Atheism and obesity

From Conservapedia
This is an old revision of this page, as edited by Conservative (Talk | contribs) at 08:13, 7 January 2013. It may differ significantly from current revision.

Jump to: navigation, search
Two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[1] According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[2]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[3]

Gallup declared concerning the study which measured the degree to which religiosity affects health practices: "Generalized linear model analysis was used to estimate marginal scores all five reported metrics after controlling for age (in years), gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, education (number of years), log of income, and region of the country... Results are based on telephone interviews conducted as part of the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index survey Jan. 2-July 28, 2010, with a random sample of 554,066 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, selected using random-digit-dial sampling."[4]

The Gallup study gives some insight into the above average health habits of the very religious and not necessarily the health habits of atheists. The reason is that the Gallup organization defines a non-religious as a person where "Religion is not an important part of daily life and church/synagogue/mosque attendance occurs seldom or never. This group constitutes 29.7% of the adult population."[5] While many Western atheists are non-religious, not all non-religious people are atheists.

Gallup further declares:

Very religious Americans make healthier choices than their moderately religious and nonreligious counterparts across all four of the Healthy Behavior Index metrics, including smoking, healthy eating, and regular exercise. Smoking is one area of particular differentiation between the very religious and less religious Americans, with the nonreligious 85% more likely to be smokers than those who are very religious.[6]

From a medical perspective, an obese person has accumulated enough body fat that it can have a negative effect on their health. If a person's weight is at least 20% higher than it should be, he/she is generally considered obese. If your Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 you are considered overweight.[7] If your BMI is 30 or over you are considered obese.[8] The term obese can also used in a more general way to indicate someone who is overweight.[9]

Obesity is positively associated with neuroticism, impulsiveness, and lower self-discipline.[10]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

Two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity, thus given the above cited Gallup research, it appears as if non-religious are more prone to becoming obese than very religious individuals.[11] The Bible declares that gluttony is a sin.[12] Furthermore, the Bible declares the physical body of Christians to be temples of the Holy Spirit.[13] Another example of strongly held religious beliefs affecting behavior in terms of the avoidance of sins and health problems is that religious upbringing and culture affects rates of homosexuality and there are a number of diseases which homosexuals have higher incidences of. For example, homosexuality is rare among Orthodox Jews and even the liberal researcher Alfred Kinsey noted the rarity of homosexuality within the Orthodox Jewish community.[14] Therefore, it is not surprising that many very religious Christians and other religious groups which incorporate healthy beliefs and practices within their religion would leave healthier lives.

Obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[15] In addition, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom.[16][17][18] In January of 2011, CNN reported: "People unaffiliated with organized religion, atheists and agnostics also report anger toward God either in the past, or anger focused on a hypothetical image - that is, what they imagined God might be like - said lead study author Julie Exline, Case Western Reserve University psychologist."[19] Of course, given the irrationality of atheism, it is not surprising that there are atheists who are angry at God who is morally perfect.[20] A high percentage of the founders and prominent leaders of the militant New Atheism movement have had problems with being overweight and anger may have been a causal factor in some cases (see: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight). Certainly anger cannot be ruled in terms of militant atheists, such as New Atheists, having problems with obesity (see: Theories of New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight).

In addition, Christians have good reasons to believe a hedonist lifestyle is a causal factor of atheism (see: Causes of atheism).[21] The Apostle Paul wrote that in the end times, men would be lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God (2 Timothy 3:1-4). In May of 2012, the World Health Organization reported that "Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980."[22] In 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight. Of these, over 200 million men and approximately 300 million women were obese.[23]

Atheism and Health

The prestigious Mayo Clinic found that that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.[24]

See also: Atheism and health and Atheism and mental health and Atheism and suicide

There is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism [25] (For more information, please see: Atheism and health and Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism).

In the journal article Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications, psychologists McCullough and Willoughby theorize that many of the positive links of religiousness with health and social behavior may be caused by religion's beneficial influences on self-control/self-regulation.[26][27]

The prestigious Mayo Clinic reported the following on December 11, 2001:

In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.

The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.[28]

The Iona Institute reported:

A meta-analysis of all studies, both published and unpublished, relating to religious involvement and longevity was carried out in 2000. Forty-two studies were included, involving some 126,000 subjects. Active religious involvement increased the chance of living longer by some 29%, and participation in public religious practices, such as church attendance, increased the chance of living longer by 43%.[29][30]

Sports involvement: Religious faith vs. atheism

See also: Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism

As noted above, two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[31] In order to perform at their best, athletes generally must be active and make good dietary choices.

The Sports Journal is a monthly refereed journal published by the United States Sports Academy. A journal article appeared in the Sports Journal entitled Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions. The article was submitted by Nathan T. Bell, Scott R. Johnson, and Jeffrey C. Petersen from Ball State University.[32]

An excerpt from the abstract of the journal article Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions declares:

Numerous studies report athletes to be more religious than nonathletes (Fischer, 1997; Storch, Kolsky, Silvestri, & Storch, 2001; Storch et al., 2004)...

Viewers of sporting events can frequently observe athletes pointing to the sky, engaging in team prayer on the court or field, and glorifying God following athletic competitions.[33]

Hong Kong Christians at Gateway Camp. In 2005, there were four times as many non-Western World Christians as there were Western World Christians.[34]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

Explosive growth of global Christianity

See also: Global Christianity and Atheist population and Atheism and health

Christianity is the world's largest religion and it has seen tremendous growth over its 2000 year history.[35] In the last fifty years, Christianity has recently seen explosive growth outside the Western World.[36] In 2000, there were twice as many non-Western Christians as Western Christians.[37] In 2005, there were four times as many non-Western Christians as there were Western World Christians.[38] Of course, a big reason for the explosive growth of Christianity outside the Western world was due to highly religious people propagating the Christian faith and there are now more non-Western missionaries than Western missionaries.[39] Besides non-Westerners often being less sedentary, non-Western diets are often healthier than the diets Westerners consume and there is significantly less obesity in those non-Western cultures.[40][41][42] Therefore, in recent history Christendom has seen a large influx of very religious people who live healthy lifestyles and have low levels of obesity.

Contents

American Atheists organization

Madalyn Murray O'Hair was the founder of the American Atheists organization and she was overweight.[43] One of the last pictures taken of Madalyn Murray O'Hair features her standing before a cake as can be seen HERE. As of December 28, 2010, the pictures of the members of the American Atheists organization's board of directors showed a significant portion of its members having excess body weight. [44] The pictures of the American Atheists board of directors can be found HERE.

Members of the American Atheists board of directors who are overweight as of December 28, 2010 included: Richard Andrews, Monty Gaither, Blair Scott and Ann Zindler.[45]

Picture of an overweight PZ Myers

PZ Myers

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

See also: PZ Myers' health issues and Internet atheism and obesity

A 2009 picture of a significantly overweight PZ Myers can be found HERE. A 2010 picture taken in Australia shows PZ Myers drinking ale/beer and he had excess weight in his abdominal area.[46] In 2010, PZ Myers had health problems related to his heart.[47] In addition, medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[48]

Given PZ Myers' biological training and the wide dissemination of the harmful health effects of being overweight in terms of cardiovascular health and brain function, it is unfortunate that preventative medicine was not used in greater measure in terms of his health.[49][50][51] PZ Myers' inattention to diligently implementing the recommendations of nutritional science, exercise science and medical science is not entirely surprising given his vehement advocacy of evolutionary pseudoscience. There have been a number of notable evolutionists who have been overweight. On June 1, 2011, Myers posted a picture of himself and others on his blog and Myers appeared to no longer have issues with being overweight.[52]

PZ Myers is a leader within the New Atheism movement. A significant amount of leaders within the New Atheism movement have problems with being overweight (see: New Atheism leadership's problems with excess weight).

