psychological and Personality Science'', 1948550613492345.  Abstract: Sage Journals Subscription required for full article.</ref>
+
Use of profanity by individuals is negatively correlated with conscientiousness and agreeableness.<ref>Jay, Timothy and Janschewitz, Kristin (May/June 2012).  [http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publications/observer/2012/may-june-12/the-science-of-swearing.html "The Science of Swearing"].  ''Observer'', vol. 25, no. 5. The Association for Psychological Science website</ref>
+
 
+
For more information, please see: [[Atheism and profanity]]
+
 
+
=== Irreligion and crime/prison population ===
+
 
+
*[[Religion and crime reduction]]
+
 
+
*[[Irreligious prison population]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and infanticide ===
+
 
+
[[Infanticide]] is the practice of killing very young children. An infant has been medically defined as a child too young to speak.<ref>MedicineNet.com http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3966.</ref>
+
 
+
Below is an article on atheism and infanticide:
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and infanticide]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and bestiality ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and bestiality]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and other moral issues ===
+
 
+
For more information please see:  [[Atheism and morality]] and [[Atheism and hedonism]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and hypocrisy ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheist hypocrisy]]
+
 
+
In order to attempt to justify their atheism, atheists often engage in [[Hypocrisy|hypocritical]] argumentation.  In addition, atheists often engage in hypocritical behavior. Please see: [[Atheist hypocrisy]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and social justice ===
+
 
+
See: [[Atheism and social justice]]
+
 
+
=== Earlier definitions of atheism ===
+
 
+
Dictionaries point out that previous/archaic meanings of the word atheism are: ungodliness. wickedness, immorality<ref>[http://www.positiveatheism.org/mail/eml9779.htm Dictionary Says 'Atheism' Means 'Immorality'!?]</ref><ref>[http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/atheism Definition of atheism - Merriam-Webster dictionary]</ref>
+
 
+
== Atheism and meaning ==
+
 
+
=== Why atheism is irrational ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and irrationality]] and [[Irreligion and superstition]]
+
 
+
A common and legitimate criticism of the atheist worldview is that [[Atheism and irrationality|atheism is irrational]].<ref name="athdef"/> In short, atheism is a fundamentally incoherent worldview with a number of inconsistencies.<ref name="inconsist"/>  For example, the atheistic worldview cannot account for the laws of [[logic]].<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Lisle, Dr. Jason (October 10, 2007).  [http://answersingenesis.org/world-religions/atheism/atheism-an-irrational-worldview/ "Atheism: An irrational worldview"]. AnswersinGenesis. 
+
*Slick, Matt (2010).  [http://carm.org/christian-worldview-atheist-worldview-and-logic "The Christian worldview, the atheist worldview, and logic"].  Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry.
+
*Petersen, Jason (2013).  [http://answersforhope.org/portfolio_item/can-atheism-coherently-explain-the-laws-of-logic/ "Can atheism coherently explain the laws of logic?"] Answers for Hope. 
+
*Audio of a formal 1985 debate between Christian Greg Bahnsen and skeptic Gordon Stein at the University of California, Irvine on the question "Does God exist?"  See Dr. [[Greg Bahnsen]]
+
**[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1hSx2evTGM "Greg Bahnsen vs. Gordon Stein:  The Great Debate (FULL)"] (May 19, 2011).  YouTube video, 2:10:44, posted by Argin Gerigorian. 
+
**Andy (December 5, 2006).  [http://veritasdomain.wordpress.com/2006/12/05/greg-bahnsen-vs-gordon-stein-the-great-debate/ "Greg Bahnsen vs Gordon Stein mp3"].  The Domain for Truth.</ref> See also: [[Atheism and critical thinking]]
+
 
+
The atheist worldview cannot explain the existence of [[consciousness]] either and the [[theism|theistic]] worldview can offer a reasonable explanation.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Piippo, John (March 20, 2012).  [http://www.johnpiippo.com/2012/03/argument-from-consciousness-for.html "The argument from consciousness for the existence of God"].  John Piippo.
+
*Piippo, John (April 14, 2014).  [http://www.johnpiippo.com/2014/04/one-of-atheisms-irresolvable-problems.html "Consciousness:  One of atheism's irresolvable problems"].  John Piippo.</ref> 
+
[[File:113320508 2b86fdb94a.jpg|thumb|201px|right|A common and legitimate criticism of the atheist worldview is that [[Atheism and irrationality|atheism is irrational]].<ref name="athdef">Multiple references:
+
*Slick, Matt (2010).  [http://carm.org/cut-atheism "Atheism"].  Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry. 
+
*Samples, Kenneth R. (Fall 1991 and Winter 1992). [http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/web/crj0131a.html "Putting the atheist on the defensive"].  ''Christian Research Institute Journal'', p. 7. Internet Christian Library
+
*Gilson, Tom (March 21, 2012).  [http://www.faithstreet.com/onfaith/2012/03/21/atheists-dont-own-reason/10924 "Atheists don’t own reason"].  FaithStreet/On Faith. 
+
*McInerny, Professor Ralph (1985).  [http://www.leaderu.com/truth/1truth11.html "Why the burden of proof is on the atheist"].  ''Truth Journal'', vol. 1. LeadershipU
+
*Platinga, Alvin (1991).  [http://www.leaderu.com/truth/3truth02.html "Theism, atheism, and rationality"]. ''Truth Journal'', vol. 3.  LeadershipU. See [[Alvin Plantinga]].
+
*Day, Vox (2008). [http://www.voxday.net/mart/TIA_free.pdf ''The Irrational Atheist: Dissecting the Unholy Trinity of Dawkins, Harris, and Hitchens''](Dallas TX:  Benbella Books). ISBN 1933771364; ISBN 978-1933771366.</ref> In short, atheism is a fundamentally incoherent worldview with a number of inconsistencies.<ref name="inconsist">Multiple references:
+
*[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J4K_WZpIkM4 "William Lane Craig on scientific naturalism"] (January 12, 2008).  YouTube video, 9:55, posted by Drcraigvideos
+
*[http://vimeo.com/102663614 "The Summit lecture series: Scientific naturalism worldview with J.P. Moreland, part 1"] (August 5, 2014).  Vimeo video, 8:10, posted by Jefferson Drexler.
+
*[http://vimeo.com/103277405 "The Summit lecture series: Scientific naturalism with J.P. Moreland, part 2"] (August 12, 2014).  Vimeo video, 7:43, posted by Jefferson Drexler. 
+
*[http://vimeo.com/103865278 "The Summit lecture series: Scientific naturalism worldview with J.P. Moreland, part 3"] (August 19, 2014).  Vimeo video, 7:21, posted by Jefferson Drexler. 
+
*[http://vimeo.com/105068126 "The Summit lecture series: Scientific naturalism worldview with J.P. Moreland, part 4"] (September 2, 2014).  Vimeo video, 6:40, posted by Jefferson Drexler.
+
*[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6cTlDn4PiU "The incoherence of atheism - Ravi Zacharias"] (February 5, 2013).  YouTube video, 51:59, posted by Christianity Reason and Science. 
+
*Cooper, Jordan (August 31, 2012).  [http://justandsinner.blogspot.com/2012/08/the-incoherence-of-atheism.html "The incoherence of atheism"].  Just and Sinner blog. 
+
*Randy (November 12, 2012).  [http://ephesians4-15.blogspot.com/2012/11/more-on-inconsistent-atheists.html "More on inconsistent atheists"].  Speak the Truth in Love. 
+
*Geisler, Norman and McCoy, Daniel J. (June 2014).  ''The Atheist's Fatal Flaw: Exposing Conflicting Beliefs'' (Ada, MI:  Baker Publishing Group).  See [[Norman Geisler]]</ref>]]
+
 
+
For more information, please see:
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and irrationality]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and logic]]
+
 
+
*[[Irreligion and superstition]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and groupthink]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and epistemology]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and postmodernism]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and reason ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and reason]]
+
 
+
If [[Naturalism (philosophy)|naturalism]] is true, then we ought not to trust our capacity for [[reason]] for the human [[brain]] would be a byproduct of blind/unintelligent natural forces.
+
<ref name="C.S. Lewis' argument from reason">*[http://creationevolutiondesign.blogspot.com/2006/09/cs-lewis-argument-from-reason.html C.S. Lewis' argument from reason]
+
*[http://www.evolutionnews.org/2013/11/cs_lewis_and_th079541.html C.S. Lewis and the Argument from Reason] by Jay W. Richards, November 25, 2013
+
*[http://www.acton.org/pub/religion-liberty/volume-6-number-6/cs-lewis-and-materialism C.S. Lewis and Materialism] by John G. West
+
*[http://wmbriggs.com/blog/?p=8669 C.S. Lewis On The Validity of Reasoning]
+
*[http://truthbomb.blogspot.com/2012/04/cs-lewis-on-rationality-and-materialism.html C.S. Lewis on Rationality and Materialism ]
+
*[http://str.typepad.com/weblog/2008/08/naturalisms-hot.html Naturalism's Hot Water]</ref>  Therefore, believing in naturalism is self-defeating.
+
 
+
In short, atheism/naturalism and reason are incompatible.<ref name="C.S. Lewis' argument from reason"/>
+
 
+
=== Logical fallacies that atheists commonly commit ===
+
 
+
List of logical fallacies that atheists commonly commit: [[Atheism and logical fallacies]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and meaninglessness ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and meaninglessness]] and [[Nihilism]] and [[Absurdism]] and [[Existentialism]]
+
 
+
Under an atheistic worldview, there is no objective meaning or purpose in life.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Anderson, James (July 16, 2013).  [http://www.thegospelcoalition.org/article/can-life-have-meaning-without-god "Can life have meaning without God?"] The Gospel Coalition.  "Atheism’s universe is meaningless and valueless". J.W. Wartick—"Always Have a Reason" [blog
+
*Galloway, Katie (December 23, 2013).  [http://www.bethinking.org/atheism/reclaiming-reason-from-atheism "Reclaiming reason from atheism".]  Bethinking.  ["Why atheism?"]
+
*Sirrahc (April 19, 2012).  [http://aviewfromtheright.com/2012/04/19/heat-death-and-atheist-inconsistency-or-isnt-it-ironic/ "Heat death and atheist inconsistency (or, isn’t it ironic?)"].  A View from the Right
+
*Shramek, Dustin (2009).  [http://www.oocities.org/athens/delphi/8449/atheism.html "Atheism and death: Why the atheist must face death with despair"].  Contend for the Faith [archive].  Archive
+
*Brake, Aaron (2013).  [http://pleaseconvinceme.com/2013/apathy-atheism-and-the-absurdity-of-life-without-god/ "Apathy, atheism, and the absurdity of life without God"].  Pleaseconvinceme. 
+
*Prayson, Daniel (December 16, 2010).  [http://withalliamgod.wordpress.com/2010/12/16/the-meaningless-life-of-atheism/ "The meaningless life of atheism"].  With All I Am.</ref>  Through [[Jesus Christ]], Christianity offers objective meaning and purpose to life.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Slick, Matt (2012).  [http://carm.org/meaning-of-life "What does the Bible say about the meaning/purpose of life?"].  Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry website
+
*[Under a Christian worldview] [http://www.christianbiblereference.org/faq_MeaningLife.htm "What is the purpose and meaning of life?"] (2009).  Christian Bible Reference Site.</ref>
+
 
