Atheism and obesity

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The atheist Stephen Fry said, "I do enjoy video gaming... In the early days of games, I would spend hours. I mean literally. I would find it would be 4am and I would say God I have be at work at 6."[1] See also: Irreligion, video game usage and obesity

According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[2]

Gallup declared concerning the study which measured the degree to which religiosity affects health practices: "Generalized linear model analysis was used to estimate marginal scores all five reported metrics after controlling for age (in years), gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, education (number of years), log of income, and region of the country... Results are based on telephone interviews conducted as part of the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index survey Jan. 2-July 28, 2010, with a random sample of 554,066 adults, aged 18 and older, living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, selected using random-digit-dial sampling."[3]

The Gallup study gives some insight into the above average health habits of the very religious and not necessarily the health habits of atheists. The reason is that the Gallup organization defines a non-religious as a person where "Religion is not an important part of daily life and church/synagogue/mosque attendance occurs seldom or never. This group constitutes 29.7% of the adult population."[4] While many Western atheists are non-religious, not all non-religious people are atheists.

Gallup further declares:

Very religious Americans make healthier choices than their moderately religious and nonreligious counterparts across all four of the Healthy Behavior Index metrics, including smoking, healthy eating, and regular exercise. Smoking is one area of particular differentiation between the very religious and less religious Americans, with the nonreligious 85% more likely to be smokers than those who are very religious.[5]

A 2010 study reported in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion found that for Korean women living in California, religion "may help prevent obesity."[6]

Contents

Studies on religion and self-control

Two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[7] According to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[8]

See also: Atheism and gluttony and Atheism and hedonism and Jesus Christ, the apostles and the Mediterranean diet/Mosaic diet

In the journal article Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications, psychologists McCullough and Willoughby theorize that many of the positive links of religiousness with health and social behavior may be caused by religion's beneficial influences on self-control/self-regulation.[9][10] Furthermore, a 2012 Queen's University study published in Psychological Science found that religion replenishes self-control.[11][12] Also, numerous studies indicate that those who engage in regular spiritual practices have lower mortality rates.[13] [14] See also: Atheism and hedonism

Obesity, religion/irreligion and some general causes of obesity

From a medical perspective, an obese person has accumulated enough body fat that it can have a negative effect on their health. If a person's weight is at least 20% higher than it should be, he/she is generally considered obese. If your Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 you are considered overweight.[15] If your BMI is 30 or over you are considered obese.[16] The term obese can also used in a more general way to indicate someone who is overweight.[17]

Two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[18] Most individuals are overweight due to their dietary and exercise habits.[19] See also: Bariatric science

The Bible, atheism, gluttony, sloth and health

See also: Jesus Christ and the Mediterranean diet/Mosaic diet and Atheism and sloth

Obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[20]

The Bible declares that gluttony and sloth are sins.[21][22] On the other hand, atheists engage in denialism concerning the existence of sin and indicate that sin does not exist. For example, the atheist PZ Myers, who possesses excess body weight, denies the validity of the concept of original sin (see also: Atheism and gluttony).[23]

Furthermore, the Bible declares the physical body of Christians to be temples of the Holy Spirit.[24] While there are many atheists who recognize the vast amount of medical data indicating the harmful effects of being overweight, there have been atheists who have engaged in denialism and have very much agreed with the fat acceptance movement (See: Atheism and the fat acceptance movement). Furthermore, atheists have been interviewed by major news outlets and have advocated the fat acceptance movement.[25]

Another example of strongly held religious beliefs affecting behavior in terms of the avoidance of sins and health problems is that religious upbringing and culture affects rates of homosexuality and there are a number of diseases which homosexuals have higher incidences of. For example, homosexuality is rare among Orthodox Jews and even the liberal researcher Alfred Kinsey noted the rarity of homosexuality within the Orthodox Jewish community.[26] Therefore, it is not surprising that many very religious Christians and other religious groups which incorporate healthy beliefs and practices within their religion would leave healthier lives.

Atheism and some causes of obesity: Studies and historical data

Obesity is positively associated with impulsiveness, lower self-discipline and neuroticism.[27] In addition, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom.[28][29][30]

Atheism and negative emotions: Studies and historical data

See: Atheism and negative emotions/thoughts

Atheism and anger

In January of 2011, CNN reported: "People unaffiliated with organized religion, atheists and agnostics also report anger toward God either in the past, or anger focused on a hypothetical image - that is, what they imagined God might be like - said lead study author Julie Exline, Case Western Reserve University psychologist."[31]

The Apostle Paul defends his preaching (Giovanni Ricco)

Atheism and hedonism

See also: Atheism and hedonism

In addition, Christians have good reasons to believe a hedonist lifestyle is a causal factor of atheism (see: Causes of atheism).[32] The Apostle Paul wrote that in the end times, men would be lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God (2 Timothy 3:1-4). In May of 2012, the World Health Organization reported that "Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980."[33] In 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight. Of these, over 200 million men and approximately 300 million women were obese.[34]

For more information, please see: Atheism and hedonism

Atheism/theism and general health issues

See also: Atheism and health and Atheism and suicide

The prestigious Mayo Clinic found that that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.[35]

There is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism [36] (For more information, please see: Atheism and health and Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism).

The prestigious Mayo Clinic reported the following on December 11, 2001:

In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.

The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.[37]

The Iona Institute reported:

A meta-analysis of all studies, both published and unpublished, relating to religious involvement and longevity was carried out in 2000. Forty-two studies were included, involving some 126,000 subjects. Active religious involvement increased the chance of living longer by some 29%, and participation in public religious practices, such as church attendance, increased the chance of living longer by 43%.[38][39]
Most individuals are overweight due to their dietary and exercise habits.[40]

In December of 2003, the University of Warwick reported:

Dr. Stephen Joseph, from the University of Warwick, said: "Religious people seem to have a greater purpose in life, which is why they are happier. Looking at the research evidence, it seems that those who celebrate the Christian meaning of Christmas are on the whole likely to be happier.[41]

See also: Atheism and depression and Atheism and suicide and Atheism and alcoholism

Duke University has established the Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health.[42] The Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health is based in the Center for Aging at Duke and gives opportunities for scholarly trans-disciplinary conversation and the development of collaborative research projects.[43] In respect to the atheism and mental and physical health, the center offers many studies which suggest that theism is more beneficial than atheism.[44]

Irreligion/religion, geography and obesity

China has the largest atheist population in the world.[45] In 2014, the British medical journal Lancet reported that the the Chinese have the second highest obesity rate in the world.[46][47]

A recent study published in the Obesity Reviews journal, found that Chinese teenagers' rate of diabetes was four times that of their American peers.[48] See: Atheistic China and obesity

Atheistic geographic areas and obesity

Atheistic China and obesity

China has the largest atheist population in the world.[49] In 2014, the British medical journal Lancet reported that the the Chinese have the second highest obesity rate in the world.[50][51]

A recent study published in the Obesity Reviews journal, found that Chinese teenagers' rate of diabetes was four times that of their American peers.[52]

For more information, please see: Atheistic China and obesity

Secular Europe and obesity

See also: Secular Europe and obesity

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently reported:

Based on the latest estimates in European Union countries, overweight affects 30-70% and obesity affects 10-30% of adults.

Estimates of the number of overweight infants and children in the WHO European Region rose steadily from 1990 to 2008. Over 60% of children who are overweight before puberty will be overweight in early adulthood.[53]

Godless Czech Republic and obesity

See also: Czech Republic and obesity

In 2013, the website Expats.cz reported that the Czech Republic was the fattest country in Europe.[54]

From a historical perspective, the Czechs have been characterised as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion".[55] According to the 2011 census, 34.2% of the Czech population declared they had no religion, 10.3% was Roman Catholic and 10.2% followed other forms of religion both denominational and nondenominational. Furthermore, 45.2% of the population did not answer the question about religion.[56] From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Roman Catholicism decreased from 39.0% to 26.8% and then subsequently to 10.3%.[57]

In 2013, the website Expats.cz reported:

According to the State of Food and Agriculture 2013 report by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (www.fao.org), the Czech Republic ranks as the fattest country in Europe, based on the prevalence of obesity among adults. 28.7% of adults in the Czech Republic are considered obese based on the figures, which are dated 2008.[58]
Godless Britain and obesity
In May of 2014, the British paper The Mirror reported that according to the British medical journal Lancet, British girls are the most overweight girls in Western Europe.[59]

In 2015, Mashable reported about Britain:

Ten new "healthy towns" designed to get people to exercising more, eating healthily and live independently during old age are to be built across the country, NHS England announced on Tuesday.

The towns — comprising more than 76,000 affordable homes — will include fast food-free zones near schools, safe green spaces, "dementia-friendly" streets and accessible GP services.

Designed to tackle obesity and dementia, the towns will have a potential capacity for approximately 170,000 residents.

While some developments are already being built, others will not be completed until 2030, however.

A recent WHO report revealed the extent of Britain's growing obesity crisis, with figures suggesting that 74% of men and 64% of women will be overweight by 2030.[60]

Rapid growth of global Christianity and the health habits of Christendom

See also: Global Christianity and Atheist population and Atheism and health

Jesus Christ ate a healthy diet as He ate a Mediterranean diet which is a very healthy diet according to medical science (see: Jesus Christ, the apostles and the Mediterranean diet/Mosaic diet).[61][62]

Christianity is the world's largest religion and it has seen tremendous growth over its 2000 year history.[63] In the last fifty years, Christianity has recently seen explosive growth outside the Western World.[64] In 2000, there were twice as many non-Western World Christians as Western World Christians.[65] In 2005, there were four times as many non-Western World Christians as there were Western World Christians.[66] Of course, a big reason for the explosive growth of Christianity outside the Western World was due to highly religious people propagating the Christian faith and there are now more non-Western World missionaries than Western World missionaries.[67]

African Christians clapping at an open air meeting.

In 2005, there were four times as many non-Western World Christians as there were Western World Christians.[68]

The traditional African diet is healthier than many Western World invividuals' diets and Africa has some of the lowest obesity rates in the world.[69][70] In recent years, Christianity has seen a rapid growth in Africa.[71] See: Global atheism and Atheist population

Besides non-Western World individuals often being less sedentary, non-Western World diets are often healthier than the diets Western World people consume and there is significantly less obesity in many non-Western World cultures.[72] For example, the traditional African diet is healthier than many Western World peoples' diets and Africa has some of the lowest obesity rates in the world.[73][74] In recent years, Christianity has seen a rapid growth in Africa.[75]

Therefore, in recent history Christendom has seen a large influx of very religious people who live healthy lifestyles and have low levels of obesity.

The Reason Rally was billed as the largest secular event in history.[76] When one compares pictures the attendees of the Reason Rally with attendees of the 2014 Cfan Christ For All Nations gospel crusade held in Barundi, Africa, there was a significant higher proportion of attendees of the Reason Rally who were overweight/obese.[77][78][79][80]

At the same time, many pastors in the Western World are indicating that a large segment of Western Christendom is acting like the prosperous, first century Corinthian and Laodicean churches who were undisciplined, ungodly and had a lukewarm commitment to the Christian faith and were commanded to repent (See also: Western ungodliness, prosperity, decadence and obesity).[81] Yet, as noted above, according to the Gallup Inc., "Very religious Americans are more likely to practice healthy behaviors than those who are moderately religious or nonreligious."[82] The troubled Church of Corinth repented of their ungodliness after being corrected by the Apostle Paul.[83][84]

Many nations with a Christian heritage or who are increasingly adopting Christianity are prosperous due to the contributions that Christianity brings to science, technology, economics and a nation's work ethic (see: Christianity and science and Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism and Atheism and economics).[85]

Jesus Christ worked in a carpenter shop until He was thirty years old. Jesus had no electric power tools as carpenters do today, but worked with hand tools made of iron. Then for about three years, Jesus was an itinerant preacher.[86] In addition, Jesus ate a healthy Mediterranean diet.[87][88] Therefore, unlike many overweight Western World atheists today, He very likely maintained a health weight.