Picture of PZ Myers with some of his young overweight fans

See also: Overweight atheist PZ Myers posing with some young overweight fans

In 2011, Christian apologist Vox Day had an individual complain about the notion that the atheist community has a problem with obesity. As a result, on May 19, 2011, Vox Day released a blog post entitled Mailvox: now, who said atheists are fat? where 80% of the people taking a picture with PZ Myers were overweight and PZ Myers was overweight in the picture as well as can be seen HERE.[53] The picture was originally posted on PZ Myer's blog Pharyngula by Myers on May 16, 2011 and an online argument quickly ensued concerning the appearance of the photograph's participants.[54]

During his visit to the Creation Museum, PZ Myers had noticeably greater difficulty than others climbing on and off a dinosaur model due to the fact that he was overweight and out of shape.VIDEO

PZ Myers' visit to the Creation Museum

In August 2009, PZ Myers led a group of over 300 atheist and agnostic students on a tour of the Creation Museum.[55] During the visit, Myers had noticeably greater difficulty than others climbing on and off a dinosaur model due to the fact that he was overweight and out of shape.VIDEO

PZ Myers in Toronto

A 2008 picture of PZ Myers meeting with people associated with the Center for Inquiry in Toronto can be found HERE


Please also see: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight

Picture of an overweight atheist Christopher Hitchens

Christopher Hitchens was a leader in the New Atheism movement. A picture of an overweight Christopher Hitchens can be found HERE (see also: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight).

Hitchen's heavy drinking and chain-smoking and esophageal cancer

Christopher Hitchens was known for having a history of heavy drinking and chain-smoking.[56][57] Christopher Hitchens was being treated for esophageal cancer likely caused by drinking and smoking up until his death on December 15, 2011.[58][59] Despite his esophageal cancer, when asked by interviewer Charlie Rose if in retrospect he would have engaged in heavy drinking and smoking knowing his present cancer condition, Hitchens said he think he would have done things the same.[60]

Hitchen's excess weight and increased risk of esophageal cancer

As noted above, Hitchens also had problems with being overweight during his life (see also: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight).[61] According to the National Cancer Institute, "obesity is associated with increased risks of cancers of the esophagus."[62]

Daniel Dennett - atheist philosopher

Daniel Dennett is an atheist philosopher and he is considered a leader in the New Atheism movement. A June 10, 2009 picture of an overweight Daniel Dennet can be found HERE In the late 1990s, Dennet had coronary artery bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass surgery reroutes blood around clogged arteries to enhance blood flow and oxygen to the heart).[63][64] Also, given that being overweight causes brain impairment and that Daniel Dennet has had issues with being overweight, it is ironic that Dennet's book Consciousness Explained is beloved by those who deny God in favor of a pseudoscientific naturalist philosophy of the mind.[65] [66][67]

Nate Phelps spoke at the 2009 American Atheists convention.[68]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement), Title: Nate Phelps AAC00 (a very brave man)

Victor J. Stenger

Victor J. Stenger (born 1935) is an American physicist, author and outspoken atheist. Victor Stenger is a leader within the New Atheism movement. A picture of an overweight Victor J. Stenger can be found HERE

New Atheism's leadership and problems with being overweight

see also: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight

The term New Atheism which first appeared in the November 2006 edition of Wired magazine, is frequently applied to a series of six best-selling books by five authors that appeared in the period between 2004–2008. These authors include Sam Harris, Daniel Dennett, Richard Dawkins, Victor J. Stenger and Christopher Hitchens.[69] 3 out of 5 of these leaders of the New Atheism movement have had issues with being overweight as can be seen HERE and HERE and HERE. PZ Myers is also a leader within the New Atheism movement and as noted earlier, Myers has had problems with being overweight. As of May 2011, Richard Dawkins and Sam Harris have not publicly commented on the significant problems the New Atheism leadership has experienced in terms of overweight members.

Hippocrates was an early advocate of the health benefits of exercise and also nutrition (see also: Nutritional science).[70] On the other hand, PZ Myers and a significant amount of other New Atheists leaders, seem to have demonstrated a lack of a full appreciation of the importance of nutritional science, exercise science and the latest findings of medical science (see: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight}.

There are a number of plausible explanations concerning the significant problems the New Atheism leadership has had with excess weight.

Richard Leakey

Richard Leakey is an anthropologist, evolutionist and atheist.[71] A 2008 picture of an overweight Richard Leakey can be found HERE. Other pictures of an overweight Leakey can be found HERE and HERE and HERE. In October 2010, he appeared to have a healthy weight.[72] However, a May 2012 picture of Leakey featured HERE in the USA Today had a picture of him where he was once more overweight.

Ed Brayton

Ed Brayton is an atheist blogger at freethoughtblogs.com. His blog Dispatches from the Culture Wars is a prominently featured blog at freethoughtblogs.com. He is also the co-founder and president of Michigan Citizens for Science and co-founder of the pro-evolution blog The Panda's Thumb.

Pictures of an overweight Ed Brayton can be found HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

A video of an overweight Ed Brayton at the Kitzmiller vs. Dover Area School District trail can be HERE. A video of the overweight American atheist Ed Brayton mocking the fit Christian martial artist Chuck Norris can be found HERE. According to Chuck Norris, most obesity in America is the result of hedonism (see: Chuck Norris on the topic of obesity). Other videos of an overweight Ed Brayton can be found HERE and HERE.

YouTube atheism

See also: Internet atheism

Chuck Norris endorses the Total Gym exercise system.[73]

In 2007, WorldNetDaily featured a column by the Christian Chuck Norris which declared:

Atheists are making a concerted effort to win the youth of America and the world. Hundreds of websites and blogs on the Internet seek to convince and convert adolescents, endeavoring to remove any residue of theism from their minds and hearts by packaging atheism as the choice of a new generation. While you think your kids are innocently surfing the Web, secular progressives are intentionally preying on their innocence and naivete.

What's preposterous is that atheists are now advertising and soliciting on websites particularly created for teens.

YouTube, the most popular video site on the Net for young people, is one of their primary avenues for passing off their secularist propaganda.[74]

Atheism internet outreach efforts, however, have been be very ineffective.