+
For more information, please see: [[Atheism and meaninglessness]]
+
 
+
=== Arrogance of atheism/atheists ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and arrogance]] and [[Atheism and narcissism]] and [[Atheism and deception]]
+
 
+
One of the common and well-founded charges against atheists is their arrogance and presumptuousness.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Samples, Kenneth R. (Fall 1991 and Winter 1992). [http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/web/crj0131a.html "Putting the atheist on the defensive"].  ''Christian Research Institute Journal'', p. 7.  Internet Christian Library
+
*Copan, Paul (April 6, 2009).  [http://www.equip.org/articles/the-presumptuousness-of-atheism/ "The presumptuousness of atheism"].  Christian Research Institute.
+
*Cupp, S. E. (December 29, 2010).  [http://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/arrogance-atheists-batter-believers-religion-smug-certainty-article-1.469613 "The arrogance of the atheists: They batter believers in religion with smug certainty"].  ''New York Daily News''.  See atheist commentator [[S.E. Cupp]]
+
*O'Neill, Brendan (August 14, 2013).  [http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/brendanoneill2/100230985/how-atheists-became-the-most-colossally-smug-and-annoying-people-on-the-planet/ "How atheists became the most colossally smug and annoying people on the planet"].  The Telegraph website/Brendan O'Neill [blog].  [atheist author] 
+
*Delzell, Dan (October 17, 2011).  [http://www.christianpost.com/news/how-anger-fuels-atheistic-arrogance-58281/ "How anger fuels atheistic arrogance"].  Christian Post website.
+
*[http://atheismexposed.tripod.com/atheist_arrogance.htm "Militant atheist arrogance and pride"] (2007).  Militant Atheism Exposed.</ref>
+
 
+
==== Why atheism is an arrogant ideology  ====
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Rebuttals to atheist arguments|Arguments against atheism]] and [[Atheism and arrogance]]
+
[[File:Old Nietzsche, 1899.JPG|thumbnail|220px|right|[[Friedrich Nietzsche]] wrote: "But now God is dead. You superior men, this God was your greatest danger. Only since he is in the grave, have you risen again. Only now comes the great noontide; only now the superior man will be – Lord!".<ref>[http://atheismexposed.tripod.com/atheist_arrogance.htm Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, In Michael Curtis (Ed.) The Great Political Theories, Vol. 2 (New York: Avon Books, 1962, PP. 261-262). Cited in, Christopher, J.R., G.G, Wittet, Modern Western Civilization. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1991, Pages 232, 233]</ref>
+
<br /><br />
+
 
+
 
+
The picture of Nietzsche above was taken in 1899. Nietzsche died in 1900. See: [[Atheism and arrogance]] ]]
+
Atheists [[Attempts to dilute the definition of atheism|lack proof and evidence]] that God does not exist and ignore the [[Christian apologetics websites|clear and abundant proof and evidence]] that He does exist.  The philosopher [[Mortimer Adler]] pointed out that atheism asserts an unreasonable [[universal negative]] that is self-defeating.<ref name="defensive">Samples, Kenneth R. (Fall 1991 and Winter 1992). [http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/web/crj0131a.html "Putting the atheist on the defensive"].  ''Christian Research Institute Journal'', p. 7. Internet Christian Library</ref> 
+
 
+
Contrary to the mistaken notion of individuals who are inexperienced in [[logic]]/philosophy, there are plenty of cases where universal negatives [[Universal negative|can be proven]].<ref>Ferguson, Shawn (August 14, 2014).  [http://blog.faithbeyondbelief.ca/2014/08/the-universal-negative-can-it-be-proven.html "The universal negative: Can it be proven?"]  Faith Beyond Belief.</ref>  However, atheists' universal negative claim that God does not exist is not a reasonable universal negative claim.<ref name="defensive"/>
+
 
+
Atheists have also given themselves pretentious monikers such as [[freethinker]], rationalist and "bright". See also: [[Brights Movement]] and [[Atheism and intelligence]]
+
 
+
In addition, historically militant atheists have commonly endeavored to limit the religious freedom of others while imposing their errant, atheistic ideology on others. See also: [[Atheism and intolerance]]
+
 
+
==== Study: Arrogance of New Atheists ====
+
 
+
See: [[Atheism and arrogance#Study relating the arrogance of New Atheists and the discovery of errors by the New Atheists|Study relating the arrogance of New Atheists]]
+
 
+
=== Atheists/agnostics and ultimate purpose ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and purpose]] and [[Atheism, agnosticism and pessimism]] and [[Atheism and beliefs]]
+
 
+
One of the most popular arguments for God's existence is the [[teleological argument]]. Derived from the Greek word ''telos'', which refers to purpose or end, this argument hinges on the idea that the world gives evidence of being designed, and concludes that a divine designer must be posited to account for the orderly world we encounter.
+
 
+
Academic research and historical data indicate that a significant portion of atheists/agnostics often see their lives and the world as being the product of purposeful design (see: [[Atheism and purpose]]).<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Banerjee, Konika and Bloom, Paul (October 17, 2014).  [http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/19/opinion/sunday/does-everything-happen-for-a-reason.html "Does everything happen for a reason?"]  The New York Times website
+
*Catchpoole, David (July 16, 2009 [GMT+10]).  [http://creation.com/children-see-the-world-as-designed "Children see the world as designed"].  Creation.com.  See [[Creation Ministries International]].
+
*Atheist [[Jean-Paul Sartre]] made the candid confession: "As for me, I don’t see myself as so much dust that has appeared in the world but as a being that was expected, prefigured, called forth. In short, as a being that could, it seems, come only from a creator; and this idea of a creating hand that created me refers me back to God. Naturally this is not a clear, exact idea that I set in motion every time I think of myself. It contradicts many of my other ideas; but it is there, floating vaguely. And when I think of myself I often think rather in this way, for want of being able to think otherwise." Source: Turner, Dean (1991). [http://books.google.com/books?id=BGU7LZ2bQ4cC&pg=PA109&lpg=PA109&dq=As+for+me,+I+don%E2%80%99t+see+myself+as+so+much+dust+that+has+appeared+in+the+world+but+as+a+being+that+was+expected,+prefigured,+called+forth.+In+short,+as+a+being+that+could,+it+seems,+come+only+from+a+creator;+and+this+idea+of+a+creating+hand+that+created+me+refers+me+back+to+God.&source=bl&ots=die9xMUdsB&sig=3dAJOK34aBalYieFKcJLdGpwFjY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NXhqVMSmHMexyASUyYKIBw&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=As%20for%20me%2C%20I%20don%E2%80%99t%20see%20myself%20as%20so%20much%20dust%20that%20has%20appeared%20in%20the%20world%20but%20as%20a%20being%20that%20was%20expected%2C%20prefigured%2C%20called%20forth.%20In%20short%2C%20as%20a%20being%20that%20could%2C%20it%20seems%2C%20come%20only%20from%20a%20creator%3B%20and%20this%20idea%20of%20a%20creating%20hand%20that%20created%20me%20refers%20me%20back%20to%20God.&f=false ''Escape from God: The Use of Religion and Philosophy to Evade Responsibility''] (Pasadena, California:  Hope Publishing House), p. 109. GoogleBooks archive.
+
*The ''Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' declares about the agnostic/[[weak atheism|weak atheist]] Charles Darwin: "In 1885, the Duke of Argyll recounted a conversation he had had with Charles Darwin the year before Darwin's death: 'In the course of that conversation I said to Mr. Darwin, with reference to some of his own remarkable works on the Fertilization of [[Orchid]]s, and upon The [[Earthworm]]s, and various other observations he made of the wonderful contrivances for certain purposes in nature — I said it was impossible to look at these without seeing that they were the effect and the expression of Mind. I shall never forget Mr. Darwin's answer. He looked at me very hard and said, "Well, that often comes over me with overwhelming force; but at other times," and he shook his head vaguely, adding, "it seems to go away."' (Argyll 1885, 244)"
+
**[http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/teleological-arguments/notes.html "Notes to 'Teleological arguments for God's existence'"] [article revised removing reference in January 2015].
+
**The Duke of Argyll (1885).  [http://books.google.com/books?id=CskhAQAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22good+words%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fs24VKGOMpDnsATg_4HYDQ&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22it%20seems%20to%20go%20away%22&f=false "What is science?"]  ''Good Words'' [United Kingdom], vol. 26, p. 244. GoogleBooks archive
+
</ref>
+
 
+
See also:
+
 
+
*[[Atheists doubting the validity of atheism]]
+
 
+
== Atheism and religion and philosophy topics ==
+
 
+
=== Atheism is a religion ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism is a religion]] and [[Atheist cults]] and [[Atheist hypocrisy]]
+
[[File:Sanderson Jones.jpg|thumbnail|right|200px|The [[British atheism|British atheist]] Sanderson Jones is a founder of the Sunday Assembly atheist church movement.<ref>[http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/01/06/atheist-church-split_n_4550456.html Atheist Church Split: Sunday Assembly And Godless Revival's 'Denominational Chasm'], Huffington Post, 2014</ref>
+
 
+
See: [[Atheism is a religion]] ]]
+
 
+
[[Atheism is a religion]].<ref name="Atheismisareligion">[http://creation.com/atheism-a-religion Is Atheism a religion?] by Daniel Smartt, Published: 4 May 2010(GMT+10)</ref>  And many of the leaders of the atheist movement, such as the evolutionist and [[New Atheism|new atheist]]/agnostic Richard Dawkins, argue for agnosticism/atheism with a religious fervor.
+
+
In addition, although many atheists deny that atheism is a worldview, atheists commonly share a [[Atheism and beliefs|number of beliefs]] such as [[Naturalism (philosophy)|naturalism]], belief in evolution and [[Origin of life|abiogenesis]].<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Slick, Matt (October 2011).  [http://carm.org/atheism-worldview "Is atheism a worldview?"]  Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry website.  See [[CARM]]
+
*Hearn, Brian F. (December 31, 2009).  [http://www.apologetics.net/post/Atheism-a-worldview.aspx "Atheism a worldview?"]  Apologetics.net.
+
*Hearn, Brian F. (May 2, 2012).  [http://www.apologetics.net/post/Atheism-is-a-worldview-%28II%29.aspx "Atheism is a worldview II"].  Apologetics.net.
+
*Bannister, Andy (October 14, 2013).  [http://www.rzim.eu/the-scandanavian-sceptic-or-why-atheism-is-a-belief-system "The Scandanavian sceptic (or why atheism is a belief system)"].  Ravi Zacharias International Ministries website.  See [[Ravi Zacharias]]</ref> 
+
 
+
Roderick Ninian Smart, a Scottish writer and professor, defined a seven-part scheme of understanding both religious and secular worldviews<ref>Smart, Ninian (1996).  [http://books.google.com/books?id=14j2UrLCi64C&pg=PA130&lpg=PA130&dq=ninian+smart+narrative&source=bl&ots=Hq3WwG_mVT&sig=j-8FpwSdqohURYodSdcl46erSJY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=FgybT6zxIc-_gAe864X6Dg&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ninian%20smart%20narrative&f=false ''Dimensions of the Sacred'' [preview&#93;] (Oakland, CA: University of California Press).  Preview: GoogleBooks</ref>  These can be understood as narrative, experiential, social, ethical, doctrinal, ritual and material.
+
 