Commentary by atheist and feminist Jen McCreight

Jen McCreight, is an atheist and feminist columnist and blogger who has served on the Board of Directors of the Secular Student Alliance and she was also the cofounder and three-year president of Society of Non-Theists at Purdue University.[89][90] She wrote an article on atheism and obesity in 2011 where she indicated a desire to "shed a few pounds".[91] In 2011, a video with Jen McCreight was published as part of the We Are Atheism campaign. In this video, she was overweight.[92]

Despite the fact that a strong majority of Christendom lives outside the Western World and is slimmer than many atheists in the Western World, Jen McCreight wrote an article on atheism and obesity where she cherry picked some data relative to some states in the United States with higher obesity rates than other states without mentioning the underlying socioeconomic/cultural factors related to this matter.[93]

Historically, the Western atheist/evolutionist community has often shown socioeconomic/racial/cultural insensitivity and also displayed hypocrisy relative to this matter (See: Western atheism and race and Social Darwinism and Evolutionary racism and Atheism and uncharitableness). Atheists within racial minority populations and within the female population often complain that there is no significant outreach to their communities within the larger atheist community (see also: Atheism and women).[94][95]

Irreligion/religion, generations in the United States and obesity

See also: Irreligion/religion, recent generations in the United States and obesity

In the United States at the present time, the greater the degree of irreligiosity in a generation, the higher their obesity rate is. For more information, please see the three articles directly below.

Millennials, irreligion and obesity

See: Millennials, irreligion and obesity

Generation X, irreligion and obesity

See: Generation X, irreligion and obesity

Baby boom generation, irreligion and obesity

See: Baby boom generation, irreligion and obesity

American Atheists organization

As of July 9. 2016, Matt Dillahunty was on the board of directors for the American Atheists organization.

(photo obtained from Creative commons, see license agreement)

See also: American Atheists and obesity and Atheist hypocrisy

Madalyn Murray O'Hair was the founder of the American Atheists organization and she was overweight.[96] One of the last pictures taken of Madalyn Murray O'Hair features her standing before a cake as can be seen HERE.

On December 28, 2010, the pictures of the members of the American Atheists organization's board of directors showed a significant portion of its members having excess body weight. Members of the American Atheists board of directors who were overweight as of December 28, 2010 included: Richard Andrews, Blair Scott, Monty Gaither, and Ann Zindler. A picture of an overweight Richard Andrews can be found HERE. Pictures of an overweight Blair Scott can be found HERE and HERE. A picture of an overweight Monty Gaither can be found HERE. A picture of an overweight Ann Zindler can be found HERE.

On August 11. 2013, a new overweight member of their board of directors was listed - namely, Jamila Bey. A video of an overweight Jamila Bey can be seen HERE.

On July 9, 2016, Matt Dillahunty was on the Board of Directors for the American Atheists organization. Pictures of an overweight Matt Dillahunty can be found HERE and HERE.

Research suggests that extra pounds and large waists undermine perceptions of leadership ability.[97]

PZ Myers

See also: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight and Evolutionists and excess weight and Internet atheism and obesity

PZ Myers in 2006.

PZ Myers is an atheist and evolutionist activist in the creation-evolution controversy, contributing to The Panda's Thumb and Pharyngula blogs. Myers is also an associate professor of biology at the University of Minnesota Morris (UMM)[98]

2009 pictures of a significantly overweight PZ Myers can be found HERE and HERE and HERE. A 2010 picture taken in Australia shows PZ Myers drinking ale/beer and he had excess weight in his abdominal area.[99] In 2010, PZ Myers had health problems related to his heart.[100] In addition, medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[101]

On June 1, 2011, Myers posted a picture of himself and others on his blog and Myers appeared to no longer have issues with being overweight.[102] However, on February 13, 2013, a video was posted to YouTube entitled, Is church harmful? and Myers appeared to have put on weight subsequent to his June 1, 2011 picture.[103] In addition, a picture taken in 2014 features an overweight PZ Myers.[104]

Given his biological training and the many effective methods of losing weight that medical science, nutritional science and exercise science offer, there is no reason why Myers needs to possess excess weight.

PZ Myers is a leader within the New Atheism movement. A significant amount of leaders within the New Atheism movement have problems with being overweight (see: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight).

Picture of PZ Myers with some of his young overweight fans

In 2011, Vox Day had an individual complain about the notion that the atheist community has a problem with obesity. As a result, on May 19, 2011, Vox Day released a blog post entitled Mailvox: now, who said atheists are fat? where 80% of the people taking a picture with PZ Myers were overweight and PZ Myers was overweight in the picture as well as can be seen HERE.[105] The picture was originally posted on PZ Myer's blog Pharyngula by Myers on May 16, 2011 and an online argument quickly ensued concerning the appearance of the photograph's participants.[106]

During his visit to the Creation Museum, PZ Myers had noticeably greater difficulty than others climbing on and off a dinosaur model due to the fact that he was overweight and out of shape.VIDEO

PZ Myers' visit to the Creation Museum

In August 2009, PZ Myers led a group of over 300 atheist and agnostic students on a tour of the Creation Museum.[107] During the visit, Myers had noticeably greater difficulty than others climbing on and off a dinosaur model due to the fact that he was overweight and out of shape.VIDEO

Ironic speech at the 2010 Global Atheist Convention

See also: Atheism and brain function

At the 2010 Global atheist Convention, an overweight PZ Myers likened belief in God to a brain infection plus made the blanket statement that religion makes people stupid and/or do stupid stupid things.[108] As noted above, according to medical science, being overweight causes brain impairment.[109]

PZ Myers in Toronto

A 2008 picture of an overweight PZ Myers meeting with people associated with the Center for Inquiry in Toronto can be found HERE

Please also see: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight

Picture of an overweight atheist Christopher Hitchens

Christopher Hitchens was a leader in the New Atheism movement. A picture of an overweight Christopher Hitchens can be found HERE (see also: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight).

Hitchen's heavy drinking and chain-smoking and esophageal cancer

Christopher Hitchens was known for having a history of heavy drinking and chain-smoking.[110][111] Christopher Hitchens was being treated for esophageal cancer likely caused by drinking and smoking up until his death on December 15, 2011.[112][113] Despite his esophageal cancer, when asked by interviewer Charlie Rose if in retrospect he would have engaged in heavy drinking and smoking knowing his present cancer condition, Hitchens said he think he would have done things the same.[114]

Hitchen's excess weight and increased risk of esophageal cancer

As noted above, Hitchens also had problems with being overweight during his life (see also: New Atheism leadership's problem with excess weight).[115] According to the National Cancer Institute, "obesity is associated with increased risks of cancers of the esophagus."[116]

Daniel Dennett - atheist philosopher

Daniel Dennett is an atheist philosopher and he is considered a leader in the New Atheism movement. A June 10, 2009 picture of an overweight Daniel Dennet can be found HERE In the late 1990s, Dennet had coronary artery bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass surgery reroutes blood around clogged arteries to enhance blood flow and oxygen to the heart).[117][118] In 2003, a a video at Ted was published featuring an overweight Daniel Dennett. In 2013, a video embedded on a The Raw Story article featured an overweight Daniel Dennett.

Also, given that being overweight causes brain impairment and that Daniel Dennet has had issues with being overweight, it is ironic that Dennet's book Consciousness Explained is beloved by those who deny God in favor of a pseudoscientific naturalist philosophy of the mind.[119]

Nate Phelps spoke at the 2009 American Atheists convention.[120] Nate is currently the Executive Director of the Center for Inquiry Canada.[121]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement), Title: Nate Phelps AAC00 (a very brave man)

Victor J. Stenger

Victor J. Stenger (born 1935) is an American physicist, author and outspoken atheist. Victor Stenger is a leader within the New Atheism movement. A picture of an overweight Victor J. Stenger can be found HERE

Richard Leakey

See also: Evolutionists and excess weight

Richard Leakey is an anthropologist, evolutionist and atheist.[122] A 2008 picture of an overweight Richard Leakey can be found HERE. Other pictures of an overweight Leakey can be found HERE and HERE and HERE. In October 2010, he appeared to have a healthy weight.[123] However, a May 2012 picture of Leakey featured HERE in the USA Today had a picture of him where he was once more overweight.

Gordon Stein

Gordon Stein (April 30, 1941–August 27, 1996) was an American author, physiologist, atheist activists. According the British newspaper The Independent Stein's main activity was the "acquisition and production of books on free-thought and the paranormal."[124]

Stein served as presidents of the American Rationalists Federation and the Freethought Association.[125] He also served as Vice-President of Atheists United and Vice-President Pacific of the Freedom From Religion Foundation.[126]

In his 1985 debate with the Christian apologist Greg Bahnsen, he was introduced as "one of America's foremost scholars of atheism."[127]

A video of the Greg Bahnsen vs. Gordon Stein debate has a picture of Gordon Stein which features a significantly overweight Gordon Stein (see: The Great Debate: Does God Exist? Dr. Greg Bahnsen versus Dr. Gordon Stein). Pictures of an overweight Gordon Stein can be found HERE and HERE.

Ed Brayton

See also: Evolutionists and excess weight and Atheism and the suppression of science

Ed Brayton is an atheist blogger at freethoughtblogs.com. His blog Dispatches from the Culture Wars is a prominently featured blog at freethoughtblogs.com. He is also the co-founder and president of Michigan Citizens for Science and co-founder of the pro-evolution blog The Panda's Thumb.

Pictures of an overweight Ed Brayton can be found HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

On January 2, 2013, Brayton indicated he had a medical emergency which caused him to require having open heart surgery.[128]

A video of an overweight Ed Brayton at the Kitzmiller vs. Dover Area School District trail can be HERE. A video of the overweight American atheist Ed Brayton mocking the fit Christian martial artist Chuck Norris can be found HERE. According to Chuck Norris, most obesity in America is the result of hedonism (see: Chuck Norris on the topic of obesity). Other videos of an overweight Ed Brayton can be found HERE and HERE.

George R. R. Martin

George R.R. Martin declared in 2011: "You would consider me an atheist or agnostic. I find religion and spirituality fascinating. I would like to believe this isn't the end and there's something more, but I can't convince the rational part of me that makes any sense whatsoever."[129]

(Wikimedia Commons photo: Martin photo, see license agreement)

George R.R. Martin is a novelist and short story writer in the genres of fantasy, horror stories and science fiction. In addition, he is a screenwriter and television producer.

When asked about his religious views, Martin replied: "I suppose I'm a lapsed Catholic. You would consider me an atheist or agnostic. I find religion and spirituality fascinating. I would like to believe this isn't the end and there's something more, but I can't convince the rational part of me that makes any sense whatsoever."[130]

Pictures of overweight George R. R. Martin can be found HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

Martin's anger at fans who are speculating about his health and his future time of death

In 2014, The Guardian reported that George Martin became angry about some of his fans speculating about his health and the time of his future death. The fans were concerned that he will not finish his lengthy fantasy series before he dies.[131] In response, in 2014 Martin published a picture in The Guardian which featured him giving those fans a profane gesture using his middle finger (see also: Atheism and profanity).[132]

Niles Eldridge

See also: Evolutionists and excess weight

Niles Eldredge is an American paleontologist, author, and curator in the Department of Invertebrates at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.[133][134] Eldridge and fellow paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (who was an overweight agnostic) developed the Theory of Punctuated Equilibrium.[135]

Niles Eldredge is an atheist. [136] A picture of overweight Niles Eldridge can be found HERE.

Steven Novella

Steven Novella at a 2013 skeptics conference.