TheAmazingAtheist

As of August of 2012, the most popular YouTube channel run by an atheist is TheAmazingAtheist YouTube channel which has over 300,000 subscribers. TheAmazingAtheist YouTube channel is produced by an overweight atheist.[75] In one video, TheAmazingAtheist exclaimed "Why am I so fat?"[76]

On August 12, 2012, an article entitled Atheism: A religion of degenerates declared:

TheAmazingAtheists was caught on videotape doing something very perverse and unusual with chocolate syrup, coffee and a banana! The embarrassing episode was dubbed BananaGate. One of the last things TheAmazingAtheist needs in his residence is chocolate syrup given the abundant amount of flab which hangs over his belt... This is another example of atheism being a religion of foolish and depraved clowns.[77]
The article entitled Atheism: A religion of degenerates said of YouTube video creator TheAmazingAtheist and his recent scandal involving chocolate syrup, coffee and a banana: "One of the last things TheAmazingAtheist needs in his residence is chocolate syrup given the abundant amount of flab which hangs over his belt..."[78]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

HappieCabbie

As of September of 2011, the atheist who produces the YouTube channel HappieCabbie, which has over 28,000 subscribers, is also overweight.[79]

Internet atheism and obesity

See also: Internet atheism and obesity

As noted earlier, atheists are very active on the internet. In 2009, an Australian university study was done concerning the association between leisure time internet and computer use with being overweight and/or obese and also sedentary.[80] The study concluded: "These findings suggest that, apart from nutritional and physical activity interventions, it may also be necessary to decrease time spent in sedentary behaviors, such as leisure-time Internet and computer use, in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity."[81]

Greta Christina

Greta Christina is a popular atheist blogger at freethoughtblogs.com. In addition, she is a atheist speaker and author. A 2007 picture of an overweight Greta Christiana can be found HERE. She is in a same-sex marriage with a woman named Ingrid.[82]

See also: Lesbianism and obesity and Homosexuality and obesity

Video/pictures of an overweight atheist activist Michael Nugent

Michael Nugent is chairperson of the atheist group Atheist Ireland[83]

Picture of an overweight Taslima Nasreen

The atheist Taslima Nasrin is an author who is known for her feminist and anti-Islamic views.[84][85] Ms. Nasreen has been divorced three times.[86] A picture of an overweight Taslima Nasreen can be found here: HERE

Matt Dillahunty - a host of atheist TV show

Matt Dillahunty

Stephen Fry

The atheist Stephen Fry is a English screenwriter, author, playwright, comedian, and film director.[87] A picture of an overweight Stephen Fry can be found HERE and HERE In 2009, the Mail Online reported that Stephen Fry went from being "appallingly corpulent" to having a weight where he can "at last bear to look at himself in the mirror again".[88] However, in March of 2011, Stephen Fry appeared to be once again overweight.[89]

Also, in a January 30, 2012 interview with Charlie Rose, Mr. Fry also had excess weight.[90] In his interview with Charlie Rose, Mr. Fry said that as a young man he hated exercise and sports.[91] Besides being an atheist, Mr. Fry is a homosexual.[92] Traditionally, players in male core sports teams (e.g., football, baseball, basketball,and/or soccer) are more likely to have unfavorable views of homosexuality.[93] See: Homosexuality and obesity and Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism

Picture of an overweight illusionist and comedian Penn Jillette

See also: Conservapedia's reply to atheist Penn Jillette

Penn Jillette (born 1955) is an American illusionist, comedian, juggler, musician and writer. Penn Jillette is an atheist.[94] A picture of an overweight Penn Jillette can be found HERE and HERE

Tom Leykis

Tom Leykis is an atheist and American talk radio personality known for hosting the nationally syndicated The Tom Leykis Show from 1994 to 2009, and April 2012 to the present via (internet streamcast/podcast).[95] Pictures of an overweight Tom Leykis can be found HERE and HERE and HERE.

Nate Phelps

Nate Phelps[96][97]

Maryam Nazamie

The atheist Maryam Nazamie has had issues with being overweight as can be seen HERE and HERE and HERE.

Photo of an overweight Steve Wozniak (atheist/agnostic)

Steve Wozniak - co-founder of Apple Computer.[98] Wozniak wrote: "I am also atheist or agnostic (I don't even know the difference)."[99]

Richard Stallman

Richard Stallman is a software freedom activist and also a computer programmer. Stallman wrote that he was "an atheist".[100] Pictures of an overweight Richard Stallman can be found HERE and HERE and HERE

Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov was an American author, biochemistry professor st Boston University and an atheist . A picture of an overweight Isaac Asimov can be found HERE. Asimov had "a heart attack in 1977, and triple bypass surgery in 1983."[101] In 1992, the New York Times reported: "He died of heart and kidney failure, said his brother, Stanley."[102]

atheism
Kim Il Sung was a communist dictator and an obese atheist who died of a heart attack.[103]

(Source of photo of portrait can be found here, see: license agreement)

Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong was an overweight Chinese communist leader. On September 2, 1976, he had a serious heart attack and he died on September 9, 1976 in his sleep. Mao had been in a poor health for many years previous to his death.[104]

Kim Jong-un

Kim Jong-un is an overweight atheist communist dictator. [105][106]

Kim II Sung

The North Korean communist dictator Kim Il Sung was an obese atheist who died of a heart attack.[107]

Kim Jong-il

Kim Jong-il was an overweight atheist North Korean communist dictator.[108] Kim Jong-il died of a heart attack. [109]

Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev [110][111]

Leonid Brezhnev

Leonid Brezhnev was a communist dictator in the former Soviet Union and a picture of an overweight Leonid Brezhnev can be found HERE. Brezhnev had a "stroke in March 1982 and died of a heart attack in November".[112]

Georgy Malenkov

Georgy Malenkov - Soviet Union politician[113]

George Melly

In an article entitled George Melly's battle with cancer and dementia, the Daily Mail reported that Melly "smoked up to 60 cigarettes a day since his teens."[114]

(photo obtained from Wikimedia Commons, Description: George Melly, singing and smoking, Date: 1978-02-00, source: Own work, User: p.g. Champion see: license agreement)

Song writer and singer George Melly was an atheist.[115] A picture of an overweight George Melly smoking a cigarette can be found HERE.

On April 17, 2007, the Daily Mail reported that George Melly was battling cancer and dementia.[116]

In addition, the Daily Mail reported:

The first hint of problems came seven years ago, when George was diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This is nearly always caused by smoking - George has smoked up to 60 cigarettes a day since his teens.

The condition restricts airflow to the lungs, and the lack of oxygen in the bloodstream means there is not enough blood getting to the organs - most importantly the heart.

George ignored instructions to give up smoking but was put on a vast regime of medication, including diuretics to combat fluid build-up.[117]

Dara Ó Briain

Dara Ó Briain is an Irish comedian and he is an atheist.[118] A 2008 picture of an overweight Dara Ó Briain can be found HERE

Picture of an overweight atheist writer Carol Ann Duffy

Carol Ann Duffy, CBE,(born 1955) is a Scottish poet and playwright. Carol Ann Duffy is an atheist.[119] A picture of an overweight Ms. Duffy can be found HERE

Edmund White

Edmund White is a author, literary critic, homosexual and an atheist.[120][121] Photos of an overweight Edmund White can be found HERE and HERE.

Picture of an overweight atheist economist Walter Block

Walter Block is an atheist economist. A picture of an overweight Walter Block can be found HERE.

Atheist author Sir Kingsley William Amis

Sir Kingsley William Amis, CBE (16 April 1922 – 22 October 1995) was an English writer, critic and teacher. Amis was also an atheist.[122] Kingsley Amis was a serial adulterer and drunkard.[123] Sir Kingsley Amis wrote in a memoir: "Now and then I become conscious of having the reputation of being one of the great drinkers, if not one of the great drunks, of our time".[124] A picture of an overweight Sir Kingsley Amis can be found HERE

Overweight atheist origin of life researcher Aleksandr Oparin

Atheist origin of life researcher Aleksandr Oparin

A picture of overweight atheist origin of life researcher Aleksandr Oparin can be found HERE. A biography of Oparin declares: "Ill health dogged Oparin in his final years, and his death in 1980 was probably the result of a heart attack."[125]

Feminist and atheist Rosika Schwimmer

Rosika Schwimmer (1877–1948) was a Hungarian-born feminist and pacifist. Rosika Schwimmer was an atheist.[126] A picture of an overweight Rosika Schwimmer can be found HERE

Marquis de Sade experienced grotesque obesity during his life

The perverse and cruel atheist Marquis de Sade experienced grotesque obesity during his life.[127] The French atheist Marquis de Sade wrote sadomasochistic novels which featured rape, bestiality and necrophilia (see Atheism and bestiality).