+
English Pastor Daniel Smartt defines atheism as a religion, using Ninian Smart's seven dimensions of worldview as a list of criteria. It is not necessary in Smartt's model for every one of these to be present in order for something to be a religion.<ref>Smartt, Daniel (November 6, 2008).  [http://archive.is/L3cY5 "Atheism religion naturalism morally relative"].  Archive of SpiritualLiving360°.</ref> However, it can be argued that all seven are present in the case of atheism.<ref name="Atheismisareligion"/>
+
<ref>*Ammi, Ken (June 11, 2009).  [http://creation.com/atheism "Atheism"].  Creation Ministries International.</ref>
+
 
+
In 2013, a trend of atheist services began and atheist services were reported in the ''[[New York Times]]'', ''[[The Blaze]]'' and other major news outlets.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Thier, Dave (June 23, 2013).  [http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/24/us/in-the-bible-belt-offering-atheists-a-spiritual-home.html?_r=0 "In the Bible belt offering atheists a spiritual home"].  Nytimes.com
+
*Hallowell, Billy (April 17, 2013).  [http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/04/17/atheist-sunday-morning-worship-services-are-on-the-rise/ "Bizarre trend: atheist Sunday morning ‘worship’ services are on the rise (minus God, of course)"]  TheBlaze. 
+
*Ortberg, Mallory (January 5, 2013).  [http://gawker.com/5973377/londons-first-atheist-church-opens-tomorrow "London's first atheist church opens tomorrow".]  Gawker.</ref>
+
 
+
See also:
+
 
+
*[[Atheism is a religion]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheist indoctrination]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheist cults]]
+
 
+
=== Atheist cults ===
+
 
+
See: [[Atheist cults]]
+
[[Image:2384975035_230a0eac30.jpg‎‎|thumb|right|170px|The [[Wall Street Journal]] reported: "A comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows ...that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to [[superstition]], tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in [[pseudoscience]] than evangelical Christians."<ref name="online.wsj.com">http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122178219865054585.html</ref>]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and spirituality ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and spirituality]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and evidence ===
+
 
+
See: [[Atheism and evidence]]
+
 
+
=== Irreligion and superstition ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Irreligion and superstition]]
+
 
+
In September 2008, the [[Wall Street Journal]] reported:
+
{{cquote|The reality is that the New Atheist campaign, by discouraging [[religion]], won't create a new group of intelligent, skeptical, enlightened beings. Far from it: It might actually encourage new levels of mass [[superstition]]. And that's not a conclusion to take on faith—it's what the empirical data tell us.
+
 
+
"What Americans Really Believe," a comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows that [[Conservative Christianity|traditional Christian religion]] greatly decreases belief in everything from the efficacy of palm readers to the usefulness of [[astrology]]. It also shows that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in [[pseudoscience]] than evangelical Christians...."<ref name="paranormal">Hemingway, Molly Ziegler (September 19, 2008). [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122178219865054585.html "Look who's irrational now"].  The Wall Street Journal website.</ref>}}
+
[[File:Loc of United States.png|thumbnail|175px|right|According to Pew Forum, [[Evangelicalism|evangelical Protestant]] churches in America grew by 2 million from 2007 to 2014.<ref>[http://www.wnd.com/2015/05/why-conservative-churches-are-still-growing/ Why conservative churches are still growing]</ref>  See: [[Atheism vs. Christianity]] ]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism vs. Abrahamic religions and religion ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism vs. Christianity]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism vs. religion]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism vs. Islam]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism vs. Judaism]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and miracles ===
+
 
+
:''See main article: [[Atheism and Miracles]]''
+
 
+
In relation to [[Atheism and Miracles|atheism and miracles]], modern scholars are divided on the issue of whether or not [[David Hume]] was an atheist.<ref>Russell, Paul (February 11, 2013). [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hume-religion/#10 "Hume on religion"]. ''The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).
+
</ref> With that caveat in mind, Hume is well known for arguing that it is always more probable that the testimony of a miracle is false than that the miracle occurred.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Lennox, John (2009).  [http://www.bethinking.org/are-miracles-possible/the-question-of-miracles-the-contemporary-influence-of-hume "The question of miracles: the contemporary influence of Hume"].  BeThinking.
+
*Craig, Dr. William Lane (1986).  [http://www.leaderu.com/offices/billcraig/docs/miracles.html "The problem of miracles: a historical and philosophical perspective"].  ''Gospel Perspectives'', vol 6, ed. by David Wenham and Craig Blomberg (Sheffield, England: JSOT Press), pp. 9-40.  LeadershipU</ref>  Christian apologists [[William Lane Craig]], [[Norman Geisler]], [[C.S. Lewis]], [[JP Holding]], and others have shown the inadequacy and unreasonableness of Hume's position regarding miracles.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Lennox, John (2009).  [http://www.bethinking.org/are-miracles-possible/the-question-of-miracles-the-contemporary-influence-of-hume "The question of miracles: the contemporary influence of Hume"].  BeThinking. 
+
*Craig, Dr. William Lane (1986).  [http://www.leaderu.com/offices/billcraig/docs/miracles.html "The problem of miracles: a historical and philosophical perspective"].  ''Gospel Perspectives'', vol 6, ed. by David Wenham and Craig Blomberg (Sheffield, England: JSOT Press), pp. 9-40.  LeadershipU
+
*Hoffman, Paul K. (Spring 1999).  [http://www.galaxie.com/article/caj02-1-03?highlight=hoffmanA "A jurisprudential analysis of Hume’s ‘in principal’ argument against miracles" [excerpt&#93;].  ''Christian Apologetics Journal'', 2:1, p. 2.  Galaxie Software.  Subscription required for full article.
+
*Geisler, Professor Norman (1985).  [http://www.leaderu.com/truth/1truth19.html "Miracles and modern scientific thought"].  ''Truth Journal'', vol. 1.  LeadershipU
+
*Lewis, C. S. (1960).  [http://books.google.com/books/about/Miracles.html?id=tH8di3qQDhEC ''Miracles''] (New York:  HarperCollins).  Abstract: Google Books
+
*Holding, J. P. [http://www.tektonics.org/gk/hume01.html "David Hume: a critique"].  Tekton Apologetics.
+
*Esposito, Lenny (2002).  [http://www.comereason.org/phil_qstn/phi060.asp "Are miracles logically impossible?"]  Come Reason Ministries.</ref>
+
 
+
The ''Christian Post'' reporter Stoyan Zaimov wrote: "Double-blind prayer experiments: where people pray for others with terminal illness. [[Gary Habermas|Habermas]] admitted that most such experiments have not worked, but the three that he knows of that have indeed worked were cases of orthodox-Christians praying for the sick."<ref>[http://www.christianpost.com/news/christian-apologist-10-reasons-for-the-fall-of-atheism-106531/ Christian Apologist: 10 Reasons for the Fall of Atheism] by Stoyan Zaimov,'' Christian Post'', October 14, 2013</ref>
+
 
+
==== Atheists who believe in life after death ====
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and the supernatural]]
+
 
+
A survey involving 15,738 individuals found that 32 percent of Americans who identified themselves as agnostics and atheists believe in an afterlife of some kind.<ref>[http://www.theskepticsguide.org/one-third-of-atheists-agnostics-believe-in-an-afterlife Survey: 32% of Atheists & Agnostics Believe in an Afterlife], Skepticsguide.com</ref><ref>[http://relationshipsinamerica.com/religion/do-people-still-believe-in-life-after-death Do people still believe in life after death?], Austin Institute for the Study of Family and Culture Study</ref>
+
 
+
== Atheism and science ==
+
[[Image:Newton.jpg|alt=atheism quotes|right|thumbnail|200px|[[Isaac Newton]] wrote: "I have a fundamental belief in the [[Bible]] as the Word of [[God]], written by men who were inspired. I study the Bible daily. Opposition to godliness is [[atheism]] in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had many professors." See also: [[Atheism Quotes|Atheism quotes]] ]]
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and science]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and the suppression of science ===
+
 
+
See: [[Atheism and the suppression of science]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and the social sciences ===
+
 
+
See: [[Atheism and the social sciences]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and the foundation of modern science ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Christianity and science]]
+
 
+
The birth of modern [[science]] occurred in Christianized Europe.<ref>Bumbulis, Michael, Ph. D. (November 24, 1996). [http://www.ldolphin.org/bumbulis/#anchor5343749 "Christianity and the birth of science; The evidence; Clue #1. The founders/fathers of modern science were shaped by a culture that was predominantly Christian."]  Lambert Dolphin's Library.  Archived at Internet Archive on July 20, 2014.</ref>
+
 
+
[[Sociology|Sociologist]] [[Rodney Stark]] investigated the individuals who made the most significant scientific contributions between 1543 and 1680 A.D., the time of the [[Scientific Revolution]].
+
In Stark's list of 52 top scientific contributors,<ref name="Origins">Williams, Alex (August 2004).  [http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/1581/ "The biblical origins of science; a review of ''For The Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-hunts and the End of Slavery'' by Rodney Stark"], ''Journal of Creation'', vol. 18:2, pp. 49–52.</ref> only one ([[Edmund Halley]]) was a skeptic and another ([[Paracelsus]]) was a [[pantheism|pantheist]].
+
The other 50 were Christians, 30 of whom could be characterized as being devout Christians.<ref name="Origins" />
+
 
+
Sir [[Francis Bacon]], sometimes referred to as "the Father of Modern Science", wrote in his essay entitled ''Of Atheism'': "I had rather believe all the fables in the Legend, and the [[Talmud]], and the [[Koran|Alcoran]], than that this universal frame is without a mind."<ref name="bacon">Bacon, Francis (1601).  [http://www.authorama.com/essays-of-francis-bacon-17.html ''The Essays or Counsels, Civil and Moral, of Francis Ld. Verulam Viscount St. Albans''; "Of atheism"].  Authorama.</ref>
+
 
+
===Atheism and questions of origins===
+
 
+
:''See articles: [[Atheism and Evolution]]'' and [[Evolution as a secular origins myth]]
+
[[Creationism|Creationist]] scientists state that the [[First Law of Thermodynamics|first law of thermodynamics]] and the [[Second Law of Thermodynamics|second law of thermodynamics]] argue against an eternal universe or a universe created by natural processes and argue for a universe created by [[God]].<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Hergenrather, John (2004).  [http://www.creationencounter.com/space/lawsofscience.php "Evidences for God from space:  can laws of science explain the origin of the universe?"]  Creation Encounter.
+
*Thompson, Bert (2003).  [http://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=12&article=310 "So long, eternal universe; 'Hello beginning, hello end!'"]  Apologetics Press. 
+
*Brown, Dr. Walt (2008).  [http://www.creationscience.com/onlinebook/AstroPhysicalSciences14.html "Chapter 2: astronomical and physical sciences", p. 53.]  ''In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood'', 8th ed. The Center for Scientific Creation.</ref> See also: [[Atheism and the origin of the universe]]
+
 