Steven Novella is a clinical neurologist and assistant professor at the Yale University School of Medicine. In addition, he is a medical advisor to the organization Quackwatch, serves as an associate editor of the Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, and he is the executive editor of the blog Science-Based Medicine.

Novella is a prominent atheist/skeptic who co-founded the New England Skeptical Society and he serves as their president. The organization's podcast, The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe, is popular within the skeptical movement. He also participated in the pro-evolution campaign called Project Steve and was one of the first 200 people to contribute the project as a signer.

There are several pictures posted on the internet of Novella where he exhibits possessing excess weight. For example, in 2011 at TAM9 (a global conference of skeptics), a picture was taken of Steven Novella where he is bending over a table and his excess abdominal weight appears to be hanging over his belt as can be seen HERE and HERE. Other pictures where Novella appears to have excess weight can be seen HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

Brian Dunning

Brian Dunning is an atheist/agnostic/skeptic, author, podcaster and owner of the website Skeptoid. On July 9, 2012, Dunning wrote: "However, in fairness, 6’1″ and 190 lbs does put me at the bottom end of the “Overweight” range on BMI calculators..".[137]

Larry Moran

See also: Evolutionists and excess weight

Larry Moran serves as a Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Toronto. His blog Sandwalk is described as "Strolling with a skeptical biochemist". Moran is an atheist.[138] Pictures of an overweight Larry Moran can be found HERE and HERE.

YouTube atheism

See also: Internet atheism

Chuck Norris endorses the Total Gym exercise system.[139]

In 2007, WorldNetDaily featured a column by the Christian Chuck Norris which declared:

Atheists are making a concerted effort to win the youth of America and the world. Hundreds of websites and blogs on the Internet seek to convince and convert adolescents, endeavoring to remove any residue of theism from their minds and hearts by packaging atheism as the choice of a new generation. While you think your kids are innocently surfing the Web, secular progressives are intentionally preying on their innocence and naivete.

What's preposterous is that atheists are now advertising and soliciting on websites particularly created for teens.

YouTube, the most popular video site on the Net for young people, is one of their primary avenues for passing off their secularist propaganda.[140]

Atheism internet outreach efforts, however, have been ineffective.

TheAmazingAtheist

As of August of 2012, the most popular YouTube channel run by an atheist is TheAmazingAtheist YouTube channel which has over 300,000 subscribers. TheAmazingAtheist YouTube channel is produced by an overweight atheist.[141] In one video, TheAmazingAtheist exclaimed "Why am I so fat?"[142]

On August 12, 2012, an article entitled Atheism: A religion of degenerates declared:

TheAmazingAtheists was caught on videotape doing something very perverse and unusual with chocolate syrup, coffee and a banana! The embarrassing episode was dubbed BananaGate. One of the last things TheAmazingAtheist needs in his residence is chocolate syrup given the abundant amount of flab which hangs over his belt... This is another example of atheism being a religion of foolish and depraved clowns.[143]
The article entitled Atheism: A religion of degenerates said of YouTube video creator TheAmazingAtheist and his recent scandal involving chocolate syrup, coffee and a banana: "One of the last things TheAmazingAtheist needs in his residence is chocolate syrup given the abundant amount of flab which hangs over his belt..."[144]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

HappieCabbie

As of September of 2011, the atheist who produces the YouTube channel HappieCabbie, which has over 28,000 subscribers, is also overweight.[145]

InfidelAvenger

InfidelAvenger is a YouTube atheist. A video of an overweight InfidelAvenger can be found HERE and HERE.

Greta Christina

Greta Christina is a popular atheist blogger at freethoughtblogs.com. In addition, she is a atheist speaker and author. A 2007 picture of an overweight Greta Christiana can be found HERE. She is in a same-sex marriage with a woman named Ingrid.[146] For years Greta Christina was very much in agreement with the "fact acceptance movement", however, her ardor for the movement became more limited after a serious knee problem prompted her to lose her excess weight.[147] However, in November of 2016 she was overweight again.[148] For more information please see: Atheist Greta Christina and the fat acceptance movement

See also: Lesbianism and obesity and Homosexuality and obesity

Atheist philosopher Keith M. Parsons

Keith M. Parsons is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Houston, Clear-Lake. He has doctorates in philosophy and the history of science.[149] He is an atheist.[150]

Pictures of an overweight Keith Parsons can be found HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

Aron Ra

AronRa

(photo obtained from Wikimedia Commons, see: license agreement)

AronRa is an atheist activist and vlogger. He is also an ardent evolutionist and vocal critic of creationism. AronRa is also the Texas State Director of American Atheists.

A pictures of an overweight AronRa can be found HERE. In 2014, a video entitled Aronra on faith appeared on YouTube in which AronRa appeared to have excess weight.

Bruce Gerencser

Bruce Gerencser is an atheist blogger who runs the blog The Way Forward.[151] A picture of an overweight Bruce Gerencser can be found HERE.

Atheist activist Michael Nugent

Michael Nugent is chairperson of the atheist group Atheist Ireland[152] A picture of an overweight Michael Nugent can be found HERE. A video featuring an overweight Michael Nugent can be found HERE.

Stephanie Zvan

Stephanie Zvan is an atheist who has served as the Associate President for Minnesota Atheist and has written for Freethoughtblogs.com at their blog Almost Diamonds.[153] A picture of an overweight Stephanie Zvan can be found HERE.

Picture of an overweight Taslima Nasreen

The atheist Taslima Nasrin is an author who is known for her feminist and anti-Islamic views.[154][155] Ms. Nasreen has been divorced three times.[156] A picture of an overweight Taslima Nasreen can be found here: HERE

Matt Dillahunty - a host of atheist TV show

Matt Dillahunty currently serves as the president of the Atheist Community of Austin. In addition, Mr. Dillahunty also serves as a host of the internet radio show "Non-Prophets Radio" and of the Austin television cable access show "The Atheist Experience". According to his page at Atheist Nexus, Mr. Dillahunty works in the software field.[157] As of June 9, 2016, Dillahunty serves on the board of directors for the American Atheists organization. As of June 8, 2016, Dillahunty serves on the board of the directors for the American Atheists organization.

Pictures of an overweight Matt Dillahunty can be found HERE and HERE.

Stephen Fry

The atheist Stephen Fry is a English screenwriter, author, playwright, comedian, and film director.[158] A picture of an overweight Stephen Fry can be found HERE and HERE In 2009, the Mail Online reported that Stephen Fry went from being "appallingly corpulent" to having a weight where he can "at last bear to look at himself in the mirror again".[159] However, in March of 2011, Stephen Fry appeared to be once again overweight.[160]

Also, in a January 30, 2012 interview with Charlie Rose, Mr. Fry also had excess weight.[161] In his interview with Charlie Rose, Mr. Fry said that as a young man he hated exercise and sports.[162] Besides being an atheist, Mr. Fry is a homosexual.[163] Traditionally, players in male core sports teams (e.g., football, baseball, basketball,and/or soccer) are more likely to have unfavorable views of homosexuality.[164] See: Homosexuality and obesity and Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism

A National Public Radio reviewer of one of atheist Penn Jillette's books found the book "showy and assaultive" in terms of its use of profanity.[165] See: Atheism and profanity

Penn Jillette

See also: Conservapedia's reply to atheist Penn Jillette

Penn Jillette (born 1955) is an American illusionist, comedian, juggler, musician and writer. Penn Jillette is a weak atheist which is a form of agnostic.[166][167] See: Attempts to dilute the definition of atheism

A picture of an overweight Penn Jillette can be found HERE and HERE and HERE.

In 2015, Penn Jillette lost about 105 pounds in 4 months and is now at a healthy weight.[168] According to USA Today, Jillette "decided to do something in December, when his doctor, who had him on six different blood pressure medications, told him that if he lost enough weight he would likely not need any meds."[169]

Skepchick writers who have had excess weight challenges

Elyse Anders founded the Women Thinking Free Foundation which has been described as a "science and critical thinking organization focusing on women and women's issues".[170]

See also: Skepchick and Skepchick writers who have excess weight challenges and Atheism and women and Atheism and health

According to Skepchick, "Skepchick is a group of women (and one deserving guy) who write about science, skepticism, feminism, atheism, secularism, and pseudoscience".[171] Yet despite medical science evidence indicating the health risks of excess weight, Skepchick has writers who are overweight (see sections below). See also: Atheist hypocrisy

Elyse Anders

Elyse Anders founded the Women Thinking Free Foundation which has been described as a "science and critical thinking organization focusing on women and women's issues".[172] She also led the Hug Me! I'm Vaccinated campaign which was a vaccine advocacy project. She is a podcaster and is a writer for Shepchick.[173] A 2011 picture of an overweight Elyse Anders can be found HERE. In March of 2013, Anders announced that she "lost a bunch of weight".[174]

Amy Davis Roth - writer at Skepchick

Amy Davis Roth is an atheist who writes for Skepchick.[175][176] Pictures of an overweight Amy Davis Roth can be found HERE and HERE.

Heina Dadabhoy - writer at Skepchick

Heina Dadabhoy is an atheist who writes for Skepchick.[177][178] Pictures of an overweight Heina Dadabhoy can be found HERE and HERE She has written several blog post sympathetic to the ideas of the "fat acceptance" movement.[179] For more information please see: Atheism and the fat acceptance movement

Nikki Massey - Board member of Secular Woman, Inc.

Nikki Massey is an atheist and she serves on the board of directors for Secular Woman, Inc. In addition, she is a part-time blogger and abortion activist.[180][181] A picture of an overweight Nikki Massey at SkepchickCon can be found HERE and HERE In addition, a picture of Nikki Massey can be found HERE.

Matthew Bulger

Matthew Bulger is on the board of directors for the Secular Student Alliance.[182] In addition, he serves as a legislative associate at the American Humanist Association.[183]

Pictures of an overweight Matthew Bulger can be found HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

Galen Broaddus

Galen Broaddus is a certified Secular Celebrant with the Center for Inquiry.[184] In addition, he is an atheist blogger.[185]

Pictures of an overweight Galen Broaddus can be found HERE and HERE.

Karen Sloane

Karen Sloane is the president and co-founder of the Atheist, Skeptics, Knowledge Group in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.[186] A picture of an overweight Karen Sloane can be found HERE.

Robert M. Price

Robert M. Price is an American atheist, theologian and professor. He teaches biblical criticism at the Center for Inquiry.[187] In addition, he sits on the advisory board of the Secular Student alliance. Price is also a fellow of the Jesus Seminar.

Pictures of an overweight Robert M. Price can be found HERE and HERE.

Randy Henderson

Randy Henderson was head of the Iowa Atheist and Freethinkers organization as of April 23, 2011.[188]

(photo obtained from Flickr, see license agreement)

Randy Henderson was head of the Iowa Atheist and Freethinkers organization as of April 23, 2011.[189] A picture of an overweight Randy Henderson can be found HERE.

Tom Leykis

Tom Leykis is an atheist and American talk radio personality known for hosting the nationally syndicated The Tom Leykis Show from 1994 to 2009, and April 2012 to the present via (internet streamcast/podcast).[190] Pictures of an overweight Tom Leykis can be found HERE and HERE and HERE

Nate Phelps

Nate Phelps is an atheist.[191][192] Nate is currently the Executive Director of the Center for Inquiry Canada.[193] Pictures of an overweight Nate Phelps can be found HERE and HERE.

Maryam Nazamie

The atheist Maryam Nazamie has had issues with being overweight as can be seen HERE and HERE and HERE.