Paul-Henri Thiry

Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723 - 1789) was an early advocate of atheism in Europe and he was overweight. Artwork of an overweight Paul-Henri Thiry can be found HERE

Beth Ditto is a singer who is a lesbian and an atheist.[128][129]

See picture source and license agreement

Beth Ditto

Beth Ditto is a singer. She is also a lesbian and an atheist.[130][131] A 2007 picture of an overweight Beth Ditto is available HERE.

Atheism, homosexuality and obesity

See also: Homosexuality and obesity and Lesbianism and obesity

The Bible declares homosexuality to be a sin (see: Homosexuality and the Bible).

The journalist Peter LaBarbera wrote: "Anyone who has researched the subject of homosexuality knows that many of the most staunch advocates of homosexuality are those who hold a decidedly secular outlook."[132] The Bible is against homosexuality (see: Homosexuality and the Bible). See also: Homosexuality and Religious Liberty

Peter LaBarbera also declared:

The National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys are given to high schoolers, and the Centers for Disease Control looked at the data from 2001 to 2009 in the states of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin and the cities of Boston, Chicago, Milwaukee, New York City, San Francisco and San Diego, locales where the schools permitted questions about homosexual identity/behavior, which isn’t always the case in less “progressive” areas.

Teens who called themselves “gay, lesbian or bisexual,” or who were unsure, as well as those who didn’t use those labels but had sexual contact only with same-sex people or with both sexes, were found to be more likely than heterosexually identified students to engage in seven out of the 10 risk behavior categories. These were: 1) behaviors that contribute to violence; 2) behaviors related to attempted suicide; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol use; 5) other drug use; 6) sexual behaviors; and 7) weight management. (emphasis added)[133]

See also: Homosexuality and health and Homosexual Couples and Domestic Violence and Homosexuality and murders and Homosexuality and Illegal Drug Use and Mental Health and Homosexuality and Homosexuality and smoking and Homosexuality Statistics

Lesbianism and obesity

See also: Lesbianism and obesity and Homosexuality and obesity and Atheism and marriage

Lesbians have significantly higher rates of obesity.[134]

In April of 2007, the American Journal of Public Health analyzed data from 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the data suggested that American lesbian women were 2.69 times more likely to be overweight and 2.47 times more likely to be obese than all other female sexual orientation groups. [135] The abstract for this study indicated that "lesbians are at greater risk for morbidity and mortality linked to overweight and obesity." [135]

Stephen Fry is a homosexual and an atheist.

(photo obtained from Wikimedia Commons, see license agreement)

Chubby subculture among male homosexuals

See also: Homosexuality and obesity and Atheism and marriage

Within the male homosexuality community, there is a subculture of overweight/obese homosexuals which is called the chubby culture (an overweight male homosexual within this subculture is called a "chub").[136]

Atheism, homosexuality, sin and obesity

Since the Bible declares gluttony and homosexuality to be sins, no doubt there are obese people and/or homosexuals who reject Christianity, despite the abundant evidence for Christianity, and decide to become or remain atheists rather than repent and become Christians.

Evolutionists who have had problems with being overweight

See also: Professor PZ Myers fails his applied biology course - satire

Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists.[137]

A list of evolutionists who who have had problems with being overweight and/or obese can be found here:

Evolutionists who have had problems with being overweight and/or obese

As alluded to earlier, given the pseudoscientific nature of the evolutionary paradigm, it not surprising that overweight and obese prominent evolutionists have ignored or taken lightly the recommendations of medical science in terms of the harmful effects of being overweight (see also: Evolution, Liberalism, Atheism, and Irrationality).

Creation Ministries International points out that some evolutionists unreasonably claim that human evolution supposedly has contributed to obesity.[138]

Michigan State University overweight, atheist professor incident

On October 1, 2012, an overweight, atheist Michigan State University professor stripped naked except for his socks during one of his university classes, declared there was no God, screamed, shouted an obscenity, slammed his hands against the window and pressed his face to the window and then was taken away by police.[139][140] See also: Atheism and mental health

Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism

See also: Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism and Atheism and health and Atheism and depression

As noted earlier, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom (see also: Atheism and depression).[141][142][143] In addition, obesity is positively associated with neuroticism, impulsiveness, and lower self-discipline.[144][145][146][147]

The Mayo Clinic found that that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health and mental outcomes.[148]

(photo obtained from Wikimedia Commons, see: license agreement)

Concerning atheism and mental and physical health, as noted earlier, there is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism.

As noted previously, the Mayo Clinic reported the following on December 11, 2001:

In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.

The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.[149]

In December of 2003, the University of Warwick reported:

Dr. Stephen Joseph, from the University of Warwick, said: "Religious people seem to have a greater purpose in life, which is why they are happier. Looking at the research evidence, it seems that those who celebrate the Christian meaning of Christmas are on the whole likely to be happier.[150]
Atheists have higher rates of suicide than the general population. Please see: Atheism and suicide

Duke University has established the Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health.[151] The Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health is based in the Center for Aging at Duke and gives opportunities for scholarly trans-disciplinary conversation and the development of collaborative research projects.[152] In respect to the atheism and mental and physical health, the center offers many studies which suggest that theism is more beneficial than atheism.[153]

Atheism, obesity and self-esteem

See also: Atheism and self-esteem and Atheism, obesity and self-esteem and Atheism and depression and Atheism and suicide and Atheism, uncharitableness and depression

There are preliminary studies indicating that individuals who reject Christianity in Western cultures have lower self-esteem than the Christian population.[154][155] In addition, obese individuals can have lower self-esteem related to their obesity.[156] In the United States, obese people are often stereotyped as being "lazy, lacking self-discipline and being mentally slow".[157] In March of 2011, USA News and World Report declared that an Arizona State University study suggests that fat stigma has gone global.[158] In addition, parts of the world that once viewed being overweight favorably now hold negative views concerning having extra pounds and also hold negative views concerning overweight individuals.[159] Poor self-esteem has been linked to an increase in suicide attempts and atheists have higher rates of suicide than the general population.[160][161][162] Obese atheists likely have higher rates of suicide than the general public.