+
A majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs [[methodological naturalism]] since [[World War II]] have had the worldview of atheism/agnosticism.<ref>
+
* Dr. Don Batten, [http://creation.com/a-whos-who-of-evolutionists A ''Who’s Who'' of evolutionists] ''Creation'' 20(1):32, December 1997.
+
* [[Jonathan Sarfati]], Ph.D.,F.M., [http://www.creation.com/content/view/3830 ''Refuting Evolution'', Chapter 1, Facts and Bias]
+
</ref>  [[Creation science|Creation scientists]] assert that the theory of evolution is an inadequate explanation for the variety of life forms on earth.<ref>Morris, Henry M., PhD. (January 2001). [http://www.icr.org/home/resources/resources_tracts_scientificcaseagainstevolution/ "The scientific case against evolution"].  Institute for Creation Research.</ref> The theory of evolution [[Social effects of the theory of evolution|has had a number of negative social effects]].
+
 
+
In addition, the current naturalistic explanations for the [[origin of life]] are inadequate.<ref>[http://creation.com/origin-of-life Origin of life] by Dr. Don Batten</ref>
+
 
+
=== Atheism and scientific community ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and science]]
+
 
+
*[[Scientists and belief in the existence of God]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and the origin of the universe|Atheist scientists and the origin of the universe]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheists and the National Academy of Sciences]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and scientific fraud and speculation ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and deception|Atheism and scientific fraud and speculation]]
+
 
+
==Atheism and mental and physical health==
+
 
+
:''See also:'' [[Atheism and health]] and [[Atheism and alcoholism]] and [[Atheism and negative emotions/thoughts]]
+
 
+
The is considerable amount of [[science|scientific]] evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism and some of the more significant findings are given below <ref>Multiple references:
+
*Mueller, Dr. Paul S. et al. (December 2001). [http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196%2811%2962799-7/fulltext "Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: implications for clinical practice"]. ''Mayo Clinic Proceedings'' vol. 76:12, pp. 1225-1235.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings website
+
*[http://www.spiritualityandhealth.duke.edu/index.php/research/research-library "Research library"].  Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health.
+
*McCullough, Michael E. et al. (2000).  [http://www.psy.miami.edu/faculty/mmccullough/Papers/rel_mort_meta.pdf "Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review"].  ''Health Psychology''. vol. 19:3. pp. 211-222.  University of Miami, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology website
+
*Casey, Professor Patricia (April 3, 2009).  [http://www.ionainstitute.ie/the-benefits-of-religious-practise/  "The psycho-social benefits of religious practise" [executive summary&#93;].  Iona Institute for Religion and Society [Ireland] website. 
+
*McCullough, Michael E. and Willoughby, Brian L. B. (2009).  [http://www.psy.miami.edu/faculty/mmccullough/Papers/Relig_self_control_bulletin.pdf "Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: associations, explanations, and implications"]. ''Psychological Bulletin'', vol. 135: 1, pp. 69–93.  University of Miami, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology website
+
*University of Colorado at Boulder (May 17, 1999).  [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/05/990517064323.htm "Research shows religion plays a major role in health, longevity"].  ScienceDaily. 
+
*Dervic, Kanita, et al. (December 2004).  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15569904 "Religious affiliation and suicide attempt" [abstract&#93;]. ''The American Journal of Psychiatry'', vol. 161:12, pp. 2303-8.  Abstract: National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Pub Med
+
*University of Warwick (December 2003).  [http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/2003/A/20037338.html "Psychology researcher [Dr. Stephen Joseph&#93; says spiritual meaning of Christmas brings more happiness than materialism"].  Scienceblog.
+
</ref> For more information please see: [[Atheism and health]]
+
 
+
=== Mayo Clinic and other studies ===
+
[[Image:Mayo-clinic-gondaoverview.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The prestigious [[Mayo Clinic]] found that
+
religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health and mental health outcomes.<ref name="Mueller">Mueller, Dr. Paul S. et al. (December 2001). [http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196%2811%2962799-7/fulltext "Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: implications for clinical practice"]. ''Mayo Clinic Proceedings'' vol. 76:12, pp. 1225-1235. Mayo Clinic Proceedings website</ref> See: [[Atheism and health]] ]]
+
The prestigious [[Mayo Clinic]] reported the following on December 11, 2001:
+
{{cquote|In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.
+
 
+
The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.<ref name="Mueller"/>}}
+
 
+
The [[Iona Institute]] reported:
+
{{cquote|A meta-analysis of all studies, both published and unpublished, relating to religious involvement and longevity was carried out in 2000. Forty-two studies were included, involving some 126,000 subjects. Active religious involvement increased the chance of living longer by some 29%, and participation in public religious practices, such as church attendance, increased the chance of living longer by 43%.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Casey, Professor Patricia (April 3, 2009).  [http://www.ionainstitute.ie/the-benefits-of-religious-practise/  "The psycho-social benefits of religious practise" [executive summary&#93;].  Iona Institute for Religion and Society [Ireland] website.
+
*McCullough, Michael E. et al. (2000).  [http://www.psy.miami.edu/faculty/mmccullough/Papers/rel_mort_meta.pdf "Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review"].  ''Health Psychology''. vol. 19:3. pp. 211-222.  University of Miami, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology website</ref>}}
+
 
+
===Atheism and suicide===
+
 
+
:''See also:''  [[Atheism and suicide]] and [[Atheism and depression]] and [[Hopelessness of atheism]] and [[Atheism, agnosticism and pessimism]]
+
 
+
Although there are recent studies relating to [[Atheism and suicide|atheism being a causal factor for suicide for some individuals]], an early proponent of atheism being a causal factor for [[suicide]] was the Reverend Dr. [[Robert Stuart MacArthur]].<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Dervic, Kanita, et al. (December 2004).  [http://www.adherents.com/misc/religion_suicide.html "Religious affiliation and suicide attempt" [summary&#93;]. ''The American Journal of Psychiatry'', vol. 161:12, pp. 2303-8.  Summary: Adherents.com. Website contains link to article at American Journal of Psychiatry website.
+
*Dervic, Kanita, et al. (December 2004).  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15569904 "Religious affiliation and suicide attempt" [abstract&#93;]. ''The American Journal of Psychiatry'', vol. 161:12, pp. 2303-8.  Abstract: National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Pub Med
+
*[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9507E2DC1131E033A25754C1A96F9C94659ED7CF "Atheism a cause of suicide; Dr. MacArthur preaches on the sin and cowardice of self-destruction"] (September 17, 1894).  ''New York Times'', p. 2.</ref> In 1894, the [[NY Times|''New York Times'']] stated the following in relation to atheism and suicide:
+
{{cquote|Dr. Martin urged that a great cause of suicide was atheism. It was, he said, a remarkable fact that where atheism prevailed most, there suicides were most numerous. In [[Paris]], a recent census showed one suicide to every 2,700 of the population. After the publication of Paine's "Age of Reason" suicides increased.<ref name="nytimes">[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9507E2DC1131E033A25754C1A96F9C94659ED7CF "Atheism a cause of suicide; Dr. MacArthur preaches on the sin and cowardice of self-destruction"] (September 17, 1894).  ''New York Times'', p. 2.</ref>}}
+
[[Image:Desperation_man.jpg‎ |thumb|left|200px|Atheists have higher suicide rates. See: [[Atheism and suicide]] ]]
+
 
+
The website Adherents.com reported the following in respect to atheism and suicide:
+
{{cquote|Pitzer College sociologist Phil Zuckerman compiled country-by-country survey, polling and census numbers relating to atheism, agnosticism, disbelief in God and people who state they are non-religious or have no religious preference...In examining various indicators of societal health, Zuckerman concludes about suicide:
+
 
+
"...According to the 2003 World Health Organization's report on international male suicides rates (which compared 100 countries), of the top ten nations with the highest male suicide rates, all but one (Sri Lanka) are strongly irreligious nations with high levels of atheism."<ref>http://www.adherents.com/misc/religion_suicide.html</ref>}}
+
 
+
For more information please see:
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and suicide]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and loneliness]]
+
 
+
*[[Hopelessness of atheism]]
+
 
+
[[File:Europe pol 2004.jpg|thumbnail|250px|right|According to the [[World Health Organization]]'s (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.<ref name=whoalc>[http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/alcohol-use/data-and-statistics "Data and statistics"] (September 2014 or bef.).  Health topics/Disease prevention/Alcohol use.  World Health Organization (WHO)/Regional office for Europe</ref>]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and alcoholism ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and alcoholism]]
+
 
+
At least 100 studies suggests religion has a positive effect on preventing alcohol-related problems, researchers Christopher Ellison, Jennifer Barrett and Benjamin Moulton noted in an article in the ''Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion'' on “Gender, Marital Status, and Alcohol Behavior: The Neglected Role of Religion.”<ref>[http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-briggs/charlie-sheen-circus-and-_b_836934.html The Doubled-Edged Sword of Religion and Alcoholism]</ref>
+
 
+
Atheists and atheistic cultures often have significant problems with excess alcohol usage (For more information please see: [[Atheism and alcoholism]]).
+
 
+
For example, as far as secular Europe, according to the [[World Health Organization]]'s (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.<ref name=whoalc/>
+
 
+
=== Atheism and illegal drug use and drug addition ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and drug addiction]]
+
 
+
Studies indicate that religious individuals are less likely to engage in illegal drug use than atheists/nonreligious.<ref>[http://www.christianpost.com/news/believers-consume-fewer-drugs-than-atheists-106266/ Believers Consume Fewer Drugs Than Atheists], ''Christian Post'', By Jim Denison, Christian Post Columnist, October 9, 2013|9:47 am</ref><ref>[http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131003093041.htm Believers consume fewer drugs than atheists], Science Daily, Date:October 3, 2013, Source: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Foerderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung]</ref><ref>Multiple references:
+
*McCullough, Michael E. and Willoughby, Brian L. B. (January 2009).  [http://www.psy.miami.edu/faculty/mmccullough/Papers/Relig_self_control_bulletin.pdf "Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: associations, explanations, and implications"] ''Psychological Bulletin'', vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 69-93.  Retrieved from University of Miami department of psychology website on September 10, 2014.
+
*Alternate source of abstract: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19210054 "Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: associations, explanations, and implications" [abstract&#93;].  Retrieved from PubMed.gov on September 10, 2014.</ref>
+
 
+
According to ''Science Daily'': "Young [[Switzerland|Swiss]] men who say that they believe in [[God]] are less likely to smoke cigarettes or pot or take ecstasy pills than Swiss men of the same age group who describe themselves as atheists. Belief is a protective factor against addictive behaviour. This is the conclusion reached by a study funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation.<ref>Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Foerderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung [Swiss National Science Foundation] (October 3, 2013).  [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131003093041.htm "Believers consume fewer drugs than atheists"].  Science Daily website/Science News.</ref>
+
 
+
=== Atheism and loneliness ===
+
[[File:Depressed man.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Secular societies commonly have significant levels of loneliness. See: [[Atheism and loneliness]] ]]
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and loneliness]]
+
 