Shelly Mountjoy

As a student at George Mason University, Shelley Mountjoy founded the Secular Student Alliance at George Mason University and served as its President.[194][195] She is an atheist who won an atheist scholarship awarded by the American Atheists organization.[196]

A 2010 picture of an overweight Shelly Mountjoy can be found HERE. She also appeared in a video where she introduced PZ Myers who presented a lecture on science education.[197] In addition, the Washington Post reported that on July 4, 2010, an atheist Independence Day celebration was hosted at Shelly Mountjoy's parents' house which had a "food table, a drink table and a literature table" (Shelly Mounjoy's parents are Roman Catholic and they were not home for the party).[198]

Sarah Morehead

atheism
Paul-Henri Thiry was an early advocate of atheism in Europe.

According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thiry "used his great wealth to throw the dinner parties for which he is famous."[199]

Sarah Morehead is an atheist and the Executive Director of Recovering from Religion.[200] A picture of an overweight Sarah Morehead can be found HERE.

Dan Fincke

Dr. Dan Fincke is an atheist who served as an adjunct assistant philosophy professor at Hofstra University, City College of New York (CUNY), and Hunter College (CUNY). In 2014, he ceased engaging in adjunct teaching and focused mainly on offering his own online classes and other philosophical services.[201][202] Fincke is also the main writer for the website Camels With Hammers. Pictures of an overweight Dan Fincke can be found HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE.

Photo of an overweight Steve Wozniak (atheist/agnostic)

Steve Wozniak - co-founder of Apple Computer.[203] Wozniak wrote: "I am also atheist or agnostic (I don't even know the difference)."[204]

Richard Stallman

Richard Stallman is a software freedom activist and also a computer programmer. Stallman wrote that he was "an atheist".[205] Pictures of an overweight Richard Stallman can be found HERE and HERE and HERE

Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov was an American author, biochemistry professor st Boston University and an atheist . A picture of an overweight Isaac Asimov can be found HERE. Asimov had "a heart attack in 1977, and triple bypass surgery in 1983."[206] In 1992, the New York Times reported: "He died of heart and kidney failure, said his brother, Stanley."[207]

Cryonics is a pseudoscience that tries to extend life or achieve immortality in a non-theistic way after a person is legally dead (Cryonic procedures are performed shortly after a person's death).[208][209] According to The Cryonics Society, Asimov said of cryonics, "Though no one can quantify the probability of cryonics working, I estimate it is at least 90%..."[210] See: Atheism and cryonics

Gordon Stein

Dr. Gordon Stein (April 30, 1941 – August 27, 1996) was an American author, physiologist and atheist activist. One of the things Dr. Stein is known for is his debate with the Christian apologist Dr. Greg Bahnsen - a debate he is widely recognized to have done poorly in.[211][212][213]

A picture of an overweight Gordon Stein can be found HERE and HERE.

atheism
Kim Il Sung was a communist dictator and an obese atheist who died of a heart attack.[214]

(Source of photo of portrait can be found here, see: license agreement)

Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong was an overweight Chinese communist leader. On September 2, 1976, he had a serious heart attack and he died on September 9, 1976 in his sleep. Mao had been in a poor health for many years previous to his death.[215]

Kim Jong-un

Kim Jong-un is an overweight atheist communist dictator. [216][217]

In 2014, Free North Korea Radio reported that North Korean leader Kim Jong-un is getting fatter which is leading to rumors that he is suffering from stress and symptoms of heart disease.[218]

Kim II Sung

The North Korean communist dictator Kim Il Sung was an obese atheist who died of a heart attack.[219]

Kim Jong-il

Kim Jong-il was an overweight atheist North Korean communist dictator.[220] Kim Jong-il died of a heart attack. [221]

Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev [222][223]

Leonid Brezhnev

Leonid Brezhnev was a communist dictator in the former Soviet Union and a picture of an overweight Leonid Brezhnev can be found HERE. Brezhnev had a "stroke in March 1982 and died of a heart attack in November".[224]

Georgy Malenkov

Georgy Malenkov - Soviet Union politician[225]

George Melly

In an article entitled George Melly's battle with cancer and dementia, the Daily Mail reported that Melly "smoked up to 60 cigarettes a day since his teens."[226]

(photo obtained from Wikimedia Commons, Description: George Melly, singing and smoking, Date: 1978-02-00, source: Own work, User: p.g. Champion see: license agreement)

Song writer and singer George Melly was an atheist.[227] A picture of an overweight George Melly smoking a cigarette can be found HERE.

On April 17, 2007, the Daily Mail reported that George Melly was battling cancer and dementia.[228]

In addition, the Daily Mail reported:

The first hint of problems came seven years ago, when George was diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This is nearly always caused by smoking - George has smoked up to 60 cigarettes a day since his teens.

The condition restricts airflow to the lungs, and the lack of oxygen in the bloodstream means there is not enough blood getting to the organs - most importantly the heart.

George ignored instructions to give up smoking but was put on a vast regime of medication, including diuretics to combat fluid build-up.[229]

Dara Ó Briain

Dara Ó Briain is an Irish comedian and he is an atheist.[230] A 2008 picture of an overweight Dara Ó Briain can be found HERE

Picture of an overweight atheist writer Carol Ann Duffy

Carol Ann Duffy, CBE,(born 1955) is a Scottish poet and playwright. Carol Ann Duffy is an atheist.[231] A picture of an overweight Ms. Duffy can be found HERE

Edmund White

Edmund White is a author, literary critic, homosexual and an atheist.[232][233] Photos of an overweight Edmund White can be found HERE and HERE.

Picture of an overweight atheist economist Walter Block

Walter Block is an atheist economist. A picture of an overweight Walter Block can be found HERE.

Amanda Scott

Amanda Scott was awarded "Atheist Activist of the Year" by the American Atheists organization at their 2015 national convention in Memphis, Tennessee.[234] Pictures of Amanda Scott with excess weight can be found HERE and HERE and HERE.

Atheist author Sir Kingsley William Amis

Sir Kingsley William Amis, CBE (16 April 1922 – 22 October 1995) was an English writer, critic and teacher. Amis was also an atheist.[235] Kingsley Amis was a serial adulterer and drunkard.[236] Sir Kingsley Amis wrote in a memoir: "Now and then I become conscious of having the reputation of being one of the great drinkers, if not one of the great drunks, of our time".[237] A picture of an overweight Sir Kingsley Amis can be found HERE

Overweight atheist origin of life researcher Aleksandr Oparin

Atheist origin of life researcher Aleksandr Oparin

See also: Evolutionists and excess weight

A picture of overweight atheist origin of life researcher Aleksandr Oparin can be found HERE. A biography of Oparin declares: "Ill health dogged Oparin in his final years, and his death in 1980 was probably the result of a heart attack."[238]

Feminist and atheist Rosika Schwimmer

Rosika Schwimmer (1877–1948) was a Hungarian-born feminist and pacifist. Rosika Schwimmer was an atheist.[239] A picture of an overweight Rosika Schwimmer can be found HERE

Marquis de Sade experienced grotesque obesity during his life

The perverse and cruel atheist Marquis de Sade experienced grotesque obesity during his life.[240] The French atheist Marquis de Sade wrote sadomasochistic novels which featured rape, bestiality and necrophilia (see Atheism and bestiality).

Beth Ditto is a singer who is a lesbian and an atheist.[241]

See picture source and license agreement

Paul-Henri Thiry

Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach (1723 - 1789) was an early advocate of atheism in Europe and he was overweight. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Thiry "used his great wealth to throw the dinner parties for which he is famous."[242]

Artwork of an overweight Paul-Henri Thiry can be found HERE

Beth Ditto

Beth Ditto is a singer. She is also a lesbian and an atheist.[243][244] A 2007 picture of an overweight Beth Ditto is available HERE.

Michigan State University overweight, atheist professor incident

On October 1, 2012, an overweight, atheist Michigan State University professor stripped naked except for his socks during one of his university classes, declared there was no God, screamed, shouted an obscenity, slammed his hands against the window and pressed his face to the window and then was taken away by police.[245][246] See also: Atheism and health

Sports involvement: Religious faith vs. atheism

See also: Sports performance: Religious faith vs. atheism and Atheist nerds

Numerous studies report athletes to be more religious than nonathletes.[247]

As noted above, two of the major risk factors for becoming obese according to the Mayo Clinic are poor dietary choices and inactivity.[248] In order to perform at their best, athletes generally must be active and make good dietary choices.

The Sports Journal is a monthly refereed journal published by the United States Sports Academy. A journal article appeared in the Sports Journal entitled Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions. The article was submitted by Nathan T. Bell, Scott R. Johnson, and Jeffrey C. Petersen from Ball State University.[249]

An excerpt from the abstract of the journal article Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions declares:

Numerous studies report athletes to be more religious than nonathletes (Fischer, 1997; Storch, Kolsky, Silvestri, & Storch, 2001; Storch et al., 2004)...

Viewers of sporting events can frequently observe athletes pointing to the sky, engaging in team prayer on the court or field, and glorifying God following athletic competitions.[250]

See also:

Atheism, alcoholism and obesity

According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.[251]

See also: Atheism and alcoholism

Heavy drinking and obesity

Research indicates that heavy drinking may contribute to obesity. For example, a study found that frequent, light drinkers (3 to 7 drinking days per week, 1 drink per drinking day) had lower BMIs than infrequent, but heavier drinkers.[252]

Atheists, atheistic cultures and excess alcohol usage

Atheists and atheistic cultures often have significant problems with excess alcohol usage (For more information please see: Atheism and alcoholism).

Secular Europe:

According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) regional office in Europe, "The WHO European Region has the highest proportion in the world of total ill health and premature death due to alcohol.[253]


Australia:

An Australian National Council on Drugs (ANCD) report indicated that 20% of Australians drink at levels putting them at risk of lifetime harm.[254]

For more information, please see: Irreligious Australia and alcoholism


Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former atheistic Soviet Union.[255] Between 1940 and 1980, this atheist state had the largest increase of the amount of alcohol usage in the developed world.[256]

Asian countries:


Atheism, alcoholism and anger

Atheism, alcoholism and anger


History of communism:

Alcoholism was a serious social problem in the former atheistic Soviet Union.[257] Between 1940 and 1980, this atheist state had the largest increase of the amount of alcohol usage in the developed world.[258]


Irreligion, alcoholism and various generations in the United States


Recent generations in the United States:

Internet atheism and obesity

See also: Internet atheism

The 20% of overweight people who are able to achieve permanent weight loss typically report doing it through engaging in high levels of physical activity, eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet, eating breakfast regularly, self-monitoring weight, and maintaining a consistent eating pattern across weekdays and weekends.[259]

Overweight individuals may need to decrease their computer and internet usage.[260]

In an essay entitled How the Atheist Movement Failed Me, an atheist woman noted that participation in the atheist community is often expensive due to the cost of attending atheist conferences and even local atheist meetings in restaurants and bars challenged her modest budget.[261] As a result of the challenges that atheists often have in terms of socializing with each other in person, many atheists turn to the internet in terms of communicating with other atheists.[262] Recently, a few atheist churches have sprung up, but CNN reported that there are questions on whether this movement can last due to an internal schism within the movement (See also: Atheist factions).[263] CNN also poses the question: "Is disbelief enough to keep a Sunday gathering together?".[264]

In 2009, an Australian university study was done concerning the association between leisure time internet and computer use with being overweight/obese and also sedentary.[265] The study concluded: "These findings suggest that, apart from nutritional and physical activity interventions, it may also be necessary to decrease time spent in sedentary behaviors, such as leisure-time Internet and computer use, in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity."[266]

In 2013, the prominent atheist PZ Myers declared:

If we're going to expand our base and we're going to draw in more people to recognize the virtues of living in a secular world, we need to appeal to more than just that geek and nerd subset of the population. We need to have a wider base. ...I seriously believe that we're on the cusp of a crisis. We're not there yet but it's looming in front of us. Will we adapt and thrive and change the world? Or will we remain an avocation for a prosperous and largely irrelevant subset of the population? Will we become something more than a scattered society of internet nerds? That's what we have to do.[267]

Internet nerds are typically less active in sports. As noted above, atheists are not as active in sports as theists. And inactivity is a major risk factor for obesity.