In the United States, studies indicate significantly more women find atheism unappealing and that the marriage rate for the atheist population is significantly lower than the general population.[163][164][165] In addition, leading atheist websites in the English speaking world receive significantly less web traffic from women according to major web traffic tracking companies.[166]

Atheism, gender, obesity and marriageability

See also: Atheism and marriage and Atheism and women and Atheism, marriage and suicide

Atheism and rates of marriage in the United States

Christian apologist Michael Caputo wrote:

Recently the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life has published its mammoth study on Religion in America based on 35,000 interviews. According to the Pew Forum a whopping 37% of atheists never marry as opposed to 19% of the American population, 17% of Protestants and 17% of Catholics.[167]

Vox Day declared that according to the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) "more than half of all atheists and agnostics don’t get married."[168]

Obese atheists and marriageability

See also: Atheism and marriage and Atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women

According to the abstract for a paper presented at the 2004 annual meeting of the American Sociological Association: "Obese individuals have fewer dating opportunities, marry later and marry less desirable partners."[169]

Studies indicate that atheists are a minority in the population. Studies also indicate that people tend to marry people with similar values or who resemble their parents or themselves.[170][171] In addition, the Bible teaches Christians not to marry a non-Christian (The Bible also teaches a believer to stay married to a non-believer if you are already married).[172] Also, interfaith marriages often have greater marital friction and interfaith marriages historically have had higher rates of divorce.[173] Therefore, it would not be surprising if obese atheists find it more difficult to find marriage partners and if atheist/theist marriages also have increased marital friction and higher rates of divorce since these two worldviews are so different.

Obese male atheists and marriageability

See also: Atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women and Atheism and marriage

Survey data and website tracking data of prominent atheists' websites indicate that in the Western World, atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women.[174][175][176] Studies also indicate that atheists are a minority in the population.

In September 26, 2008, The Telegraph reported concerning the English population:

The proportion of adults in England who are an unhealthy size has soared over the past 15 years with one in four now seriously overweight.

There have always been more obese women than men but the gap between the genders has now been cancelled out.

In addition, the number of overweight women has fallen in recent years while the number of morbidly obese men is rising sharply.[177]

Given that atheism appears to be significantly less appealing to women, obesity reduces one's marriageability, atheists are a minority in the population and that people tend to marry people with similar values or who resemble their parents or themselves as noted above; this would suggest that obese male atheists may find it more difficult to find prospective female partners for marriage. And of course, militant atheism might make matters even more difficult.

Physical and mental health related problems associated with obesity

See also: Atheism and health and Physical and mental health related problems associated with obesity

Some of the medical conditions associated with obesity include: type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and triglycerides, coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, arthritis, cancer, sleep apnea, reproductive problems in women and varicose veins.[178] In addition, medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[179]

Medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[180]

According to the Mayo Clinic some of the symptoms associated with obesity can include:

  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Snoring
  • Sleep apnea
  • Pain in your back or joints
  • Excessive sweating
  • Always feeling hot
  • Rashes or infection in folds of your skin
  • Feeling out of breath with minor exertion
  • Daytime sleepiness or fatigue

Other problems associated with obesity include:

  • Infertility problems in men and men.[182]
  • Feet/ankles problems: According to Stuart D. Miller, M.D.: "It is important for the public to know that obesity isn't just an aesthetic issue, but a contributing cause of musculoskeletal health problems, specifically with the feet and ankles."[183]
  • Lower levels of balance recovery and increased risk of falls: In her thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, entitled A modeling investigation of obesity and balance recovery, Sara Louise Matrangola writes in the abstract: "Obesity is associated with an increased risk of falls and subsequent injury. Previous studies have shown weight loss and strength training to be beneficial to balance, but knowing which is more beneficial will allow researchers to design interventions to maximize the benefits in terms of balance and reducing risk of falls."[184]

Obesity and Alzheimer's disease

A PET scan of the brain of an individual with Alzheimer's disease reveals a loss of function in the temporal lobe.

See also: Obesity and Alzheimer's disease

In 2005, WebMD published:

People with diabetes are at particularly high risk of Alzheimer's disease. But now there's strong evidence that people with high insulin levels -- long before they get diabetes -- already are on the road to Alzheimer's disease.

As the body becomes more and more overweight, it becomes more and more resistant to the blood-sugar-lowering effects of insulin. To counter this insulin resistance, the body keeps making more insulin...

Insulin Triggers Amyloid Buildup

High insulin levels are known to cause blood vessels to become inflamed....

One dangerous effect of this insulin-caused brain inflammation is increased brain levels of beta-amyloid. Beta-amyloid is the twisted protein that's the main ingredient in the sticky plaques that clog the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease.

"What was striking was the magnitude of the effect," Craft tells WebMD. "Inflammation can be a result of amyloid elevations but can also create an environment in which amyloid is made more readily. Inflammation can be both the result and cause of amyloid production."[185]

A 2009 health report on a medical study indicated:

They compared the brain scan of 94 people in their 70s who were obese & overweight. They found that the obese had lost tissue in the frontal & temporal lobes areas critical for planning & memory. Declines were also seen in areas used for attention & executive functions, long term memory & movement

A neurologist Professor Paul Thompson said, “That's a big loss of tissue and it depletes your cognitive reserves, putting you at much greater risk of Alzheimer's and other diseases that attack the brain. But you can greatly reduce your risk for Alzheimer's if you can eat healthily and keep your weight under control.”M[186]

Health effects of Alzheimer's disease

See also: Effects of Alzheimer's disease on the brain

Odds of Developing Alzheimer's.png

Alzheimer's disease is "characterised by loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions. This loss results in gross atrophy of the affected regions, including degeneration in the temporal lobe and parietal lobe, and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.[187] Some of the primary symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are: memory problems, mood swings, emotional outbursts, brain stem damage which impairs function in the heart, lungs plus causes disruption of various other bodily processes.[188]

An abstract of the medical study entitled Measures to Assess the Noncognitive Symptoms of Dementia in the Primary Care Setting by Brent P. Forester, M.D. and Thomas E. Oxman, M.D. inidcated "Noncognitive symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias include psychosis, mood disturbances, personality changes, agitation, aggression, pacing, wandering, altered sexual behavior, changed sleep patterns, and appetite disturbances. These noncognitive symptoms of dementia are common, disabling to both the patient and the caregiver, and costly."[189]

According to the Center for Neuro Skills:

Kolb & Wishaw (1990) have identified eight principle symptoms of temporal lobe damage: 1) disturbance of auditory sensation and perception, 2) disturbance of selective attention of auditory and visual input, 3) disorders of visual perception, 4) impaired organization and categorization of verbal material, 5) disturbance of language comprehension, 6) impaired long-term memory, 7) altered personality and affective behavior, 8) altered sexual behavior.[190]

Obesity, dementia, Alzheimer's disease and prevention

For more information please see: Alzheimer's disease and prevention

Weili Xu, a researcher at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, declared: "Our results contribute to the growing evidence that controlling body weight or losing weight in middle age could reduce your risk of dementia".[191]

For more information see: Alzheimer's disease and prevention

Irreligion and undisciplined pseudoscientific thinking

The Wall Street Journal reported: "A comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows ...that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians."[192]

For more information please see: Irreligion and superstition and Atheism and morality

Science through the disciplines of nutritional science, exercise science and medical science provides a wealth of information on how to avoid obesity and how to achieve a healthy weight. Also, as noted earlier, obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[193] Furthermore, as mentioned earlier, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom.[194][195][196] In addition, no doubt some godless people have difficulty resisting the sins/temptations of gluttony and sloth. As far as prevailing over temptation, the Bible teaches that one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit is self-control (Galatians 5: 23).

In September of 2008, the Wall Street Journal reported:

The reality is that the New Atheist campaign, by discouraging religion, won't create a new group of intelligent, skeptical, enlightened beings. Far from it: It might actually encourage new levels of mass superstition. And that's not a conclusion to take on faith -- it's what the empirical data tell us.