+
Loneliness has been linked to many physical and mental health problems.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Gammon, Katherine (March 2, 2012).  [http://www.livescience.com/18800-loneliness-health-problems.html "Why loneliness can be deadly"].  Live Science website.
+
*Booth, Robert (October 12, 2014).  "Number of severely lonely men over 50 set to rise to 1m in 15 years", ''The Guardian''.</ref>
+
 
+
Compared to deeply religious cultures where an extended family and a sense of community often exists, secular countries [[Secular countries and loneliness|are often lonelier societies]]. In addition, numerous studies and other data indicate that atheists often have lower [[emotional intelligence]] and lower social skills (see: [[Atheism and emotional/intrapersonal intelligence|Atheism and emotional intelligence]] and [[Atheism and interpersonal intelligence|Atheism and social skills]]).
+
 
+
For more information, please see:
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and loneliness]]
+
 
+
=== Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism]] and [[Irreligion and unsportsmanlike conduct]] and [[Atheism and obesity]]
+
[[File:Basketball.jpg|left|225px|thumbnail|Numerous studies report that athletes to be more religious than non-athletes.<ref>[http://www.thesportjournal.org/article/strength-religious-faith-athletes-and-nonathletes-two-ncaa-division-iii-institutions ''Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions'']</ref>]]
+
''The [[Sport]]s Journal'' is a monthly refereed journal published by the United States Sports Academy.
+
A journal article appeared in the Sports Journal entitled ''Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions''. The article was submitted by Nathan T. Bell, Scott R. Johnson, and Jeffrey C. Petersen from Ball State University.<ref name="thesportjournal.org">[http://thesportjournal.org/article/strength-of-religious-faith-of-athletes-and-nonathletes-at-two-ncaa-division-iii-institutions/ ''Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions'']</ref>
+
An excerpt from the abstract of the journal article ''Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions'' declares:
+
{{cquote|Numerous studies report athletes to be more religious than nonathletes (Fischer, 1997; Storch, Kolsky, Silvestri, & Storch, 2001; Storch et al., 2004). According to Storch, Kolsky, Silvestri, and Storch (2001), four reasons may explain why religion interacts with athletic performance.<ref name="thesportjournal.org">[http://thesportjournal.org/article/strength-of-religious-faith-of-athletes-and-nonathletes-at-two-ncaa-division-iii-institutions/ ''Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions'']</ref>}}
+
 
+
{{See also|Atheism and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence}}
+
 
+
== Atheism and intelligence ==
+
[[File:Cerebellum.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Brain researchers have conducted a number of studies focusing on the differences between atheists and the religious. See: [[Atheism and the brain]] ]]
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and intelligence]] and [[Atheism and the theory of multiple intelligences|Atheism and Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences]] and [[Causes of atheism]]
+
 
+
Within various countries, standardized [[intelligence testing|intelligence test]] (IQ) scores related to the issue of atheists/agnostics vs. theists intelligence scores yield conflicting results.<ref>
+
*[http://www.doxa.ws/other/smarter.html "Who is smarter; are atheists smarter than Christians?  An examination of studies"] (2007).  Doxa: Christian Thought in the 21st Century.  Retrieved on October 29, 2014.
+
*[http://www.randalolson.com/2014/08/24/the-myth-of-the-smarter-atheist/ The myth of the smarter Atheist] by Randy Olson, Posted on August 24, 2014</ref>  Part of the problem is that social scientists use variant definitions of atheism.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Briggs, Dr. William M. (2013).  [http://www.strangenotions.com/atheists-higher-iqs/ "Do atheists really have higher IQs than believers?"]  Strange Notions.  Retrieved on October 29, 2014.
+
*Wright, Bradley (January 26, 2012).  [http://www.patheos.com/blogs/blackwhiteandgray/2012/01/how-many-americans-are-atheists-fewer-than-you-might-think/ "How many Americans are atheists? Fewer than you might think"].  Black, White and Gray.  Retrieved on October 29, 2014.</ref> See also: [[Atheism, intelligence and the General Social Survey]]
+
 
+
However, within individuals, families and societies irreligion/religion can have an effect on intelligence - especially over time (See: [[Atheism and intelligence]]).
+
 
+
For more information, please see:
+
 
+
*[[Intelligence trends in religious countries and secular countries]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and the theory of multiple intelligences]]
+
 
+
=== Study on emotional intelligence and religiosity ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and emotional/intrapersonal intelligence|Atheism and emotional intelligence]] and [[Atheism and social/interpersonal intelligence|Atheism and social intelligence]]
+
 
+
A 2004 study by Ellen Paek examined the extent to which religious orientation/behavior and found significant positive correlations were found between level of religious commitment and an individual's perceived [[emotional intelligence]].<ref>''Journal of Organizational Behavior'', Paek, Ellen (2006). "[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886906000961 Religiosity and perceived emotional intelligence among Christians". Personality and Individual Differences] (International Society for the Study of Individual Differences) 41 (3): 479–490</ref> See also: [[Atheism and emotional/intrapersonal intelligence|Atheism and emotional intelligence]]
+
 
+
According to the prominent brain researcher Antonio Damasio and other brain researchers, emotions play a critical role in high-level cognition and allow individuals to make better decisions.<ref>
+
*[http://intentionalworkplace.com/2012/03/15/how-emotion-shapes-decision-making/ How emotion affects decision making], The Intentional Workplace
+
*[http://people.hss.caltech.edu/~steve/bechara.pdf The role of emotion in decision-making: Evidence from neurological patients with orbitofrontal damage], Antoine Becharam, Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
+
*[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wup_K2WN0I When Emotions Make Better Decisions - Antonio Damasio] - short video
+
*[https://news.usc.edu/29569/Antonio-and-Hanna-Damasio-Receive-Honorary-Degrees/ News item about Professor Antonio Damasio], University of Southern California
+
</ref>
+
 
+
=== Brain studies of atheists ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and the brain]] and [[Religiosity and larger frontal lobes]]
+
 
+
Brain researchers have conducted a number of studies focusing on the differences between atheists and the religious (see: [[Atheism and the brain]] and [[Religiosity and larger frontal lobes]]).
+
 
+
== Atheism and women  ==
+
 
+
''see also:'' [[Atheism and women]] and [[Atheism and rape]] and [[Elevatorgate]] and [[Prominent atheists whose wives believe in the existence of God]]
+
 
+
[[File:2404429188 ea8f1fc48b.jpg|thumbnail|right|205px|Studies indicate that women tend to be more religious than men (See: [[Atheism and women]]). ]]
+
 
+
=== Recent studies ===
+
 
+
=== Atheist Alliance International analysis ===
+
 
+
In 2016, Atheist Alliance International (AAI) conducted an annually recurring atheist census project and found: "At the time of writing, the Atheist Census Project recorded that on average worldwide 73.2% of respondents were male. The result is consistent with other research... As such, the focus of many scholarly papers has been on seeking to explain this persistent observation."<ref>[https://www.atheistalliance.org/about-aai/position-statements/1206-aai-position-statement-gender-balance.html AAI Position Statement - Gender Balance]</ref>
+
 
+
==== Surveys by country ====
+
 
+
In November 2010, ''Discover'' magazine published survey results published by the World Values Survey which showed significant differences between the percentage of men and women who are atheists for various countries with men outnumbering women within the [[Atheist Population|atheist population]].<ref>Khan, Razib (November 18, 2010).  [http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2010/11/sex-differences-in-global-atheism-part-n/ "Gene expression; "Sex differences in global atheism, part N"].  Discover magazine website.</ref>
+
 
+
==== United States surveys ====
+
 
+
In 2015, ''BloombergView'' reported concerning the [[United States]]: "According to a much-discussed 2012 report from the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, ...women are 52 percent of the U.S. population but only 36 percent of atheists and agnostics.<ref name=agap>Carter, Stephen L. (March 27, 2015).  [http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2015-03-27/the-atheism-gap "The atheism gap"].  BloombergView website.</ref>
+
 
+
A 2009 article in LiveScience.com entitled ''Women More Religious Than Men'' reported: "A new analysis of survey data finds women pray more often then men, are more likely to believe in God, and are more religious than men in a variety of other ways...The latest findings, released Friday, are no surprise, only confirming what other studies have found for decades.<ref name=Britt>Britt, Robert Roy (February 28, 2009). [http://www.livescience.com/7689-women-religious-men.html "Women more religious than men"].  Livescience.</ref>  In 2007, the Pew Research Center found that American women were more religious than American men.<ref name=Britt/>
+
 
+
=== Atheism and sexism ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and sexism]]
+
 
+
Most atheists are politically on the [[leftist|left]] (see: [[Atheism and politics]] and [[Secular left]]).  Part of leftist ideology is [[feminism]]. However, there is a significant amount of [[misogyny]] among atheists (see: [[Atheism and women]]). 
+
 
+
For more information please see:
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and sexism]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and rape]]
+
 
+
*[[Sexual harassment at atheist conferences]]
+
 
+
*[[Elevatorgate]]
+
 
+
*[[Richard Dawkins and women]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism, polyamory and other immoral relationships|Atheist leaders and immoral relationships]]
+
 
+
=== Atheist feminism ===
+
 
+
See: [[Atheist feminism]]
+
 
+
== Atheism and marriage/relationships ==
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and marriage]] and [[Atheism and illegitimate births]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and rates of marriage in the United States ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and marriageability]] and [[Atheism and women]]
+
 
+
The Christian apologist Michael Caputo wrote: "Recently the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life has published its mammoth study on Religion in America based on 35,000 interviews... According to the Pew Forum a whopping 37% of atheists never marry as opposed to 19% of the American population, 17% of Protestants and 17% of Catholics."<ref name="marry"/>
+
 
+
[[Vox Day]] declared that according to the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) "more than half of all atheists and agnostics don’t get married."<ref name="marry"/>
+
 
+
For more information please see:  [[Atheism and marriageability]]
+
 
+
=== Atheist marriages ===
+
 
+
See: [[Atheist marriages]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and polyamory ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism, polyamory and other immoral relationships]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and divorce ===
+
 
+
See: [[Atheism and divorce]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and interfaith marriages ===
+
 
+
* [[Atheism and interfaith marriages]]
+
 
+
* [[Prominent atheists whose wives believe in the existence of God]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism and its inability to explain love ===
+
 
+
See also: [[Atheism and love]] and [[Atheism and forgiveness]]
+
 
+
From a [[Metaphysics|metaphysical]], moral and spiritual perspective, atheists have an inability to satisfactorily explain the existence of [[love]].<ref name="How do atheists define love">[http://www.strangenotions.com/atheists-love/ How do atheists define love?] by Dr. Taylor Marshall</ref><ref name="atheistforum.wordpress.com">[https://atheistforum.wordpress.com/2014/07/09/what-is-love-how-materialist-atheism-fails-to-have-a-satisfactory-answer/ What is love? how materialist atheism fails to have a satisfactory answer], July 9, 2014</ref>]
+
From a  moral, [[Metaphysics|metaphysical]] and spiritual perspective, atheists have an inability to satisfactorily explain the existence of [[love]].<ref name="How do atheists define love"/><ref name="atheistforum.wordpress.com"/>
+
 