Irreligion, video gaming and obesity

See also: Irreligion, video game usage and obesity and Video game usage and excess weight

There is social science research showing a positive correlation between video game usage and excess weight (see: Video game usage and excess weight).

Relevant Magazine reported about the journal article in The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion entitled No Other Gods Before Mario?: Game Preferences Among Atheistic and Religious Individuals:

A new study of 228 college students found that while just about everyone prefers video games to regular board games (duh), those who claim no religion vastly prefer video games compared to the religious peers. It's a small study, but the director, Chris Burris, has an interesting hypothesis about why atheists prefer video games. Burris believes that atheists tend to be less good at "generating emotionally evocative internal simulations of experience." Simply put, he believes that religious people tend to be more imaginative, and are able to craft their own sense of play around simple games, while non-religious people tend to prefer the concrete rules afforded by video games.[268]

See also: Atheism and emotional/intrapersonal intelligence

Atheist Stephen Fry on video gaming

The atheist Stephen Fry said, "I do enjoy video gaming... In the early days of games, I would spend hours. I mean literally. I would find it would be 4am and I would say God I have be at work at 6."[269]

Millennials, irreligion and obesity

See also: Millennials, irreligion and obesity

The Pew Research Center defines "adult Millennials" as those who are 18 to 33 years old, born between 1981–1996.[270]

Maria Kang, a non-profit organization founder, model and fitness enthusiast, who is a millenial, posted a viral picture on the internet of her and her three young children with the message "What's your excuse?".[271][272]

Kang says on her website, "I am passionate about my faith, my family and my fitness."[273]

In 2010, the Pew Research Forum reported concerning the millennial generation:

By some key measures, Americans ages 18 to 29 are considerably less religious than older Americans...

Compared with their elders today, young people are much less likely to affiliate with any religious tradition or to identify themselves as part of a Christian denomination. Fully one-in-four adults under age 30 (25%) are unaffiliated, describing their religion as “atheist,” “agnostic” or “nothing in particular.” This compares with less than one-fifth of people in their 30s (19%), 15% of those in their 40s, 14% of those in their 50s and 10% or less among those 60 and older. About two-thirds of young people (68%) say they are members of a Christian denomination and 43% describe themselves as Protestants, compared with 81% of adults ages 30 and older who associate with Christian faiths and 53% who are Protestants.[274]

Commenting on the issue of millennials and obesity, Futurecast wrote in 2009:

Gen Y, defined as young adults 18-29, are less active and more obese than earlier generations.

“The proportion of young adults 18–29 years of age who were obese more than tripled from 8% in 1971–1974 to 24% in 2003–2004.”

“Nearly two-thirds of young adults did not have regular leisure-time physical activity and three-quarters did not report strength-training at least twice a week.”[275]

Generation X, irreligion and obesity

See also: Generation X, irreligion and obesity

Generation X is made up of individuals born between 1966 to 1980.

Using data from the American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS), Barry A. Kosmin & Juhem Navarro-Rivera reported:

Generation X became more secular and also less Christian (85% in 1990 v. 75% in 2008) as it aged and grew in size. However, the proportion of the cohort identifying with Other Christian denominations and non-Christian religions hardly changed. So the secularizing change mainly occurred at the expense of Catholic self-identification which fell from 33% in 1990 to 26% in 2008.[276]

In 2014, Bloomberg News reported about Generation X and obesity:

People born from 1966 to 1980, known as Generation X, are fatter and twice as likely to have diabetes as Baby Boomers were at the same age, according to an Australian study that predicts younger generations will be sicker and costlier to care for in old age.[277]

Generation X in America, obese atheists and education

See also: Religion and education

In 2014, Philip Schwadel, an associate professor of sociology at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, declared that it’s the least-educated members of Generation X who are “most likely to leave religion".[278] See: Religion and education

In the United States, religion is positively correlated to education; a scholarly study published in an academic journal titled the Review of Religious Research demonstrated that increased education is correlated with belief in God and that "education positively affects religious participation, devotional activities, and emphasizing the importance of religion in daily life."[279][280][281][282] Furthermore, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) reports that higher levels of education is positively correlated with lower rates of obesity.[283]

Researchers at Bowling Green State University found that obesity/excess weight negatively affects one's ability to be accepted into graduate schools. [284]

As noted above, having a lower socioeconomic status, which of course includes education, is positively correlated with obesity.[285]

Baby boom generation, irreligion and obesity

See also: Baby boom generation, irreligion and obesity

The baby boom generation was born between the years 1946 and 1964.

In 2011, the Pew research foundation reported concerning the United States:

Younger generations also are significantly less likely than older ones to affiliate with a religious tradition. This pattern began in the 1970s when 13% of Baby Boomers were unaffiliated with any particular religion, according to the General Social Survey. That compared with just 6% among the Silent generation and 3% among the Greatest generation.[286]

On February 5, 2013, Business Insider wrote an article entitled Baby Boomers Are Fatter And Lazier Than Their Parents' Generation in which cited statistics indicating that the baby boomer generation has greater problems with obesity that the previous generation and is also a generation which is less physically active. [287]

The Silent Generation was born from 1925 until 1942. They preceded the baby boom generation.

Atheism, homosexuality and obesity

See also: Homosexuality and obesity and Lesbianism and obesity

The Bible declares homosexuality to be a sin (see: Homosexuality and the Bible).

The journalist Peter LaBarbera wrote: "Anyone who has researched the subject of homosexuality knows that many of the most staunch advocates of homosexuality are those who hold a decidedly secular outlook."[288] The Bible is against homosexuality (see: Homosexuality and the Bible). See also: Homosexuality and Religious Liberty

Peter LaBarbera also declared:

The National Youth Risk Behavior Surveys are given to high schoolers, and the Centers for Disease Control looked at the data from 2001 to 2009 in the states of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin and the cities of Boston, Chicago, Milwaukee, New York City, San Francisco and San Diego, locales where the schools permitted questions about homosexual identity/behavior, which isn’t always the case in less “progressive” areas.

Teens who called themselves “gay, lesbian or bisexual,” or who were unsure, as well as those who didn’t use those labels but had sexual contact only with same-sex people or with both sexes, were found to be more likely than heterosexually identified students to engage in seven out of the 10 risk behavior categories. These were: 1) behaviors that contribute to violence; 2) behaviors related to attempted suicide; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol use; 5) other drug use; 6) sexual behaviors; and 7) weight management. (emphasis added)[289]

See also: Homosexuality and health and Homosexual Couples and Domestic Violence and Homosexuality and murders and Homosexuality and Illegal Drug Use and Mental Health and Homosexuality and Homosexuality and smoking and Homosexuality Statistics

Lesbianism and obesity

See also: Lesbianism and obesity and Homosexuality and obesity and Atheism and marriage

Lesbians have significantly higher rates of obesity.[290]

In 2013, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported that 75% of American lesbians are obese.[291] In April of 2007, the American Journal of Public Health analyzed data from 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the data suggested that American lesbian women were 2.69 times more likely to be overweight and 2.47 times more likely to be obese than all other female sexual orientation groups. [292] The abstract for this study indicated that "lesbians are at greater risk for morbidity and mortality linked to overweight and obesity." [292]

Chubby subculture among male homosexuals

See also: Homosexuality and obesity and Atheism and marriage

Within the male homosexuality community, there is a subculture of overweight/obese homosexuals which is called the chubby culture (an overweight male homosexual within this subculture is called a "chub").[293]

Atheism, homosexuality, sin and obesity

Since the Bible declares gluttony and homosexuality to be sins, no doubt there are obese people and/or homosexuals who reject Christianity, despite the abundant evidence for Christianity, and decide to become or remain atheists rather than repent and become Christians.

Atheists and the fat acceptance movement

See also: Atheism and the fat acceptance movement and Atheism and the suppression of science

As noted above, while there are many atheists who accept the vast amount of medical data indicating the harmful effects of being overweight, there have been atheists who have engaged in denialism and have very much agreed with the fat acceptance movement. Furthermore, as noted above, atheists have been interviewed by major news organizations and advocated the fat acceptance movement.[294]

Greta Christina

Picture of Greta Christina in 2007.

(photo from Flickr, see: license agreement)

For years, the prominent atheist, lesbian and feminist Greta Christina was involved in the fat acceptance movement and largely dismissed the abundant medical science data indicating the negative health effects of being overweight. Her fat acceptance beliefs were altered though when she had a serious knee problem which prompted her to lose her excess weight.[295]

Within the feminist movement, there a branch of feminism called fat feminism.[296] The lesbian population in the Western World has a significantly higher rate of obesity (see: Lesbianism and obesity).

Today, Christina has a more limited agreement with the fat acceptance movement, but still considers herself apart of it.[297]

Greta Christina wrote in 2010:

And while I have huge disagreements with the fat acceptance movement -- especially with its more extreme denialist edges -- I still think many of its ideas are important, and perceptive, and entirely fair. I have serious disagreements with FA, but I am still very much shaped by it, and I would like to think of myself as an ally of the movement, and even as a member of it.

It's just that they don't feel the same way about me.[298]

Skepchick writer and feminist Heina Dadabhoy

Skepchick writer and feminist Heina Dadabhoy has written about "fat phobia", fat-hating and also wrote about a television episode "What I did like was seeing a bad fatty positively represented on mainstream-enough television".[299] She has written a number of fat acceptance blog posts.[300]

Website Fierce, Freethinking Fatties

A prominent atheist fat acceptance website is the website Fierce, Freethinking Fatties and the representatives of the website have been featured by major news outlets such as the BBC, NBC, Village Voice, China International Radio and the Huffington Post.[301][302]

Atheism, politics and the fat acceptance movement

Since the majority of atheists are on the left side of the political spectrum (see: Atheism and politics), politically left leaning atheists (such as feminists) who subscribe to fat acceptance movement ideology typically subscribe to the fat acceptance movement's identity politics type complaints of "thin privilege".[303][304][305] Rather than take responsibility for their health choices, they would rather wallow in self-pity and play the victim (As noted above, most individuals are overweight due to their dietary and exercise habits[306]).

Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism

See also: Psychology, obesity, religiosity and atheism and Atheism and health and Atheism and depression

As noted earlier, many people overeat in response to negative emotions such as depression, anger, anxiety and boredom (see also: Atheism and depression).[307] In addition, obesity is positively associated with neuroticism, impulsiveness, and lower self-discipline.[308][309][310][311]

The Mayo Clinic found that that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better physical health and mental outcomes.[312]

(photo obtained from Wikimedia Commons, see: license agreement)

Concerning atheism and mental and physical health, as noted earlier, there is considerable amount of scientific evidence that suggest that theism is more conducive to mental and physical health than atheism.

As noted previously, the Mayo Clinic reported the following on December 11, 2001:

In an article also published in this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Mayo Clinic researchers reviewed published studies, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and subject reviews that examined the association between religious involvement and spirituality and physical health, mental health, health-related quality of life and other health outcomes.