"What Americans Really Believe," a comprehensive new study released by Baylor University yesterday, shows that traditional Christian religion greatly decreases belief in everything from the efficacy of palm readers to the usefulness of astrology. It also shows that the irreligious and the members of more liberal Protestant denominations, far from being resistant to superstition, tend to be much more likely to believe in the paranormal and in pseudoscience than evangelical Christians....

This is not a new finding. In his 1983 book "The Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener," skeptic and science writer Martin Gardner cited the decline of traditional religious belief among the better educated as one of the causes for an increase in pseudoscience, cults and superstition. He referenced a 1980 study published in the magazine Skeptical Inquirer that showed irreligious college students to be by far the most likely to embrace paranormal beliefs, while born-again Christian college students were the least likely.[197]

The notions of extraterrestrial life and UFOlogy are fast growing pseudoscientific religions perpetuated and/or aided by evolutionists, atheists, liberals and other promoters of quackery.[198][199] However, the ideologies of UFOlogy, extraterrestrial life, exobiology, evolution and abiogenesis are anti-biblical ideas which are not supported by sound science. [200][201] Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists.[202]

The agnostic and liberal Carl Sagan, an avid smoker of marijuana who claimed that marijuana gave him scientific insights, was a prominent peddler of extraterrestial life, evolution and other pseudoscientific nonsense.

No doubt pseudoscientific and superstitious thinking in many cases is partly due to a lack of self-discipline as rigorous scientific and logical thinking requires disciplined thought..[203]

Irreligious/atheistic France and the Soviet Union and UFOlogy

Astronomer Dr. Hugh Ross states that ninety-nine percent of what people have told him were UFOs, experienced astronomers can identify as a star, cluster, or other object in the night sky. The 1 percent of sightings, which he calls residual UFOs, have attracted his attention. [204] According to Dr. Ross very few astronomers have seen "residual UFOs".[204]

The following Toledo Blade newspaper excerpt[204] summarizes Dr. Ross's findings:

In 1969, however, Dr. Ross met two astronomers who were having regular UFO encounters. Both also happened to be involved in occult activity.

Upon investigation, Dr. Ross consistently found a connection between occult involvement and residual UFO encounters. For example, he said, countries with a high degree of occult activity such as Russia during the Soviet era, France, and certain parts of Brazil also had high percentages of UFO encounters. During Russia's Soviet period when every expression of religion except occult activity had been outlawed, he said, “Russians were seeing UFOs at five to eight times the rate Americans were.

Christian and Library of Congress researcher's explanations of reports of UFOs

Christian apologists who reject naturalistic explanations of life such as the theory of evolution argue that difficult to explain UFOs are spiritual in nature and not amenable to naturalistic explanation.[205] Gary Bates of Creation Ministries International wrote a book entitled Alien Intrusion which gives a biblical Christian perspective on the unscientific notions of extraterrestial life and UFUlogy.[206]

Lynn Cato, senior bibliographer for the library of Congress, created a 1600 entry on UFO bibliography for the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research. After a two year investigation, in which she reviewed thousands of documents, Catoe stated:

A large part of the available UFO literature...deals with subjects like mental telepathy, automatic writing and invisible entities...poltergeist manifestations and 'possession'....Many of the UFO reports now being published in the popular press recount alleged incidents that are strikingly similar to demonic possession and psychic phenomenon which have long been known to theologians and parapsychologists.[207][208]

Prominent UFO researcher John Keel concurred. After surveying the literature on demonology Keel declared:[208]

The manifestations and occurrences described in this imposing literature are similar if not entirely identical to the UFO phenomenon itself.

Implications of explosive growth of global Christianity plus health benefits of religious practice

see also: Atheist population and Atheism and health

In 2011, the American Spectator citing research published in the International Bulletin of Missionary Research reported that atheism is on the decline as a whole in terms of adherents.[209]

The American Spectator declared:

The report estimates about 80,000 new Christians every day, 79,000 new Muslims every day, and 300 fewer atheists every day. These atheists are presumably disproportionately represented in the West, while religion is thriving in the Global South, where charismatic Christianity is exploding."[210]

For more information please see: Atheism and health

The Apostle Paul on the sin of gluttony

"One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said, 'Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.'" - Apostle Paul, (Titus 1:12 NASB)

"Whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things." - Apostle Paul, (Philippians 3:19 KJV)

Chuck Norris on the topic of obesity

See also: Chuck Norris on the topic of obesity

Chuck Norris signing a T-shirt for a soldier in the United States Marine Corps. [211]

In April of 2011, the conservative Christian Chuck Norris wrote:

"The problems with being overweight and obese go far beyond looks. They affect our mentality, mobility and can lead to a number of physical diseases and ailments...

It's true that genetics, environment, socio-economic status, metabolism and behavior can be contributors to these ailments. But the fact is most Americans are overweight and obese because they eat poorly and don't exercise. Most of our foods are super high in fats, sugars and salt. And, compared to other countries, we eat much larger portions. We live to eat – most other cultures eat to live.

The primary reason obesity statistics and these subsequent illnesses are so high is that our culture is entrenched in hedonism, which means we are all about pleasure. We go where we feel like going. We do what we feel like doing. We watch what we feel like watching. And we eat what we feel like eating. And God help the soul who tells us to do otherwise...

... We think doing what we feel like doing is power and freedom, when really it's just carrying out what our flesh craves. True freedom is being able to look straight in the eye of what you feel like doing (even if it's wrong) and possessing the power to say no. Eating what we want isn't liberty – that's tyranny. Eating what is right is freedom – that's victory over oppression. And triumph over the tummy should be our next battle. Fighting for a better America includes fighting for a healthier, fitter, combat-ready you. (That is why my new cultural warrior book, "Black Belt Patriotism," contains an entire chapter on helping you win the consumption war and not just the culture wars. Get a free chapter here.)"[212]

Overcoming obesity with the aid of Christian faith

See also: Overcoming obesity with the aid of Christian faith and Ex-homosexuals and Atheism and morality

Although effective diets, exercise, or medical interventions can rid a person of excess weight, often merely having effective methods available to lose weight is not enough - very frequently, it takes self-discipline as well.

Besetting sins such as gluttony, sloth, homosexuality and drug addiction can certainly be more effectively conquered with the assistance of Christian faith and self-discipline. And of course, in the area of weight loss, through diet and exercise well. Peter LaBarbera is the President of Americans for Truth which is an organization which counters the homosexual agenda. Peter LaBarbera declared concerning Christian ex-homosexuals who reported being transformed by the power of God:

Another factor from my experience as a close observer of the “ex-gay” phenomenon is that many former homosexuals do not linger in “reparative therapy” programs, or participate in them at all. They attribute their dramatic and (relatively) rapid transformation to the power of God, and likely would not show up in a study of this kind. In fact, these “unstudied” overcomers would appear to be the most successful ex-homosexuals because they’ve moved on with their lives — as “reborn” Christians move on after overcoming any besetting sin.[213]
Homosexuality is rare in Orthodox Jews.[214]

In 1980 a study was published in the American Journal of Psychiatry and eleven men participated in a study about men overcoming homosexuality. The American Journal of Psychiatry stated that eleven homosexual men became heterosexuals "without explicit treatment and/or long-term psychotherapy" through their participation in a Pentecostal church.[215] The results of this study are not surprising since Christian faith has shown itself to be effective in combating drug addiction. For example, Christian group Teen Challenge reported the following:

Teen Challenge claims of a 70% cure rate for the drug addicts graduating from their program attracted the attention of the U.S. Federal Government in 1973. Most secular drug rehabilitation programs only experienced a cure rate of 1-15% of their graduates. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, funded the first year of this study to evaluate the long term results of the Teen Challenge program.[216]

Teen Challenge has a number of studies that indicate the high effectiveness of their drug treatment program compared to other programs.[217] Studies indicate that consumers of secular counseling psychology for alcoholism receive hardly any benefit at all.[218][219] The Apostle Paul in a letter to the church of Corinth indicated that Christians were able to overcome being drunkards through the power of Jesus Christ (I Corinthians 6:9-11).