+
=== Atheism and sexuality ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and sexuality]] and [[Atheism and romance]] and [[Atheism and fertility rates]]
+
 
+
Research shows that religious women (especially [[evangelicalism|evangelical]]/low-church [[Protestantism|Protestant]] women) are more sexually satisfied than irreligious women.<ref>The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States By Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, Stuart Michaels, page 115</ref><ref>[http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2008/11/25/the-christian-sexual-awakening.html Why Are Christians Having Better Sex Than the Rest of Us?] by Tucker Carlson, The Daily Beast, November 11, 25, 2008</ref><ref>[http://blog.getrelationshiphelp.com/2009/07/christian-women-have-more-sexual-fun.html Christian Women Have More Sexual Fun], Relationship Center in Springfield Missouri</ref>
+
 
+
A social science study also reports that Hispanic men are more sexually satisfied than other ethnic groups in the United States.<ref>The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States By Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, Stuart Michaels, page 114</ref>
+
Hispanics are known for their religiosity (See also: [[Western atheism and race]]).
+
 
+
In addition, the atheist and agnostic populations have sub-replacement levels of fertility (see: [[Atheism and sexuality]] and [[Atheism and romance]]).
+
 
+
== Atheism and race ==
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism, race and gender]]
+
 
+
=== Asian atheism ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Asian atheism]]
+
 
+
[[East Asia]], in particular what are often termed “Confucian societies.” It is likely therefore that the majority of the world’s atheists are actually East Asian."<ref>[http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2010/11/most-atheists-are-not-white/ Most atheists are not white & other non-fairy tales], Discover magazine</ref>
+
 
+
The current [[Atheist Population|atheist population]] mostly resides in East [[Asia]] (particularly China) and in secular Europe/Australia among whites.<ref>[http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/05/23/a-surprising-map-of-where-the-worlds-atheists-live/ A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live], By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey, ''Washington Post'', May 23, 2013</ref> See: [[Atheism and China]]
+
 
+
As noted above, China is experiencing an explosive growth of Christianity (see: [[Growth of Christianity in China]] and [[East Asia and global desecularization]]).
+
 
+
=== Western atheism and race ===
+
[[File:Sikivu Hutchinson.JPG|thumbnail|200px|right|Atheist Sikivu Hutchinson says that white atheists organizations generally focus on church/state separation and [[creationism]] issues and not on the concerns the less affluent African-American population faces.<ref name="washingtonpost.com">[http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/06/16/blacks-are-even-discriminated-against-by-atheists/ Atheism has a big race problem that no one’s talking about] by Dr. Sikivu Hutchinson, Washington Post June 16, 2014</ref>
+
 
+
Hutchinson also mentioned that church organizations significantly help poor African-Americans.<ref name="washingtonpost.com"/> See also: [[Atheism and charity|Atheism and uncharitableness]] ]]
+
''See also:'' [[Western atheism and race]] and [[Black atheism]] and [[Atheism and diversity]]
+
 
+
==== Atheism and race: United States and Europe ====
+
 
+
In 2015, ''BloombergView'' reported:
+
{{cquote|According to a much-discussed 2012 report from the Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, only 3 percent of U.S. atheists and agnostics are black, 6 percent are Hispanic, and 4 percent are Asian. Some 82 percent are white. (The relevant figures for the population at large at the time of the survey were 66 percent white, 11 percent black, 15 percent Hispanic, 5 percent Asian.)
+
 
+
...Craig Keener, in his huge review of claims of miracles in a wide variety of cultures, concludes that routine rejection of the possibility of the [[supernatural]] represents an impulse that is [[Secular Europe|deeply Eurocentric]].<ref name=agap/>}}
+
 
+
In the United States, blacks have the highest rate of religiosity.<ref>[http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/gallup-blacks-most-religious-group-us Gallup: Blacks Most Religious Group in U.S.]</ref> Among Hispanics, religion has traditionally played a significant role in daily activity.<ref>[http://www.diocesephoenix.org/old_site/fc/CatecheticalLeadership/ChurchDocs/UnderstandingtheHispanicCulture.pdf Understanding Hispanic culture]</ref>
+
 
+
In 2011, Beliefnetnews reported concerning the race and gender of American atheists:
+
{{cquote|From the smallest local meetings to the largest conferences, the vast majority of speakers and attendees are almost always white men. Leading figures of the atheist movement — [[Richard Dawkins]], [[Sam Harris]], [[Christopher Hitchens]] and [[Daniel Dennett]] — are all white men.
+
 
+
But making atheism more diverse is proving to be no easy task.
+
 
+
Surveys suggest most atheists are white men. A recent survey of 4,000 members of the Freedom from Religion Foundation found that 95 percent were white, and men comprised a majority.<ref>http://blog.beliefnet.com/news/2011/01/atheists-diversity-woes-have-n.php</ref>}}
+
 
+
== Atheism and education ==
+
 
+
*[[Religion and education]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheist indoctrination|Atheistic indoctrination and education]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and academia]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and academic performance]]
+
 
+
== Atheism and death ==
+
 
+
[[File:Atheism and death.jpg|thumbnail|200px|right|According to a study performed in the United States by researchers Wink and Scott, very religious people fear death the least.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*[http://www.world-science.net/exclusives/050628_deathfearfrm.htm "Fear of death: Worst if you’re a little religious?"] (July 13, 2005).  World Science.
+
*Wink, P. L. and Scott, J. A. (July 2005).  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15980288 "Does religiousness buffer against the fear of death and dying in late adulthood? Findings from a longitudinal study" [abstract&#93;].  ''The Journals of Gerontology, series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences'', vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 207-14. PubMed.gov</ref> See: [[Atheism and death]] ]]
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and death]] and [[Atheist funerals]] and [[Atheism and Hell]]
+
 
+
''Science Daily'' reported that ''Death anxiety increases atheists' unconscious belief in God''.<ref name="Otago">University of Otago [New Zealand] (April 2, 2012).  [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120402094322.htm "Death anxiety increases atheists' unconscious belief in God"].  ScienceDaily.</ref> In a ''Psychology Today'' article, Dr. Nathan A. Heflick reported similar results in other studies.<ref name="Heflick">Heflick, Nathan A. (May 25, 2012).  [http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-big-questions/201205/atheists-death-and-belief-in-god "Atheists, death and belief in God: The effects of death reminders on atheists' supernatural beliefs"].  Psychology Today website.</ref> Under stress, the brain's processing works in a way that prefers unconscious thinking.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*Ruhr University Bochum (August 9, 2012). [http://aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00263.html.en "Learn to forecast the weather after stress"].  aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de. 
+
*Gregoire, Carolyn (July 31, 2013).  [http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/31/learn-under-stress-brain_n_3678222.html "How the brain learns successfully, even under stress"].  The Huffington Post.</ref>
+
 
+
A United States study and a [[Taiwan]]ese study indicated that the irreligious fear death more than the very religious.<ref>Multiple references:
+
*[http://www.world-science.net/exclusives/050628_deathfearfrm.htm "Fear of death: Worst if you’re a little religious?"] (July 13, 2005).  World Science.
+
*Wink, Paul. and Scott, Julia. (July 2005).  [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15980288 "Does religiousness buffer against the fear of death and dying in late adulthood? Findings from a longitudinal study"].  ''The Journals of Gerontology. Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences'', vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 207-14. PubMed.gov.
+
*Wen, Ya-hui. (December 2010). [http://www.hraljournal.com/Page/4%20Ya-Hui%20Wen.pdf "Religiosity and death anxiety"]. ''The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning'', vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 31-37. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning website.</ref>
+
 
+
==== Atheists and belief in life after death ====
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and life after death]] and [[Atheists and supernatural beliefs]]
+
 
+
A significant percentage of atheists believe in life after death (see: [[Atheism and life after death]]).<ref>[http://www.theskepticsguide.org/one-third-of-atheists-agnostics-believe-in-an-afterlife Survey: 32% of Atheists & Agnostics Believe in an Afterlife]</ref>
+
 
+
For additional information, please see:
+
 
+
* [[Atheism and cryonics]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and transhumanism]]
+
 
+
==== Atheism and Hell ====
+
 
+
''See also:''  [[Atheism and Hell]]
+
 
+
The journalist and [[ex-atheists|ex-atheist]] [[Peter Hitchens]], who is the brother of the late atheist [[Christopher Hitchens]], said upon seeing an art exhibit of [[Michelangelo]]'s painting ''The Last Judgment'' he came to the realization that he might be judged which startled him.<ref name="PH">[http://vimeo.com/10354237 "Peter Hitchens author interview—The rage against God"] [interview of Peter Hitchens] (March 22, 2010).  Vimeo video, 8:38, posted by Gorilla Poet Productions.</ref> This started a train of thought within Peter Hitchens that eventually led him to become a [[Christian]].<ref name="PH"/>
+
 
+
== Claims about the conditionality and existence of atheism ==
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheists doubting the validity of atheism]] and [[There Are No Atheists In Foxholes|There are no atheists in foxholes]]
+
 
+
Hannah More wrote: "[T]he mind, which knows not where to fly, flies to God.  In agony, nature is no Atheist.  The soul is drawn to God by a sort of natural impulse; not always, perhaps by an emotion of piety; but from a feeling conviction, that every other refuge is 'a refuge of lies'."<ref>More, Hannah (1815).  [http://archive.org/details/anessayoncharac00moregoog ''An Essay on the Character and Practical Writings of St. Paul''], 5th ed., vol. 2 (London:  T. Cadell and W. Davies), p. 234.</ref>
+
 
+
=== There are no atheists in foxholes ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[There Are No Atheists In Foxholes|There are no atheists in foxholes]] and [[Atheists doubting the validity of atheism]]
+
[[File:Foxhole.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Reverend William T. Cummings is famous for declaring ''[[There Are No Atheists In Foxholes|There are no atheists in foxholes]]''.<ref>Multiple references:
+
* Taylor-Blake, Bonnie (September 24, 2006). [http://web.archive.org/web/20080617035633/http://listserv.linguistlist.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0609D&L=ads-l&P=15696 "'There are no atheists in [the&#93; foxholes'"]. Message posted to The American Dialect Society [Electronic] Mailing List, archived at ListServ 16.0. Archive at Internet Archive.
+
*Osborn, Neale (December 15, 2012).  [http://nealebooks.newsvine.com/_news/2012/12/15/15931810-there-are-no-atheists-in-foxholes "There are no atheists in foxholes..."]. Newsvine website/Neal Osborn.</ref>]]
+
Reverend William T. Cummings is famous for declaring "[[There Are No Atheists In Foxholes|There are no atheists in foxholes]]."<ref>[http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,792459,00.html "Milestones [excerpt&#93;"] (October 15, 1945).  ''Time''.  magazine website</ref> Chaplain F. W. Lawson of the 302d Machine Gun Battalion, who was wounded twice in wartime, stated "I doubt if there is such a thing as an atheist.  At least there isn't in a front line trench."<ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9905EFD91239E13ABC4D51DFB7678383609EDE "Tells of religion in army.  Chaplain Lawson says there are no atheists in front line"] (November 25, 1918).  ''New York Times'', p. 13.</ref> On the other hand, the news organization NBC featured a story in which atheist veterans claimed that there are atheists in foxholes.<ref>Breen, Tom (April 2, 2011).[http://www.nbcnews.com/id/42391558/ns/us_news-military/t/army-group-coming-out-atheist-closet/#.UbgMndihjSg "Army group 'coming out of the atheist closet'"] from NBCNews.com</ref>
+
 
+
Research indicates that heavy combat has a positive correlation to the strength of the religious faith in soldiers during the battles and subsequent to the war if they indicated their experience was a negative experience (for more information please see: [[There Are No Atheists In Foxholes|There are no atheists in foxholes]]).
+
 
+
Also, due to research showing that death anxiety increases atheists' unconscious belief in God, Dr. Nathan Heflick declared in a ''Psychology Today'' article, "But, at a less conscious (or pre-conscious) level, this research suggests that there might be less atheism in foxholes than atheists in foxholes report."<ref name="Heflick"/> Please see: [[Atheism and death]]
+
 
+
=== Denials that atheists exist ===
+
 
+
* [[Denials that atheists exist]]
+
 
+
== Global atheism in the 21st century ==
+
 
+
=== Global decline of atheism  ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and diversity]] and [[Atheism and culture]]
+
[[File: Blue Marble.jpg|200px|thumbnail|right|Atheism is in [[Global atheism|decline worldwide]], with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020.<ref name="cnsnews.com"/>]]
+
Atheists as a percentage of the world's population have declined since 1970 and global atheism is expected to face long term decline.<ref>
+
*[http://www.christianpost.com/news/study-world-is-turning-more-religious-atheism-declining-100518/ Study: World is becoming more religious]
+
*[http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2012/05/globally-worldviews-of-atheism-and-non.html Globally the worldviews of atheism and non-religious (agnostic) are declining while global Christianity is exploding in adherents]
+
*[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]
+
*[http://www.gordonconwell.edu/resources/documents/StatusOfGlobalMission.pdf Gordon-Conwell Seminary - Status of Global Mission, 2014, in the Context of AD 1800–2025]</ref>
+
 
+
On July 24, 2013, ''CNS News'' reported:
+
{{cquote|Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020, according to a new report by the Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Mass."<ref>[http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/global-study-atheists-decline-only-18-world-population-2020 Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020]</ref>}}
+
 
+
According to the ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]'', 2% of the world's population self-identifies as atheist and the average annual global change for atheism from 2000 to 2010 was −0.17%.<ref name="eb-2010">{{cite web|title=Religion: Year in Review 2010: Worldwide Adherents of All Religions|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1731588/Religion-Year-In-Review-2010/298437/Worldwide-Adherents-of-All-Religions|work=Encyclopædia Britannica Online|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.|accessdate=2013-11-21}}</ref> See: [[Global atheism statistics]]
+
 
+
=== Demoographics of atheism ===
+
 
+
[[Demography]] is the study of human populations, and is a major specialty in the disciplines of sociology, economics, history, geography, statistics and epidemiology.
+
 
+
*[[Demographics of atheism]]
+
 
+
==== Atheism and specific countries ====
+
 
+
*[[China and atheism]]
+
 
+
*[[French atheism]]
+
 
+
*[[British atheism]]
+
 
+
*[[American atheism]]
+
 
+
=== Atheism statistics ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism statistics]]
+
 
+
*[[Christianity vs. atheism statistics]]
+
 
+
=== Atheist movement and leadership ===
+
 
+
* [[Atheist movement]]
+
 
+
* [[Atheism and leadership]]
+
 
+
== Desecularization and its causes ==
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Desecularization]]
+
 
+
[[Desecularization]] is the process by which [[religion]] reasserts its societal influence though religious values, institutions, sectors of society and symbols in reaction to previous and/or co-occurring [[secularization]] processes.<ref>''Religion and the State in Russia and China: Suppression, Survival and Revival'' by Christopher Marsh, 2011, page 11 (Christopher Marsh cites the definitions of desecularization given by Peter L. Berger and Vyacheslav Karpov)</ref>
+
 
+
=== Atheism and sub-replacement levels of fertility ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and fertility rates]]
+
[[File:Jacques Berlinerblau.jpg|thumbnail|250px|left|In 2011, atheist [[Jacques Berlinerblau]] declared: "The Golden Age of [[Secularism]] has passed."<ref>Berlinerblau, Jacques (February 4, 2011).  [http://chronicle.com/blogs/brainstorm/obama-at-the-national-prayer-breakfast-raging-christ-fest-secular-wake/31816 "Obama at the National Prayer Breakfast"].  The Chronicle of Higher Education/Brainstorm blog.  Retrieved on May 29, 2015.</ref>]]
+
Michael Blume, a researcher at the University of Jena in Germany, wrote about the sub-replacement level of fertility among [[Atheist Population|atheistic populations]]: "Most societies or communities that have espoused atheistic beliefs have not survived more than a century."<ref name="scilogs.eu">[http://www.scilogs.eu/en/blog/biology-of-religion/2011-01-06/atheists-a-dying-breed-as-nature-favours-faithful-sunday-times-jan-02-2011-jonathan-leake-full-draft-version Atheist: A dying breed as nature favours faithful]</ref> Blume also indicated concerning concerning his research on this matter: "What I found was the complete lack of a single case of a secular population, community or movement that would just manage to retain replacement level."<ref name="scilogs.eu"/>  See also: [[Atheism and sexuality]]
+
 
+
On December 23, 2012, Professor [[Eric Kaufmann]] who teaches at Birbeck College, University of London wrote:
+
{{cquote|I argue that 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious.
+
 
+
On the other hand, the secular West and East Asia has very low fertility and a rapidly aging population... In the coming decades, the developed world's demand for workers to pay its pensions and work in its service sector will soar alongside the booming supply of young people in the third world. Ergo, we can expect significant immigration to the secular West which will import religious revival on the back of ethnic change. In addition, those with religious beliefs tend to have higher birth rates than the secular population, with fundamentalists having far larger families. The epicentre of these trends will be in immigration gateway cities like New York (a third white), Amsterdam (half Dutch), Los Angeles (28% white), and London, 45% white British.
+
<ref>[http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2013/04/97-of-worlds-population-growth-is.html 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious], Tuesday, April 30, 2013</ref>}}
+
 
+
At a conference Kaufmann said of religious demographic projections concerning the 21st century:
+
{{cquote|Part of the reason I think [[demography]] is very important, at least if we are going to speak about the future, is that it is the most predictable of the [[social sciences]].
+
 
+
...if you look at a population and its age structure now. You can tell a lot about the future.  ...So by looking at the relative age structure of different populations you can already say a lot about the future...
+
 
+
...Religious [[fundamentalism]] is going to be on the increase in the future and not just out there in the developing world..., but in the developed world as well.<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7vCDeKPRSo Eric Kaufmann - Religion, Demography and Politics in the 21st Century]</ref>}}
+
 
+
=== Secularism is exhausted and unconfident ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheist pessimism about the atheist movement]]
+
 
+
[[Eric Kaufmann]], an [[agnosticism|agnostic]] professor whose academic research specialty is how demographic changes affect religion/irreligion and politics, wrote in 2010:
+
{{cquote|Worldwide, the march of religion can probably only be reversed by a renewed, self-aware secularism. Today, it appears exhausted and lacking in confidence... Secularism's greatest triumphs owe less to science than to popular social movements like nationalism, [[socialism]] and 1960s anarchist-[[liberalism]]. Ironically, secularism's demographic deficit means that it will probably only succeed in the twenty-first century if it can create a secular form of 'religious' enthusiasm.<ref>[http://www.sneps.net/uploadsepk/JQR%20Demography.pdf Shall the religious inherit the earth? - Eric Kaufmann]</ref>}}
+
 
+
[[File:Edward Tabash 2013.jpg|thumbnail|right|190px|[[Eddie Tabash]] ]]
+
The American atheist activist [[Eddie Tabash]] said at the 2010 Michigan Atheists State Convention:
+
{{Cquote|In every generation there has been a promising beginning of a true vanguard movement that will finally achieve widespread public acceptance for nonbelief. Yet, in each generation there has been an ultimately disappointing failure to actually register the [[Naturalism (philosophy)|naturalistic alternative]] to supernatural claims in the public consciousness...<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iix6OjLH6aM Atheists Speak Up - Eddie Tabash]</ref>}}
+
 
+
In recent years, a number of notable atheists have expressed pessimism about the future of the [[atheist movement]] (see: [[Atheist pessimism about the atheist movement]]).
+
 
+
=== Causes of desecularization ===
+
 
+
*[[Causes of desecularization]]
+
 
+
*[[Decline of the secular left]]
+
 
+
=== Zero secularization rates in France and Protestant Europe ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[British atheism]]
+
 
+
In April 2010, Eric Kaufmann declared "the rate of secularisation has flattened to zero in most of [[Protestantism|Protestant]] [[Europe]] and [[France]]."<ref>[https://www.mercatornet.com/articles/view/shall_the_religious_inherit_the_earth/ Shall the Religious Inherit the earth] by Eric Kaufmann</ref>
+
 
+
''The Guardian'' published an article in 2017 entitled ''Nearly 50% are of [[Nones|no religion]] – but has [[UK]] hit ‘peak secular’?'' which declared:
+
{{Cquote|But, Bullivant told the Observer that the “growth of no religion may have stalled”. After consistent decline, in the past few years the proportion of [[nones]] appears to have stabilised. “Younger people tend to be more non-religious, so you’d expect it to keep going – but it hasn’t. The steady growth of non-Christian religions is a contributing factor, but I wonder if everyone who is going to give up their Anglican affiliation has done so by now? We’ve seen a vast shedding of nominal Christianity, and perhaps it’s now down to its hardcore.<ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/may/13/uk-losing-faith-religion-young-reject-parents-beliefs ''Nearly 50% are of no religion – but has UK hit ‘peak secular’?''], ''The Guardian'', 2017</ref>}}
+
 
+
=== Growth of evangelical Christianity in secular regions ===
+
 
+
*[[Growth of Christianity in China|Growth of evangelical Christianity in China]]
+
 
+
*[[East Asia and global desecularization]]
+
 
+
*[[Growth of evangelical Christianity#Evangelical Christianity and the developed world|Growth of evangelical Christianity in the developed world]]
+
 
+
*[[Collapse of atheism in the former Soviet Union]]
+
 
+
*[[Growth of Protestantism in Russia]]
+
 
+
=== Future of desecularization via the continued global resurgence of religion ===
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Growth of global desecularization]] and [[Atheism vs. Christianity]]
+
[[File:Birkbeck College, University of London.jpg|left|thumbnail|200px|[[Eric Kaufmann]] using a wealth of demographic studies, argues that there will be a significant decline of global atheism in the 21st century which will impact the [[Western World]].<ref>
+
*[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]
+
*[http://kitmantv.blogspot.com/2011/05/eric-kaufmann-shall-religious-inherit.html Eric Kaufmann: Shall The Religious Inherit The Earth?]
+
*[http://kitmantv.blogspot.com/search/label/atheist%20demographics Eric Kaufmann's Atheist Demographic series]
+
*[http://fora.tv/2010/09/05/Eric_Kaufmann_Shall_the_Religious_Inherit_the_Earth Eric Kaufmann: Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation]</ref>]]
+
Eric Kaufmann using a wealth of demographic studies, argues that there will be a significant decline of global atheism in the 21st century which will impact the [[Western World]].<ref>
+
*[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]
+
*[http://kitmantv.blogspot.com/2011/05/eric-kaufmann-shall-religious-inherit.html Eric Kaufmann: Shall The Religious Inherit The Earth?]
+
*[http://kitmantv.blogspot.com/search/label/atheist%20demographics Eric Kaufmann's Atheist Demographic series]</ref><ref>[http://fora.tv/2010/09/05/Eric_Kaufmann_Shall_the_Religious_Inherit_the_Earth Eric Kaufmann: Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation]</ref> In addition, Kaufmann argues that religious conservatism has a long term trend of rising and that their influence in the world will significantly increase.<ref>[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]</ref> Kaufmann is author of the book ''Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?''.<ref>[http://books.google.com/books/about/Shall_the_Religious_Inherit_the_Earth.html?id=nXVylycU2gQC Shall the religious inherit the earth by David Kaufmann]</ref><ref name="sneps.net">[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Early paper - Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]</ref> In the [[Western World]] due to immigration and the higher birth rates of religious people, Kaufman writes: "Committed religious populations are growing in the West, and will reverse the march of secularism before 2050."<ref name="sneps.net"/>
+
 
+
Kaufmann told a secular audience in Australia: "The trends that are happening worldwide inevitably in an age of globalization are going to affect us."<ref>[http://fora.tv/2010/09/05/Eric_Kaufmann_Shall_the_Religious_Inherit_the_Earth Shall the religious inherit the earth]</ref> Furthermore, Kaufmann also argues that secularization may reverse itself significantly earlier than 2050 in the West due to religious immigration and a religious population which is increasingly resistant to secularization in Europe.<ref>*[http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2012/08/european-christian-immigration-will.html European immigration will pour Christian creationists into Europe]
+
*[http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2012/08/the-future-of-european-darwinism-and_16.html The future of European Darwinism and atheism is bleak]</ref>
+
 
+
In addition, in the latter portion of the 20th century and continuing into the 21st century, the atheist movement has had lower confidence/morale due to various historical events/trends (see: [[Atheists and the endurance of religion]]).
+
 
+
==== Growth of desecularization in the 21st century ====
+
 
+
See: [[Growth of global desecularization]]
+
 
+
== Christian websites and other resources with a large focus on the topic of atheism  ==
+
[[File:TFT.JPG|thumb|right|200px|[[True Freethinker]] is a Christian apologetics website run by Ken Ammi which offers many [[Rebuttals to atheist arguments|refutations of atheism]].]]
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism vs. Christianity]] and [[Internet atheism]]
+
 
+
Five of the more notable Christian apologetics websites/blogs which have a large focus on the topic of atheism are: the [[Shadow To Light blog]], the [[True Freethinker]] website, the [[Creation Ministries International and atheism|Creation Ministries International resources on atheism]] and the [[Fixed Point Foundation]] website.
+
 
+
=== Freedom from Atheism Foundation ===
+
 
+
In 2012, the [[Freedom From Atheism Foundation]] (FFAF) was formed as an online interfaith civil rights group to provide support for victims of militant atheism, protect the rights of religious believers, and address the increasing amount of atheist intolerance around the world.  The groups many admins are all anonymous due to the large amount of hate mail, threats, and stalking  the site receives from militant atheists. 
+
 
+
As of July 2014 the group has [https://www.facebook.com/FFAF.International over 220,000 followers] and makes an average of 80 posts a week.  Along with tens of thousands of religious supporters, the group also found support from atheist author and biologist PZ Myers.<ref>http://freethoughtblogs.com/pharyngula/2014/05/09/i-support-the-freedom-from-atheism-foundation/</ref>  A May 2014 article in the ''Christian Post'' titled "Freedom From Religion? How About Freedom From Atheism?" profiled the Freedom From Atheism Foundation in greater detail.<ref>http://www.christianpost.com/news/freedom-from-religion-how-about-freedom-from-atheism-119389/</ref>
+
 
+
=== Online videos related to atheism  ===
+
 
+
*[[Atheism videos]]
+
*[[Creation vs. Evolution Videos]]
+
 
+
The [[Militant atheism YouTube channel]] has a collection of videos on militant atheism.
+
 
+
== Atheism and the media ==
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Atheism and the media]] and  [[Atheism and public relations]] and [[Atheism news]]
+
 
+
The Media Research Center released a study in 2008 reporting pro-atheism bias by major press outlets in the [[United States]].<ref name=mrc>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fTxORumTarg "Smoking gun proof that there is an atheist media bias"] (July 17, 2008).  YouTube video, 2:56, posted by Atheism Sucks!</ref>  The study found that 80% of mainstream media coverage of atheism was positive and that 71% of Christian-themed stories had an atheist counterpoint or were written from an atheist perspective.<ref name=mrc/>  The study is not surprising given the liberal bias [[Liberal bias|that commonly exists in the major media outlets]].
+
 
+
See also:
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and the media#Post 2010 drop in volume of atheism news stories|Drop in news stories about atheism]]
+
 
+
*[[Atheism and the media#Post 2010 the percentage of negative news stories about atheism has increased|Negative news stories about atheism]]).
+
 
+
== Causes of atheism ==
+
 
+
:''See main article: [[Causes of atheism]]'' and [[Atheism and hedonism]] and [[Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian]]
+
 
+
There are a number of psychological, societal, familial, economic and spiritual factors which cause atheism which have been proposed over the centuries.  Please see: [[Causes of atheism]] and [[Atheism and hedonism]].
+
 
+
==Notable atheists who became ex-atheists ==
+
 
+
''See:'' [[Ex-atheists]]
+
 
+
== Views on atheists ==
+
 
+
''See also:'' [[Views on atheists]] and [[Distrust of atheists]] and [[Atheism and social outcasts]] and [[Atheism and public relations]] and [[Atheophobia]]
+
[[File:Sam Harris-2010.jpg|thumbnail|250px|right|[[Sam Harris]] ]]
+
 
+
Sociological research indicates that atheists are widely distrusted in both religious cultures and nonreligious cultures.<ref name="USATodayviewsonatheists">[http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/religion/story/2011-12-10/religion-atheism/51777612/1 Study: Atheists distrusted as much as rapists]</ref><ref name="CPviewsonatheists">[http://www.christianpost.com/news/atheists-widely-distrusted-even-among-themselves-culturally-ingrained-uk-study-finds-160480/ Atheists Widely Distrusted, Even Among Themselves, UK Study Finds], Christian Post, 2015</ref><ref name="Independentviewsonatheists">[http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/anti-atheist-distrust-deeply-and-culturally-ingrained-study-finds-a6952276.html Anti-atheist distrust ‘deeply and culturally ingrained’, study finds], ''The Independent'', 2015</ref><ref>Edgell, Gerteis & Hartmann 2006</ref> 
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According to a study published in the ''International Journal for The Psychology of Religion'': "anti-atheist prejudice is not confined either to dominantly religious countries or to religious individuals, but rather appears to be a robust judgment about atheists."<ref name="Independentviewsonatheists"/> The study found that many atheists do not trust other atheists as well.<ref name="Independentviewsonatheists"/>
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=== Other topics related to views on atheists ===
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* [[Persecution of atheists]]
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*[[Atheophobia]] is a fear and/or hatred of atheism/atheists.
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== Atheism and culture: Art, architecture, music, poetry, dance and humor ==
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''See also:'' [[Atheism and culture]]
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Atheism has not produced any outstanding cultural achievements and it has had a negative effect on cultures (see: [[Atheism and culture]]).
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For additional information, please see:
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*[[Atheist art]]
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*[[Atheism and architecture]]
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*[[Atheist music]]
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* [[Atheist poetry]]
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*[[Atheism and dance]]
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*[[Atheism and humor]]
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== Atheism and homosexuality ==
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See:
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*[[Atheist actions against homosexuals]]
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*[[Atheism and homosexuality]]
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== Other well-known proponents of atheism ==
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''See:'' [[Famous atheists]] and [[Famous agnostics]]
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[[Image:nietzsche2.jpg|right|200px|thumb|[[Friedrich Nietzsche]] ]]
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*[[Diagoras of Melos]]
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*[[Friedrich Nietzsche]]
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*[[A. J. Ayer]]
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*[[Ludwig Feuerbach]]
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*[[Friedrich Engels]]
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*[[Sigmund Freud]]
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*[[Albert Camus]]
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*[[Ayn Rand]]
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*[[Madalyn Murray O'Hair]]
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*[[Paul Kurtz]]
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*[[John Gray (philosopher)|John Gray]]
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=== Well-known proponents of skepticism/atheism/agnosticism ===
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*[[David Hume]]
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*[[Bertrand Russell]]
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== Atheist organizations ==
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See: [[Atheist organizations]]
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==Atheism quotes==
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''See articles: [[Atheism Quotes]]''
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== Atheism news ==
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See: [[Atheism news]]
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== Recommended reading ==
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*[[Christian apologetics books on atheism]]
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== Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian ==
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* [[Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian]]
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*[http://creation.com/good-news Some good news]
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==See also==
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*[[Atheism articles]]
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*[[Atheism symbols]]
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*[[Essay: Atheism and evolution essays]]
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*[[Atheism and satanic deception]]
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*[[Second generation atheist]]
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*[[Conservapedia:Atheism Project|Conservapedia Atheism Project]]
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==External links==
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''see also:'' [[Atheism website resources]]
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'''General articles on atheism:'''
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* [http://creation.com/atheism Atheism] by [[Creation Ministries International]]
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*[http://www.wnd.com/2013/03/horrific-human-toll-of-militant-atheism-exposed/ Horrific Human Toll of 'Militant Atheism' Exposed: USSR's genocide against Christians largely ignored - World Net Daily]
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*[http://creation.com/atheism-agnosticism-and-humanism-godless-religions-questions-and-answers Atheism, agnosticism and humanism: godless religions] by [[Creation Ministries International]]
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*[https://www.bethinking.org/tag/atheism/page/all Atheism articles - Bethinking.org]
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*[http://www.truefreethinker.com/atheism True Free Thinker - atheism section]
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*[http://www.carm.org/atheism.htm Atheism] by [[Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry]]
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*[http://www.wnd.com/2017/04/former-atheists-case-for-christ-hits-big-screen/ Former Ateist's 'Case For Christ Hits Big Screen], 2017
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'''Prominent atheists:'''
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*[[Atheism and leadership]]
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*[http://www.thebestschools.org/blog/2011/12/01/50-top-atheists-in-the-world-today/ 50 most prominent atheists in the world today]
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'''Other articles on atheism:'''
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*[[Atheism articles|Atheism articles on various topical areas - External websites]]
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*[[Conservapedia atheism articles]]
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{{Nb Atheism}}
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== Notes ==
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{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
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[[Category:Atheism]]
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[[Category:Religion]]
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[[Category:Philosophy]]
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Revision as of 16:02, 24 September 2017

When debate is lost, slander becomes the tool of the loser.

Socrates

This website full of loathsome fundamentalist hatemongers has demonstrated this :)