The authors report a majority of the nearly 350 studies of physical health and 850 studies of mental health that have used religious and spiritual variables have found that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes.[313]

In December of 2003, the University of Warwick reported:

Dr. Stephen Joseph, from the University of Warwick, said: "Religious people seem to have a greater purpose in life, which is why they are happier. Looking at the research evidence, it seems that those who celebrate the Christian meaning of Christmas are on the whole likely to be happier.[314]
Atheists have higher rates of suicide than the general population. Please see: Atheism and suicide

Duke University has established the Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health.[315] The Duke University Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health is based in the Center for Aging at Duke and gives opportunities for scholarly trans-disciplinary conversation and the development of collaborative research projects.[316] In respect to the atheism and mental and physical health, the center offers many studies which suggest that theism is more beneficial than atheism.[317]

Atheism, obesity and self-esteem

See also: Atheism and self-esteem and Atheism, obesity and self-esteem and Atheism and depression and Atheism and suicide and Atheism, uncharitableness and depression

There are preliminary studies indicating that individuals who reject Christianity in Western cultures have lower self-esteem than the Christian population.[318][319] In addition, obese individuals can have lower self-esteem related to their obesity.[320] In the United States, obese people are often stereotyped as being "lazy, lacking self-discipline and being mentally slow" (Medical science research indicates that excess weight impairs brain function.[321]).[322] In March of 2011, USA News and World Report declared that an Arizona State University study suggests that fat stigma has gone global.[323] In addition, parts of the world that once viewed being overweight favorably now hold negative views concerning having extra pounds and also hold negative views concerning overweight individuals.[324] Poor self-esteem has been linked to an increase in suicide attempts and atheists have higher rates of suicide than the general population.[325][326][327] Obese atheists likely have higher rates of suicide than the general public.

Atheistic China and obesity - Additional information

See also: China and obesity

Obesity is growing at an alarming rate in China. More than a quarter of the adult population, or roughly 350 million people, is overweight or obese.[328]

As noted above, China has the world's largest atheist population.[329][330] As noted above, in 2014, it was reported that China's obesity rate has skyrocketed in the last 30 years and the Chinese now have the second highest obesity rate in the world.[331][332]

As indicated above, the Wall Street Journal reported in 2014 that China had approximately 300 million overweight people.[333] In 2014, the British medical journal Lancet analyzed weight trends in 188 countries and reported that more than 28% of Chinese adult men and 27% of the country’s adult women are now overweight or obese.[334]

As mentioned above, according to a 2012 report by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of obese children in China has reached 120 million.[335] A recent study published in the Obesity Reviews journal, found that Chinese teenagers' rate of diabetes was four times that of their American peers.[336] Due to their past one-child policy, which had exceptions, China now has a lot of over-pampered and over-fed children.[337]

Matthew Crabbe, co-author of "Fat China: How Expanding Waistlines are Changing a Nation" declared that China's surging rate of obesity is "a ticking bomb" underneath the country's future economic growth and healthcare system.[338]

In 2014, The Economist declared in an article entitled Chubby little emperors:

MORE than 2,000 years ago “Huangdi Neijing”, a classic Chinese medical text, identified obesity as a disease caused by eating too much “fatty meats and polished grains”. Until a generation ago such a diet was an extravagance beyond imagination for all but the elite. But the Chinese waistline has since expanded, and at an alarming rate.

More than a quarter of the adult population, or roughly 350m people, is overweight or obese (more than 60m squeeze into the latter camp). That is at least twice as many as are under-nourished. With rising incomes and more diverse diets, Chinese people are consuming much more fatty food and fizzy drinks. Meals now contain more than twice as much oil and meats as in the 1980s.

This is producing a health calamity, both in heart disease (which now accounts for over a third of deaths) and in a less-noticed explosion of diabetes, which is closely linked to obesity. The prevalence of diabetes has grown more than tenfold during the past three decades. According to a recent national survey, 11.6% of Chinese adults are diabetic, a share almost as high as in America, whose obesity rate is much greater.

With a catastrophic famine still in living memory, it is little surprise that Chinese people have developed a taste for foods rich in fats and sugars.[339]

China and Western style food restaurants and China has rapidly become the largest beer market

In China, there is a growing amount of westernized style food establishments that can be found in most reasonably size cities.[340] In addition, China has rapidly become the largest market for beer.[341]

All you can eat buffets in China

All you can eat buffets in China are called 自助餐 (zi zhu can). They typically have Western food as well as Chinese food and are found in large cities such Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Qingdao, etc.[342]

In the Grand View Mall Guangzhou, China they have a place called Las Vegas Buffet. In Guangzhou, they also have several Brazilian meat buffets where they come patrons tables and slice meat of a skewer (This also includes an all you can eat buffet).[343]

Secular Europe and obesity - Additional information

See also: Secular Europe and obesity and Secular Europe

From a global perspective, Europe is more secular than the rest of the world although it does have a considerable amount of religious immigrants who have higher birth rates (see: Atheist population and Global atheism).

As noted above, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently reported:

Based on the latest estimates in European Union countries, overweight affects 30-70% and obesity affects 10-30% of adults.

Estimates of the number of overweight infants and children in the WHO European Region rose steadily from 1990 to 2008. Over 60% of children who are overweight before puberty will be overweight in early adulthood.[344]

United Kingdom and obesity

See also: United Kingdom and obesity

Britain is the birthplace of Darwinism. Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists or agnostics.[345] A Eurobarometer poll in 2010 reported that 37% of UK citizens "believed there is a God", 33% believe there is "some sort of spirit or life force" and 25% answered "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".[346]

On May 28, 2014, The Guardian reported on that the United Kingdom is among worst in Western Europe as far as the level of overweight and obese people.[347] In 2014, in the UK, 67% of men and 57% of women were either overweight or obese.[348]

Professor Terence Stephenson in Measuring Up, a report on the nation's obesity crisis by the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AoMRC) called Britain the "fat man of Europe".[349] In May of 2014, the British paper The Mirror reported that according to the British medical journal Lancet, British girls are the most overweight girls in Western Europe.[350] In Britain, 29.2% of girls under the age of 20 are classed as excessively heavy with just over 8% meeting the clinical definition of obesity.[351] See also: Evolutionists who have had problems with being overweight

UK, alcohol usage and obesity

See also: Britain and alcoholism

On July 29, 2014, The Independent reported:

The UK is full of heavy drinkers with bad eating habits who are ignorant, intolerant and too nationalistic – so it’s just as well that we are also very polite.

It might sound like a stereotypical list of national traits, but these are the views of more than 5,000 young adults from five different countries who were asked to give their opinion on modern Britain by the British Council.[352]

The UK website Alcohol Concern reports:

More than 9 million people in England drink more than the recommended daily limits

In England, in 2012 there were 6,490 alcohol-related deaths, a 19% increase compared to 2001

Alcohol is 10% of the UK burden of disease and death, making alcohol one of the three biggest lifestyle risk factors for disease and death in the UK, after smoking and obesity.

An estimated 7.5 million people are unaware of the damage their drinking could be causing

In the UK in 2012-13, there were 1,008,850 hospital admissions related to alcohol consumption where an alcohol-related disease, injury or condition was the primary reason for hospital admission or a secondary diagnosis[353]

As noted above, excessive drinking can lead to weight gain (see: Atheism and alcoholism).

Atheism, obesity and loneliness

See also: Atheism, obesity and loneliness

Obesity and loneliness

Loneliness has been linked to numerous physical and mental health problems.[354][355]

One of the emotional problems that is positively associated with obesity is loneliness.[356]

Atheism and loneliness

Compared to religious cultures where an extended family and a sense of community prevails, secular countries are often lonelier societies. In addition, numerous studies and other data indicate that atheists often have lower emotional intelligence and lower social skills (see: Atheiam and emotional intelligence and Atheiam and social skills).

For more information, please see:

Indian anthropologist's commentary on lonelineness in atheistic Denmark

The Indian anthropologist Prakash Reddy found Denmark to be a neat and tidy, cozy little society, stiff, rigid and seemingly full of practical, down-to-earth but lonely people, isolated from each other and lacking much sense of religion.

Compared to the teeming villages of India, a Danish hamlet seemed deserted and closed. To an Indian, accustomed to constant close contact in an extended family and community, Danish life was cold if not nonexistent.[357]

In 1993, Reuters reported:

Indian anthropologist Prakash Reddy has turned the tables on Western colleagues who put Third World cultures under the microscope.

Reddy, of Sri Venkateswara University at Tirupati in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, spent four months in the village of Hvilsager--population 104--on Denmark's Jutland peninsula.

His study, published in book form in English under the title "Danes are like that!" expresses dismay at the loneliness he found and the hope that India would not have to pay the same price for prosperity.

"The most fundamental question that should bother every social scientist in the East is: Is there no way of achieving development without sacrificing the human values and the way of life cherished by homo sapiens?" he asked....

Reddy said he found a neat and tidy, cozy little society, stiff, rigid and seemingly full of practical, down-to-earth but lonely people, isolated from each other and lacking much sense of religion.

Compared to the teeming villages of India, the Danish hamlet seemed deserted and closed. To an Indian, accustomed to constant close contact in an extended family and community, Danish life was cold if not nonexistent, Reddy said.

"Coming from an Indian village, I was used to seeing people in the streets . . . but here in Denmark not a single soul was sighted and, except for the sound of a passing automobile, absolute silence prevailed," Reddy wrote.[358]

Atheism, autism and obesity

See: Atheism, autism and obesity

Atheism, obesity and hypocrisy

See also: Atheist hypocrisy

Atheist often champion mainstream medicine and disparage osteopathy, integrative medicine, chiropractic healthcare and other alternative medicine approaches.[359][360] Yet despite medical science having an vast amount of evidence pointing out the many health risks of excess weight and medical science, exercise science, and nutritional science having many effective measures to lose weight, there are a significant number of Western World atheists who are obese or have excess weight.

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines biology as "a branch of knowledge that deals with organisms and vital processes."[361] One of the most basic vital processes relating to human biology is eating. Given that overweight atheists typically champion evolutionary pseudoscience, it is not surprising that many have not mastered regulating their daily food intake.

For more information on atheist hypocrisy, please see: Atheist hypocrisy

Evolutionists who have had problems with being overweight

See also: Professor PZ Myers fails his applied biology course - satire and Atheist hypocrisy

Erasmus Darwin grew to be so corpulent that a semi-circle had to be cut out of his dining table to accommodate his girth at meal times.[362]

Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists or agnostics.[363]

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines biology as "a branch of knowledge that deals with organisms and vital processes."[364] Although the creation vs. evolution issue touches upon a number of scientific fields outside of biology (for example, the field of paleoanthropology), biology is a key scientific field relating to this issue.

As far as the maintenance of personal health, one of the most basic vital processes related to human biology is eating and it is important that it is done in a healthy manner (see: Nutrition and Health risks linked to obesity).

Also, as far as the history of Darwinism, the agnostic Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, is believed to have influenced Charles Darwin as far as the development of his evolutionary beliefs.[365][366] As far as Erasmus Darwin's eating habits, "His love of food (particularly fruits, sugar, cream and butter) was matched by his dislike of exercise, and by the age of 46 he had grown so corpulent that a semi-circle had to be cut out of his dining table to accommodate his girth at meal times."[367]

A list of evolutionists who who have had problems with being overweight and/or obese can be found by clicking the link directly below:

Evolutionists who have had problems with being overweight and/or obese

Creation Ministries International points out that some evolutionists unreasonably claim that human evolution supposedly has contributed to obesity.[368]

Atheism, obesity, objective beauty, design and atheists misusing their bodies

Individuals who belong to the Abrahamic faiths see the beauty in nature as the handiwork of God (see: Argument from beauty).

Individuals who belong to the Abrahamic faiths (Christianity, Judaism and Islam) see the beauty in nature as the handiwork of God (see: Argument from beauty). Just as a painting requires a painter, nature's beauty demands a Creator.

Traditionally, in monotheistic cultures, well-proportioned bodies have been considered the most beautiful. Furthermore, these theistic cultures accept the idea of sin - such as the sins of gluttony and sloth which can detract from external beauty.