Also, as mentioned previously, on December 11, 2001, the prestigious Mayo Clinic found that that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health and mental outcomes.[220]

See also

Obese atheists and overweight atheists comedy and satire

See also

Christians have challenged the overweight atheist Penn Jillette to debate the subject "Does God exist?", but he is ducking the debates. See: Atheism and cowardice

Articles related the health sciences, health related information and medical history:

Other related articles:

Replies to specific atheists:

Penn Jilltette:

Penn Jillette, comedy/satire

Penn Jillette, video:

PZ Myers:

PZ Myers, comedy/satire

External links

Weight loss resources and tips:

Strength training and cardio exercise:

How much exercise is needed to lose weight and importance of one day of rest per week:

Documentary on weight loss:

Notes

  1. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=causes
  2. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  3. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  4. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  5. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  6. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  7. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/obesity/
  8. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/obesity?show=0&t=1293887890
  9. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=causes
  10. http://www.gotquestions.org/gluttony-sin.html
  11. http://carm.org/christianity/sermons/1-corinthians-619-20-your-body-his-temple
  12. http://www.mygenes.co.nz/PDFs/Ch6.pdf
  13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21174323
  14. http://www.obesitypsychiatry.com/id2.html
  15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17262813
  16. http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/01/01/anger-at-god-common-even-among-atheists/
  17. http://www.godisforus.com/information/worldview/god/perfection.htm
  18. Why do atheists hate God?
  19. World Health Organization - obesity fact sheet
  20. World Health Organization - obesity fact sheet
  21. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf
  22. McCullogh ME, Larson DB, Hoyt WT. et al. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health Psychology. 19, 3. 211-222
  23. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19210054
  25. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf
  26. The psycho-social benefits of religious practice by Iona Institute
  27. McCullogh ME, Larson DB, Hoyt WT. et al. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health Psychology. 19, 3. 211-222
  28. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=causes
  29. Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
  30. Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
  31. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  32. 2000 YEARS OF CHRISTIAN INCREASE
  33. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  34. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  35. http://www.wnd.com/?pageId=30077
  36. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21167850
  37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16539965
  38. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21139122
  39. http://www.flickr.com/photos/alan-light/229583104/
  40. http://www.atheists.org/about/Board_of_Directors
  41. http://www.atheists.org/about/Board_of_Directors
  42. http://www.flickr.com/photos/reuvenim/4426093513/
  43. http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2010/08/thats_not_a_heart_its_a_flaili.php?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+scienceblogs%2Fpharyngula+%28Pharyngula%29&utm_content=Google+Reader
  44. http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/content/41/18/25.1.full
  45. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/brain-and-behavior/articles/2009/08/25/as-waistlines-widen-brains-shrink.html
  46. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21121834
  47. http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2011/06/the_final_tally_on_the_camp_qu.php
  48. MailVox: Who said atheists are fat?.
  49. At least you can see a hint of what you missed
  50. "Creation Museum: Is This How World Began?" (ABC News)
  51. http://www.counterpunch.org/mccarthy02212003.html
  52. Christopher Hitchens: Despite Cancer, I'd Drink & Smoke Again
  53. http://ac360.blogs.cnn.com/2010/08/07/video-extended-interview-hitchens-on-cancer-and-atheism/
  54. Why did Hitchens continue to smoke & drink during treatment? -CTV News
  55. Christopher Hitchens: Despite Cancer, I'd Drink & Smoke Again
  56. Picture of an overweight Christopher Hitchens smoking a cigarette
  57. National Institute of Health - Obesity and Cancer Risk
  58. http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/dennett06/dennett06_index.html
  59. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4484
  60. http://www.truefreethinker.com/articles/old-material-dennett-and-mind
  61. http://creation.com/brain-chemistry-and-the-fate-of-the-personality-after-death
  62. http://lifewithoutfaith.com/?p=183
  63. http://www.colorado.edu/philosophy/vstenger/battle.html
  64. http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/pe/exs190web/exs190history.htm
  65. Richard Leakey(1983). One Life: An Autobiography (p. 38)
  66. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Richard_Leakey.jpg
  67. http://www.totalgymdirect.com/
  68. http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=55789
  69. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2WLulSQvYU
  70. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2WLulSQvYU
  71. Atheism: A religion of degenerates
  72. Atheism: A religion of degenerates
  73. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y3_hrijrHY
  74. http://www.jmir.org/2009/3/e28/
  75. http://www.jmir.org/2009/3/e28/
  76. http://gretachristina.com/personal.html
  77. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcNmqGo4jg8
  78. http://taslimanasrin.com/
  79. http://www.atheistfoundation.org.au/articles/taslima-nasrin-writer-trial
  80. http://www.drishtikone.com/node/9364
  81. http://www.thegoodatheist.net/2009/06/08/i-love-you-stephen-fry/
  82. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-1194024/STEPHEN-FRY-How-I-lost-stones-just-months.html
  83. http://www.edp24.co.uk/news/stephen_fry_backs_tiny_norfolk_theatre_1_842092
  84. January 30, 2012 CBS Stephen Fry interview with Charlie Rose
  85. January 30, 2012 CBS Stephen Fry interview with Charlie Rose
  86. January 30, 2012 CBS Stephen Fry interview with Charlie Rose
  87. Please Note: There is a difference between disliking the perverse practice of homosexuality and fearing it. A distinction which liberal academics pretend doesn't exist - Exploring the relationship between homophobia and participation in core sports for high school students Osborne, D ; Wagner, W, 2007
  88. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5015557
  89. Tom Leykis - Atheist of the week
  90. http://lifewithoutfaith.com/?p=183
  91. http://www.flickr.com/photos/martystone/3435459032
  92. http://www.axleration.com/apple-co-founder-praises-android/
  93. http://www.woz.org/letters/general/72.html
  94. http://oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/stallman.html
  95. http://www.accuracyproject.org/cbe-Asimov,Isaac.html
  96. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/04/07/books/isaac-asimov-whose-thoughts-and-books-traveled-the-universe-is-dead-at-72.html?scp=7&sq=Asimov+Isaac&st=cse
  97. http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/kim-il-sung.html
  98. http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/mao-zedong-56.php
  99. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204791104577107891655666650.html?mod=googlenews_wsj
  100. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/12/21/north-koreas-kim-jong-eun-flexes-muscles-with-first-military-order/
  101. http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/kim-il-sung.html
  102. http://www.nndb.com/people/261/000024189/
  103. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/12/18/north-korean-leader-kim-jong-il-6-has-died/