The Bible acknowledges that an individual can possess both external and inner beauty. For example, Sarah, who who was Abraham's wife, was said to have both inner and external beauty.[369][370]

Unlike many very religious monotheists, atheists reject: the existence of objective beauty (objective beauty exists and beauty is not merely subjective[371]); that gluttony and sloth are sins and that humans were intelligently designed.[372] Therefore, they are more likely to attempt to rationalize away the unsightly excess weight that has accumulated on their bodies that detracts from their physical appearance and causes their bodies to operate less efficiently than they were designed to function.[373][374][375]

Atheism and a lack of appreciation for the beauty of the human body

See also: Atheism and a lack of appreciation for the beauty of the human body

Michelangelo's Creation of Adam

Christians and other theists have produced great works of art such as statues and paintings that depicted the beauty of the human body. The Bible teaches that God formed the first man and woman and that his original creation was "very good".[376] See: Christian art and Christian paintings

The psalmist David wrote: "One thing I have asked from the LORD, that I shall seek: That I may dwell in the house of the LORD all the days of my life, To behold the beauty of the LORD And to meditate in His temple."(Psalm 27:4). The fall of man caused death, disease and suffering to enter into the world. The Bible also declares that Sarah, Abraham's wife, had both inner and outer beauty.[377] The Song of Solomon features two lovers who tell each other how beautiful they are.

On the other hand, as noted above, a significant amount of atheists lack an appreciation for the importance of maintaining good health and for keeping up a presentable appearance unencumbered by excess weight. Please see: Atheism and a lack of appreciation for the beauty of the human body

See also:

Atheism has a poor track record in terms of creating art/music

See also: Atheism and art/music

Despite atheism being around since at least ancient Greece, there has not been a strong tradition of creating musical and artistic works related to atheism. Musical/artistic talent can be enhanced through practice and the atheist creed of "there is no God" is not an inspiring creed that produces a significant amount of music/art. For example, despite Wikipedia being founded by an atheist and an agnostic, there are no articles specifically devoted to the topics of atheist music or atheist art at Wikipedia, but Wikipedia does have articles devoted specifically to Christian art and Christian music.

For more information please see: Atheism and art/music

The perverse and cruel atheist Marquis de Sade in prison, 18th century line engraving. See: Atheism and sadism

Atheism and misuses of the body

See also: Atheism and moral intelligence

Articles related to atheism and sexual immorality

Atheism and suicide

Vox Day on atheism, obesity and prosperity

See also: Causes of atheism and Global decline of atheism and Western ungodliness, prosperity, decadence and obesity

On June 3, 2014, Vox Day wrote in an article entitled The inevitable decline of atheism which declared:

A more important factor is that times of wealth and peace have always been a counter-indicator of religious belief. The rich and fat seldom believe they have any need for God, and they deeply resent any divinely inspired restrictions on their descent into decadence. At the end of the longest period of peace and economic expansion in the history of the West, it should be no surprise at all that we have an obese, decadent, depraved, diseased population that fears no God.

They will learn better soon enough. Both history and the Bible are very clear concerning the eventual fate of such societies.[378]

See also: Atheism and economics

The Apostle Paul on the sin of gluttony

"One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said, 'Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.'" - Apostle Paul, (Titus 1:12 NASB)

"Whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things." - Apostle Paul, (Philippians 3:19 KJV)

See also

Notes

  1. Stephen Fry talks gaming
  2. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  3. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  4. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  5. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  6. Can religion help prevent obesity? Religious messages and the prevalence of being overweight or obese among Korean women in California. J Sci Study Relig. 2010;49(3):536-49. Ayers JW1, Hofstetter CR, Irvin VL, Song Y, Park HR, Paik HY, Hovell MF.
  7. Causes of obesity
  8. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  9. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  10. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  11. Religion Replenishes Self-Control, Psychological Science, June 2012 vol. 23 no. 6 635-642, Kevin Rounding, Albert Lee, Jill A. Jacobson and Li-Jun Ji at Queen’s University
  12. Study finds religion helps us gain self-control
  13. Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. McCullough ME, Hoyt WT, Larson DB, Koenig HG, Thoresen C., Health Psychol. 2000 May;19(3):211-22.
  14. The role of spirituality in health care, roc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 October; 14(4): 352–357.
  15. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/obesity/
  16. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/obesity?show=0&t=1293887890
  17. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=causes
  18. http://www.gotquestions.org/gluttony-sin.html
  19. Sloth - Open Bible
  20. Who Cares?, PZ Myer at the Pharyngula, October 25, 2014
  21. http://carm.org/christianity/sermons/1-corinthians-619-20-your-body-his-temple
  22. Fierce, Freethinking Fatties - Press
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  26. Validation of the emotional eating scale adapted for use in children and adolescents (EES-C), International Journal of Eating Disorders. 2007 Apr;40(3):232-40. Tanofsky-Kraff M1, Theim KR, Yanovski SZ, Bassett AM, Burns NP, Ranzenhofer LM, Glasofer DR, Yanovski JA
  27. http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/01/01/anger-at-god-common-even-among-atheists/
  28. Why do atheists hate God?
  29. World Health Organization - obesity fact sheet
  30. World Health Organization - obesity fact sheet
  31. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf
  32. McCullogh ME, Larson DB, Hoyt WT. et al. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health Psychology. 19, 3. 211-222
  33. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/76/12/1225.full.pdf
  34. The psycho-social benefits of religious practice by Iona Institute
  35. McCullogh ME, Larson DB, Hoyt WT. et al. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: a meta-analytic review. Health Psychology. 19, 3. 211-222
  36. Psychology researcher says spiritual meaning of Christmas brings more happiness than materialism - Scienceblog and University of Warwick
  37. http://www.dukespiritualityandhealth.org/
  38. http://www.dukespiritualityandhealth.org/about/
  39. Research on Spirituality, Theology and Health - Duke University
  40. As Obesity Rises, Chinese Kids Are Almost as Fat as Americans, Wall Street Journal Chinarealtime, May 29, 2014
  41. Chubby China: Nation of 300 Million Overweight People
  42. Obesity is a growing concern in China By Pang Li, China.org.cn, September 14, 2012
  43. As Obesity Rises, Chinese Kids Are Almost as Fat as Americans, Wall Street Journal Chinarealtime, May 29, 2014
  44. Chubby China: Nation of 300 Million Overweight People
  45. Obesity is a growing concern in China By Pang Li, China.org.cn, September 14, 2012
  46. World Health Organization - Regional Office for Europe - The challenge of obesity - quick statistics
  47. Czech Republic fattest country in Europe
  48. Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
  49. Richard Felix Staar, Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, Issue 269, p. 90
  50. Population by denomination and sex: as measured by 1921, 1930, 1950, 1991 and 2001 censuses (Czech and English). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved on 2010-03-09.
  51. Czech Republic fattest country in Europe
  52. British girls are FATTEST in western Europe claims alarming new research by The Lancet, Mirror, Ben Burrows, May 29, 2014 10:52
  53. [Britain is building special new towns to tackle the obesity crisis]
  54. Chuck Norris asks, 'What would Jesus eat?': Discovers Christ ate 'healthiest diet ever developed' by Chuck Norris, Published: 03/29/2013 at 9:59 PM
  55. Mediterranean diet by Mayo Clinic
  56. 2000 YEARS OF CHRISTIAN INCREASE
  57. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  58. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  59. http://www.wnd.com/?pageId=30077
  60. Is Christianity taking over the planet?
  61. World's fattest countries
  62. Traditional African diets are healthier than Western diets, Today's Nutrition
  63. The African apostles: How Christianity exploded in 20th-century Africa
  64. World's fattest countries
  65. Traditional African diets are healthier than Western diets, Today's Nutrition
  66. The African apostles: How Christianity exploded in 20th-century Africa
  67. Is mocking religion enough? Harris, Dawkins and the future of atheist/secular politics by Richard Cimino and Christopher Smith, Salon magazine
  68. Rain soaked crowd at the Reason Rally, Digital Journal, photographer: Sean Fraser, date: 3/24/2012
  69. Reason Rally: 30k godless undeterred by rain, Examiner, March 25, 2012
  70. Ed Brayton at the Reason Rally[1]
  71. CfaN Burundi, Africa gospel crusade… part 2
  72. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145379/Religious-Americans-Lead-Healthier-Lives.aspx
  73. 1 Corinthians: The Troubled Church
  74. 2 Corinthians: Introduction, Argument, and Outline
  75. The Protestant Work Ethic: Alive & Well…In China
  76. One Solitary Life by Grahame Pockette
  77. Chuck Norris asks, 'What would Jesus eat?'
  78. Mediterranean diet by Mayo Clinic
  79. About Jen McCreight
  80. Women in Secularism
  81. Those fatty McFatFat atheists! by Jen McCreight
  82. Jen McCreight - We Are Atheism
  83. Why Atheists Have a Serious Problem With Women
  84. Are Women Afraid Of Atheism?
  85. http://www.flickr.com/photos/alan-light/229583104/
  86. Want to Be CEO? What's Your BMI?
  87. The Mad Scientist City Pages, Volume 26 - Issue 1303, November 23, 2005 Cover story
  88. http://www.flickr.com/photos/reuvenim/4426093513/
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  91. Is church harmful? - Michael & Rhonda Jones, PZ Myers, Published on Feb 10, 2013 by YouTube account kaine diatheke
  92. PZ Myers, FCD, Maureen Brian, FCD, & Richard Carter, FCD
  93. MailVox: Who said atheists are fat?.
  94. At least you can see a hint of what you missed
  95. "Creation Museum: Is This How World Began?" (ABC News)
  96. PZ Myers - Global Atheist Convention 2010
  97. http://www.counterpunch.org/mccarthy02212003.html
  98. Christopher Hitchens: Despite Cancer, I'd Drink & Smoke Again
  99. http://ac360.blogs.cnn.com/2010/08/07/video-extended-interview-hitchens-on-cancer-and-atheism/
  100. Why did Hitchens continue to smoke & drink during treatment? -CTV News
  101. Christopher Hitchens: Despite Cancer, I'd Drink & Smoke Again
  102. Picture of an overweight Christopher Hitchens smoking a cigarette
  103. National Institute of Health - Obesity and Cancer Risk
  104. http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/dennett06/dennett06_index.html
  105. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4484
  106. http://lifewithoutfaith.com/?p=183
  107. Huffington Post, May 2012
  108. Richard Leakey(1983). One Life: An Autobiography (p. 38)
  109. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Richard_Leakey.jpg
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  111. The Great Debate: Does God Exist? Dr. Greg Bahnsen versus Dr. Gordon Stein
  112. The Great Debate: Does God Exist? Dr. Greg Bahnsen versus Dr. Gordon Stein
  113. The Great Debate: Does God Exist? Dr. Greg Bahnsen versus Dr. Gordon Stein
  114. I’m Back, Now Help Ed Brayton!
  115. James Hibberd. "EW interview: George R.R. Martin talks 'A Dance With Dragons'", Entertainment Weekly, July 12, 2011. 
  116. James Hibberd. "EW interview: George R.R. Martin talks 'A Dance With Dragons'", Entertainment Weekly, July 12, 2011. 
  117. George RR Martin gives impatient readers the finger by Alison Flood, The Guardian, Thursday 10 July 2014 07.18 EDT
  118. George RR Martin gives impatient readers the finger by Alison Flood, The Guardain, Thursday 10 July 2014 07.18 EDT
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  123. Skeptoid’s Conservapedia Page
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  125. http://www.totalgymdirect.com/
  126. http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=55789
  127. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2WLulSQvYU
  128. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2WLulSQvYU
  129. Atheism: A religion of degenerates
  130. Atheism: A religion of degenerates
  131. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y3_hrijrHY
  132. http://gretachristina.com/personal.html
  133. Caught Between Fat and Thin: When a Fat Acceptance Advocate Takes Off the Pounds by Greta Christina
  134. The World We're in Now - Greta Christina - Skepticon 9, November 2016 video posted at YouTube
  135. Keith M. Parsons - bio
  136. Bio of Keith M. Parsons
  137. Klout profile - Bruce Gerencser
  138. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcNmqGo4jg8
  139. Improving the image of atheist - YouTube video
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  145. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-1194024/STEPHEN-FRY-How-I-lost-stones-just-months.html
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  147. January 30, 2012 CBS Stephen Fry interview with Charlie Rose
  148. January 30, 2012 CBS Stephen Fry interview with Charlie Rose
  149. January 30, 2012 CBS Stephen Fry interview with Charlie Rose
  150. Please Note: There is a difference between disliking the perverse practice of homosexuality and fearing it. A distinction which liberal academics pretend doesn't exist - Exploring the relationship between homophobia and participation in core sports for high school students Osborne, D ; Wagner, W, 2007
  151. National Public Radio [NPR) review of the book God, No! Signs You May Already Be an Atheist and Other Magical Tales by Penn Jillette
  152. Penn Jillette - National Public Radio
  153. The Course of Reason: I Expose Penn Jillette’s Logic Trick, Center for Inquiry
  154. Penn Jillette sheds 105 pounds, USA Today, 2015
  155. Penn Jillette sheds 105 pounds, USA Today, 2015
  156. Bio of Elyse Anders, North Secular Texas Convention website
  157. About Skepchick
  158. Bio of Elyse Anders, North Secular Texas Convention website
  159. Bio of Elyse Anders
  160. Don’t tell me to love my body by Elyse Anders
  161. Amy Davis Roth articles on Skepchick
  162. Amy Davis Roth
  163. Heina Dadabhoy articles at Skepchick
  164. Heina Dadabhoy
  165. Heina Dadabhoy - fat acceptance blog post
  166. Nick Massey bio at Secular Woman, Inc.
  167. Secular Woman Welcomes Niki Massey. Secular Woman Inc. website - September 16, 2014
  168. Matthew Bulger - Board of Directors - Secular Students Alliance
  169. Matthew Bulger - bio - American Humanist Association
  170. Bio of Galen Broaddus
  171. Bio of Galen Broaddus
  172. Atheism Skepticism Knowledge group holds open house by EARLE CORNELIUS
  173. Westboro Atheists
  174. Randy Henderson - Flickr
  175. Randy Henderson - Flickr
  176. Tom Leykis - Atheist of the week
  177. http://lifewithoutfaith.com/?p=183
  178. http://www.flickr.com/photos/martystone/3435459032
  179. Huffington Post, May 2012
  180. Shelly Mountjoy
  181. SSA Summit Day One: Service, Collaboration, and Lessons from Queers, April 28, 2010
  182. Shelley Mountjoy Wins American Atheists Scholarship
  183. PZ Myers - Science Education: Caught in the Middle in the War Between Science and Religion
  184. Atheists gather for a holiday they can believe in: Independence Day
  185. Paul-Henri Thiry - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  186. Sarah Morehead - Executive Director of Recovering from Religion
  187. Dan Fincke - classes
  188. Dan Fincke - My deconversion
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  194. Cryogenesis: A Review, Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science, In Winter 2012/ March 11, 2012
  195. Heaven for atheists - TheHumanist.com
  196. Cryonics and critics, The Cryonics Society
  197. The Great Debate: Greg Bahnsen vs Gordon Stein
  198. Bahnsen at the Stein debate by John Frame
  199. "The Great Debate: Does God Exist?" or The Great Debate: Does God Exist? - Dr. Greg Bahnsen versus Dr. Gordon Stein - Audio of a formal debate between Christian Greg Bahnsen and skeptic Gordon Stein at the University of California, Irvine.
  200. http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/kim-il-sung.html
  201. http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/mao-zedong-56.php
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  204. N.Korean Leader Getting Fatter
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  214. George Melly's battle with cancer and dementia
  215. George Melly's battle with cancer and dementia
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  231. Michigan State University Professor Strips Naked In Class, Police Arrive To Escort Him To Hospital
  232. The intellectual atheist
  233. Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
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  235. Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
  236. Strength of Religious Faith of Athletes and Nonathletes at Two NCAA Division III Institutions
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  245. Long-term weight loss maintenance, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2005 July; 82(1 Suppl):222S-225S.
  246. http://www.jmir.org/2009/3/e28/
  247. How the Atheist Movement Failed Me – Part 1: Cost
  248. How to outlaw Christianity by Chuck Norris
  249. After a schism, a question: Can atheist churches last? By Katie Engelhart, special to CNNJanuary 4th, 2014
  250. After a schism, a question: Can atheist churches last? By Katie Engelhart, special to CNNJanuary 4th, 2014
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  253. in Seattle, PZ Myers Reflects Candidly on His Constituency
  254. Why Do Atheists Like Video Games More Than Religious People Do?, Relevant Magazine
  255. Stephen Fry talks gaming
  256. Millennials in Adulthood - Pew Research Center
  257. A Theology of Body, by Pastor James Hein
  258. Mom of 3 called a bully for posting ‘What’s Your Excuse?’ fitness photo by Tract Miller, New York Daily News, Wednesday, October 16, 2013, 11:30 AM
  259. Maria Kang - about
  260. Religion among the millenials, Pew Research Center
  261. Millennials: Are They Healthier than Earlier Generations?
  262. The Transformation of Generation X: Shifts in Religious and Political Self Identification, The Transformation of Generation X: Shifts in Religious and Political Self-Identification, 1990-2008, Barry A. Kosmin & Juhem Navarro-Rivera
  263. Gen-X Are More Likely to Have Diabetes Than Baby Boomers By Jason Gale 2014-03-27T00:47:24Z
  264. Losing religion at college? New study flips the common wisdom
  265. Schwadel, Philip (2011). The Effects of Education on Americans’ Religious Practices, Beliefs, and Affiliations. DOI:10.1007/s13644-011-0007-4. “education positively affects religious participation, devotional activities, and emphasizing the importance of religion in daily life; (3) education positively affects switching religious affiliations, particularly to a mainline Protestant denomination, but not disaffiliation; (4) education is positively associated with questioning the role of religion in secular society but not with support for curbing the public opinions of religious leaders; and (5) the effects of education on religious beliefs and participation vary across religious traditions. Education does influence Americans’ religious beliefs and activities, but the effects of education on religion are complex.” 
  266. Jim Kavanagh (11 August 2011). Study: More educated tend to be more religious, by some measures. CNN. ““With more years of education, you aren’t relatively more likely to say, ‘I don’t believe in God,’” he said. “But you are relatively more likely to say, ‘I believe in a higher power.’””
  267. The more education people receive, the more religious they become?. Daily Mail (12 August 2011). “By analyzing data from a large national survey, sociologist Philip Schwadel of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln found that people tend to become more religious - by certain definitions - as they further their education. The survey also qualified what concept of God or a 'higher power' individuals held, as well as whether they had any doubts. Mr Schwadel said that: 'With more years of education, you aren’t relatively more likely to say, "I don’t believe in God," but you are relatively more likely to say, "I believe in a higher power."'”
  268. More is More When it Comes to Education and Religion, Study Says. Christian Post (13 August 2011). “Sociologist Philip Schwadel from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) studied this phenomenon. He discovered that people today tend to become more religious as they further their education.”
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  270. Grad School Admissions Negatively Affected By High BMI, Study Finds
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  282. Caught Between Fat and Thin: When a Fat Acceptance Advocate Takes Off the Pounds by Greta Christina
  283. Caught Between Fat and Thin: When a Fat Acceptance Advocate Takes Off the Pounds by Greta Christina
  284. [Pretty Little Lies: Why I Loved the Fat Lady Episode of ‘Louie]
  285. Heina Dadabhoy - fat acceptance blog post
  286. Fierce, Freethinking Fatties - Press
  287. Fierce, Freethinking Fatties - Our Philosophy
  288. Thin Privilege. Yes, It Does Exist, June 3, 2010, Fierce Freethinking Fatties website
  289. Fatphobia and Body Dissatisfaction: Different Conversations - Skepchick website
  290. 20+ Examples of Thin Privilege - Everyday feminism
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  310. Chubby little emperors, The Economist, June 14th 2014|BEIJING|From the print edition
  311. Top 50 Countries With Highest Proportion of Atheists / Agnostics (Zuckerman, 2005)
  312. A surprising map of where the world’s atheists live, Washington Post By Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey May 23, 2013
  313. As Obesity Rises, Chinese Kids Are Almost as Fat as Americans, Wall Street Journal Chinarealtime, May 29, 2014
  314. Chubby China: Nation of 300 Million Overweight People
  315. Chubby China: Nation of 300 Million Overweight People
  316. As Obesity Rises, Chinese Kids Are Almost as Fat as Americans, Wall Street Journal Chinarealtime, May 29, 2014
  317. Child Obesity Reaches 120 Million in China
  318. Obesity is a growing concern in China By Pang Li, China.org.cn, September 14, 2012
  319. Rising Chinese Child Obesity and Fat Camps
  320. Obesity is a growing concern in China By Pang Li, China.org.cn, September 14, 2012
  321. Chubby little emperors, The Economist, June 14th 2014|BEIJING|From the print edition
  322. China’s public health crisis The Spectator, Dr. Nick Summerton 25 August 2014 11:08
  323. China’s public health crisis The Spectator, Dr. Nick Summerton 25 August 2014 11:08
  324. Are there all you can eat buffets in China?
  325. Are there all you can eat buffets in China?
  326. World Health Organization - Regional Office for Europe - The challenge of obesity - quick statistics
  327. Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, p. 204". Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010.
  328. UK among worst in western Europe for level of overweight and obese people, The Guardian, Sarah Boseley, Wednesday 28 May 2014
  329. UK among worst in western Europe for level of overweight and obese people, The Guardian, Sarah Boseley, Wednesday 28 May 2014
  330. Britain: 'the fat man of Europe'
  331. British girls are FATTEST in western Europe claims alarming new research by The Lancet, Mirror, Ben Burrows, May 29, 2014 10:52
  332. British girls are FATTEST in western Europe claims alarming new research by The Lancet, Mirror, Ben Burrows, May 29, 2014 10:52
  333. Boozy, ignorant, intolerant, but very polite – Britain as others see us
  334. Statistics on alcohol - Alcohol concern
  335. Why Loneliness Can Be Deadly by Katherine Harmon, Live Science Contributor, March 02, 2012 02:24pm ET
  336. [Number of severely lonely men over 50 set to rise to 1m in 15 years], The Guardian, Robert Booth,Sunday 12 October 2014 19.01 EDT
  337. Emotional causes of obesity
  338. India Anthropologist Finds Denmark Wanting : Research: He laments the loneliness and lack of human values in remote village and asks if prosperity can be achieved without such sacrifices, LA Times archives, June 20, 1993, CHRISTOPHER FOLLETT, REUTERS
  339. India Anthropologist Finds Denmark Wanting : Research: He laments the loneliness and lack of human values in remote village and asks if prosperity can be achieved without such sacrifices, LA Times archives, June 20, 1993|CHRISTOPHER FOLLETT | REUTERS
  340. Medicine vs. quackery by Atheist Austin Cline
  341. Freethoughtblogs.com - A million gods - tags: medicine, quackery
  342. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biology
  343. Darwinism: it was all in the family
  344. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/biology
  345. Darwinism: it was all in the family
  346. Darwin and religion
  347. Darwinism: it was all in the family
  348. http://creation.com/smithsonian-evolution-top-10-consequences
  349. Yes, My Lord— The Story of Abraham and Sarah
  350. The most beautiful women in the Bible
  351. Religious Americans lead more healthy lives - Gallup Inc.
  352. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications
  353. Religion Replenishes Self-Control, Psychological Science, June 2012 vol. 23 no. 6 635-642, Kevin Rounding, Albert Lee, Jill A. Jacobson and Li-Jun Ji at Queen’s University
  354. Made in the image of God by Russell M. Grigg
  355. Yes, My Lord— The Story of Abraham and Sarah
  356. The inevitable decline of atheism