  104. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/articles/2007/12/09/q_and_a_with_mikhail_gorbachev/
  105. http://www.startribune.com/world/17103526.html
  106. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1883.html
  107. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Malenkow.jpg
  108. George Melly's battle with cancer and dementia
  109. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-19211298.html
  110. George Melly's battle with cancer and dementia
  111. George Melly's battle with cancer and dementia
  112. http://postednotes.blogspot.com/2006/07/dara-obriain-atheist-catholic.html
  113. http://www.literaryconnections.co.uk/resources/duffy.html
  114. http://newhumanist.org.uk/920/line-of-beauty-laurie-taylor-interviews-edmund-white
  115. http://www.enotes.com/edmund-white-salem/edmund-white
  116. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/andrewbrown/2009/jan/11/religion-amis-hates-god
  117. http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/Kingsley_Amis
  118. http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/Kingsley_Amis
  119. http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/famous-scientists/chemists/alexander-ivanovich-oparin-info.htm
  120. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Hungarian-Atheists-George-Koestler-Schwimmer/dp/1155532643
  121. http://www.neilschaeffer.com/sade/bibliography/quills.htm
  122. http://www.reference.com/browse/bloody-noun
  123. http://articles.cnn.com/2006-11-24/entertainment/tbr.ditto_1_fat-people-beth-ditto-voice?_s=PM:SHOWBIZ
  124. The Sunday Times (London), February 4, 2007, Features; Style; Pg. 10
  125. http://articles.cnn.com/2006-11-24/entertainment/tbr.ditto_1_fat-people-beth-ditto-voice?_s=PM:SHOWBIZ
  126. http://americansfortruth.com/news/homosexuality-and-atheism.html
  127. http://americansfortruth.com/2011/06/24/wrong-diagnosis-wrong-cure-harvey-assails-cdcs-pro-gay-youth-spin/#more-9505
  128. http://bible.org/article/homosexuality-christian-perspective
  129. 135.0 135.1 Overweight and Obesity in Sexual-Minority Women: Evidence From Population-Based Data, Ulrike Boehmer, Deborah J. Bowen, Greta R. Bauer, American Journal of Public Health, 2007 Jun;97(6):1134-40. E pub 2007 Apr 26.
  130. http://www.chacha.com/question/what-is-a-chub
  131. http://creation.com/smithsonian-evolution-top-10-consequences
  132. Michigan State University Professor Strips Naked In Class, Police Arrive To Escort Him To Hospital
  133. The intellectual atheist
  134. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21174323
  135. http://www.obesitypsychiatry.com/id2.html
  136. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17262813
  137. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18549987
  138. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19433123
  139. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10358430
  140. http://www.wellspringcamps.com/obesity_research.html
  141. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf
  142. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf
  143. http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/2003/A/20037338.html
  144. http://www.dukespiritualityandhealth.org/
  145. http://www.dukespiritualityandhealth.org/about/
  146. http://www.dukespiritualityandhealth.org/publications/latest.html
  147. http://atheistwatch.blogspot.com/2010/10/rejection-of-christianity-and-self.html
  148. http://atheistwatch.blogspot.com/2010/10/atheists-and-self-esteem-part-2.html
  149. http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/crockerlab/articles/2005_Crocker_Garcia_Self-Esteem_&_Stigma_of_Obesity.pdf
  150. http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/crockerlab/articles/2005_Crocker_Garcia_Self-Esteem_&_Stigma_of_Obesity.pdf
  151. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/diet-fitness/diet/articles/2011/03/31/health-buzz-fat-stigma-spreading-across-world
  152. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/diet-fitness/diet/articles/2011/03/31/health-buzz-fat-stigma-spreading-across-world
  153. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20602903
  154. http://www.adherents.com/misc/religion_suicide.html
  155. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/161/12/2303
  156. http://www.americanreligionsurvey-aris.org/reports/NONES_08.pdf
  157. http://www.livescience.com/culture/090227-religion-men-women.html
  158. http://creation.com/atheism
  159. http://conservapedia.com/Atheism_appears_to_be_significantly_less_appealing_to_women#Prominent_general_atheist_websites_appear_to_receive_significantly_less_traffic_from_women
  160. http://creation.com/atheism
  161. http://creation.com/atheism
  162. http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/0/9/0/5/p109057_index.html
  163. http://www.physorg.com/news199509031.html
  164. http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/article/6188
  165. http://www.gotquestions.org/household-salvation.html
  166. http://blogs.chron.com/believeitornot/2010/06/interfaith_marriages_more_like_1.html
  167. http://www.americanreligionsurvey-aris.org/reports/NONES_08.pdf
  168. http://www.livescience.com/culture/090227-religion-men-women.html
  169. http://www.conservapedia.com/Atheism_appears_to_be_significantly_less_appealing_to_women
  170. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/3085436/Men-set-to-overtake-women-in-obesity-stakes-official-figures-show.html
  171. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=symptoms
  172. How obesity is linked to infertility
  173. Survey Suggests Obesity May Cause Foot Problems
  174. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, entitled A modeling investigation of obesity and balance recoveryby Sara Louise Matrangola
  175. Obesity and Alzheimer's: High Insulin Levels Linked to Alzheimer's
  176. Obese people are more at risk of Alzheimer’s
  177. http://www.news-medical.net/health/Neurodegeneration-in-Alzheimers-and-Parkinsons.aspx
  178. http://www.dementiacarecentral.com/node/559
  179. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC419385/
  180. http://www.neuroskills.com/tbi/btemporl.shtml
  181. Obesity in Middle Age May Increase Risk of Dementia
  182. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122178219865054585.html
  183. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21174323
  184. http://www.obesitypsychiatry.com/id2.html
  185. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17262813
  186. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122178219865054585.html
  187. http://creation.com/ufology-scientific-religion
  188. http://www.conservapedia.com/Irreligion_and_superstition
  189. http://creation.com/did-god-create-life-on-other-planets
  190. http://creation.com/origin-of-life-questions-and-answers
  191. http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/summary/102/6/855 On Scientific Thought
  192. 204.0 204.1 204.2 Tarjanyi, Judy. "Astronomer links UFOs to Occultism." The Toledo Blade, January 4, 2003. Retrieved November 3, 2007.
  193. http://www.alienintrusion.com/main.html
  194. Authors unknown. "A UFO 2nd Coming." Let Us Reason Ministries, 2007. Retrieved November 3, 2007.
  195. 208.0 208.1 Gleghorn, Michael. "UFO's and Alien Beings." Probe Ministries. Retrieved November 3, 2007.
  196. http://spectator.org/archives/2011/02/28/thriving-christianity
  197. http://spectator.org/archives/2011/02/28/thriving-christianity
  198. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ChuckNorris200611292256.jpg
  199. http://www.wnd.com/index.php/index.php?fa=PAGE.printable&pageId=109051
  200. http://www.americansfortruth.com/news/landmark-study-change-for-homosexuals-is-possible.html
  201. http://www.conservapedia.com/Religious_Upbringing_and_Culture_Affects_Rates_of_Homosexuality
  202. E.M. Pattison and M.L. Pattison, "'Ex-Gays': Religiously Mediated Change in Homosexuals," American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 137, pp. 1553-1562, 1980
  203. http://www.acadc.org/page/page/2495014.htm
  204. http://www.acadc.org/page/page/2495014.htm
  205. http://www.spring.org.uk/2005/07/psychological-treatments-for-alcoholism.php
  206. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/5/75/abstract
  207. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf