Difference between revisions of "Barack Hussein Obama"

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Immediately after entering office, Obama was faced with a recession - one of the most severe since the [[Great Depression]]. By and large, his economic policies to combat the recession have, to date, ranged from ineffective to counterproductive.<ref>"The vast majority (73%) of respondents reported the fiscal stimulus enacted in February 2009 has had no impact on employment to date. While 68% also believe a jobs bill, such as the one recently enacted into law, will have no impact on payrolls, 30% do believe it will boost payrolls moderately". ''Industry Survey'', National Association for Business Economics, April 2010, [http://www.nabe.com/press/ind1004.pdf p. 2 pdf].</ref> Also on the domestic front, Obama passed a major [[health care]] bill in 2009 with no [[bipartisan]] support and 34 Democrats dissenting. In foreign policy Obama has escalated the [[Afghanistan War]] and, against his own Defense Secretary's advice, [[Libyan uprising 2011|attacked Libya]] - a possible violation of the [[War Powers Act]]. On May 1st 2011 he announced that the United States had killed [[September 11th]] mastermind and terrorist [[Osama bin Laden]] in [[Pakistan]], perhaps at the cost of the United States's alliance with Pakistan.
 
Immediately after entering office, Obama was faced with a recession - one of the most severe since the [[Great Depression]]. By and large, his economic policies to combat the recession have, to date, ranged from ineffective to counterproductive.<ref>"The vast majority (73%) of respondents reported the fiscal stimulus enacted in February 2009 has had no impact on employment to date. While 68% also believe a jobs bill, such as the one recently enacted into law, will have no impact on payrolls, 30% do believe it will boost payrolls moderately". ''Industry Survey'', National Association for Business Economics, April 2010, [http://www.nabe.com/press/ind1004.pdf p. 2 pdf].</ref> Also on the domestic front, Obama passed a major [[health care]] bill in 2009 with no [[bipartisan]] support and 34 Democrats dissenting. In foreign policy Obama has escalated the [[Afghanistan War]] and, against his own Defense Secretary's advice, [[Libyan uprising 2011|attacked Libya]] - a possible violation of the [[War Powers Act]]. On May 1st 2011 he announced that the United States had killed [[September 11th]] mastermind and terrorist [[Osama bin Laden]] in [[Pakistan]], perhaps at the cost of the United States's alliance with Pakistan.
  
It is ironic that [[liberal]]s such as [[Barack Obama]] advocate [[Keynesian Economics|Keynesian economic concepts]] since the incompetent [[British]] [[economics|economist]] and [[John Maynard Keynes and pederasty|pedophile]] [[John Maynard Keynes]] advocated having governments run [[budget surplus|budget surpluses]] during good economic times.<ref>EK Brown-Collie and Bruce E. Collier, What Keynes really said about deficit spending, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Vol. 17, No. 3, Spring, 1995</ref>
+
It is ironic that [[liberal]]s such as [[Barack Obama]] advocate [[Keynesian Economics|Keynesian economic concepts]] since the [[British]] [[economics|economist]] and [[John Maynard Keynes and [[John Maynard Keynes]] advocated having governments run [[budget surplus|budget surpluses]] during good economic times.<ref>EK Brown-Collie and Bruce E. Collier, What Keynes really said about deficit spending, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Vol. 17, No. 3, Spring, 1995</ref>
 
In addition, Keynes advocated that governments should increase government spending during difficult times and even engage in [[deficit spending]].<ref>   
 
In addition, Keynes advocated that governments should increase government spending during difficult times and even engage in [[deficit spending]].<ref>   
 
*[http://www.keynesatharvard.org/book/KeynesatHarvard-ch09.html KEYNES AT HARVARD Economic Deception as a Political Credo BY ZYGMUND DOBBS]
 
*[http://www.keynesatharvard.org/book/KeynesatHarvard-ch09.html KEYNES AT HARVARD Economic Deception as a Political Credo BY ZYGMUND DOBBS]

Revision as of 13:29, 19 June 2011

Barack Hussein Obama
President Barack Obama.jpg
44th President of the United States
From: January 20, 2009-Present
Vice President Joe Biden
Predecessor George W. Bush
Successor Incumbent (no successor)
Former U.S. Senator from Illinois
From: January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008
Predecessor Peter Fitzgerald
Successor Roland Burris
Information
Party Democrat
Spouse(s) Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama
Religion Described in this article

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th President of the United States and the controversial recipient of the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize. Overcoming a short political career, Obama defeated Republican nominee John McCain for the presidency in 2008, campaigning on promises of "change" after an unpopular administration headed by George W. Bush. In effect, that change has been an embrace of Socialism and liberal policies perhaps before unseen by the White House.

Immediately after entering office, Obama was faced with a recession - one of the most severe since the Great Depression. By and large, his economic policies to combat the recession have, to date, ranged from ineffective to counterproductive.[1] Also on the domestic front, Obama passed a major health care bill in 2009 with no bipartisan support and 34 Democrats dissenting. In foreign policy Obama has escalated the Afghanistan War and, against his own Defense Secretary's advice, attacked Libya - a possible violation of the War Powers Act. On May 1st 2011 he announced that the United States had killed September 11th mastermind and terrorist Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, perhaps at the cost of the United States's alliance with Pakistan.

It is ironic that liberals such as Barack Obama advocate Keynesian economic concepts since the British economist and [[John Maynard Keynes and John Maynard Keynes advocated having governments run budget surpluses during good economic times.[2] In addition, Keynes advocated that governments should increase government spending during difficult times and even engage in deficit spending.[3] Keynes was against large structural deficits.[4] Liberals such as Barack Obama advocate massive U.S. government spending during a period when the federal government already has a massive amount of existing debt. Furthermore, Obama's colossal government spending was inefficient and did not pull the American economy out of its economic problems, but merely buried the U.S. economy under more debt.

In 2010, Keynes' native land of Britain (which is deeply in debt) repudiated the Keynesian economic folly of government deficit spending through the implementation of a government austerity budget during a period of economic difficulty.[5][6] Although government certainly is necessary, the more efficient private sector is better at creating economically productive jobs and other economic activity such as investing.

Early life

Main article : Early life and career of Barack Hussein Obama

Obama was born in Hawaii to Stanley Ann Dunham and Barack Obama Sr. - who had married just six months prior - on August 4, 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The couple divorced in 1964. Barack Obama Sr. was not a citizen of the United States. Dunham remarried Lolo Soetoro, an Indonesian student. When Obama was six, Soetoro returned to Indonesia, and Dunham and Obama followed.[7] He spent four years in Indonesia before returning to Hawaii to be raised by his grandparents, Madelyn and WW2 veteran Stanley Armour Dunham. He would later attend Occidental College, Columbia University and then Harvard University for law school, where he would become the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. It is disputed whether Obama was actually born in the United States, many people believing him to have been born in Kenya.

Illinois State Senate career

Obama speaking at the October 2002 rally in Chicago organized by Carl Davidson.[8] "[H]e is a brutal man who butchers his own people," nevertheless Obama opposed "dumb wars".

In 1995 Obama openly sought and obtained the endorsement of the Marxist New Party in his quest to be elected to the Illinois State Senate.[9][10] He became the Democrat nominee and ran unopposed to win the election. Obama entered the Illinois Senate promising change to a corrupt system. He mixed often radical votes with more pragmatic agreements. Possibly one of his most radical votes was against requiring medical care for aborted children who survive the procedure - in fact the Illinois Planned Parenthood Council ascribed him a 100% rating for his consistently pro-choice votes.[11] He was criticized for using the statehouse as a stepping stone for a more illustrious career: Steven J. Rauschenberger, a Republican, said prior to Obama's election as president: “He is a very bright but very ambitious person who has always had his eyes on the prize, and it wasn’t Springfield. If he deserves to be president, it is not because he was a great legislator.”[12]

The statehouse was majority Republican, so the Senator was sometimes forced to compromise. He formed allegiances across party lines to pass campaign finance reform that banned most gifts by lobbyists, prohibited spending campaign money for legislators’ personal use and required electronic filing of campaign disclosure reports.[12] Obama also helped pass a so-called “driving-while-black bill”, which required the police to collect data on the race of drivers they stopped as a way to monitor racial profiling.[12]

Obama established himself as a chief spokesperson in opposition to the War on Terror during an October 2002 rally at Federal Plaza in Chicago[13] organized by veteran Maoist and webmaster of Progressives for Obama,[14] Carl Davidson.

Radical foundation and connection to William Ayers

Main article: Radical roots of Barack Hussein Obama

In 1995 a cadre of like minded individuals gathered in the home of Weather Underground (WUO) terrorists Bernardine Dohrn and William "Bill" Ayers. Dohrn,[15] along with Carl Davidson, are veterans of guerrilla warfare training in Cuba prior 1968 Democratic National Convention riots. Ayers and Dohrn have taken credit for, and never denied, bombing the U.S. Capitol, the Pentagon and the State Department.

Ayers and Dohrn used their celebrity status among leftists to launch Obama's career. Ayers, Dohrn and Jeff Jones[16] are authors of Prairie Fire: The Politics of Revolutionary Anti-imperialism, the title taken from The Sayings of Mao Zedong.[17] The book declares "we are communist men and women."[18] Ayers later publicly admitted to ghostwriting Obama's book, Dreams From My Father.[19]

U.S. Senate career

See also: Barack Obama:U.S. Senate (2004-2008)
Senator Barack Obama

Following a failed campaign for the U. S. House of Representatives, Obama ran for the open Senate seat from Illinois in 2004 against Republican candidate Jack Ryan. He won the seat after Chicago media outlets The Chicago Tribune newspaper and Chicago ABC affiliate WLS-TV; together with candidate Jack Ryan's Republican Primary opponents, sought and obtained the release of the confidential and personally embarrassing records in his California divorce from actress Jeri Ryan, forcing him to end his campaign. Ryan was replaced by the out-of-state candidate Alan Keyes. Obama won over Keyes 70% to 27% in the general election. Obama spent very little time in the Senate - "frustrated by his lack of influence and what he called the 'glacial pace' ... [he began] running for president even as he was still getting lost in the Capitol’s corridors."[20]

Obama frequently used the filibuster to obstruct the operations of government,[21] voted against the minimum wage[22][23] and debt ceiling increases,[24] and recieved more than $126,000 in campaign contributions from Fannie Mae. The National Journal ranked him the most liberal senator in 2007.[25]

Presidential Election

Main article: Barack Hussein Obama 2008 Presidential campaign

Democrats began calling for an Obama candidacy after liberals lauded his 2004 Democratic National Convention speech.

Campaign to be the Democratic nominee

The race for the Democratic ticket originally seemed Hillary Clinton's to lose, but was ultimately a close race between Clinton and Obama. Clinton would take a slim advantage in the popular vote, while Obama would carry significantly more states and territories. Obama's advantage with super-delegates over Clinton was about 2-to-1.[26] Obama was able to attract the support of liberals by pointing out that he had come out against the Iraq War "from the beginning" whereas Clinton had voted in favor of the war in 2002.[27]

Campaign for the Presidency

Obama campaigned against Senator John McCain in the general election. To the chagrin of Clinton supporters, he selected Senator Joe Biden to be his running mate, whereas McCain selected Governor of Alaska Sarah Palin. The Obama and Biden ticket would win the election, and Obama would become the nation's first African American president.

Jeremiah Wright

One major dilemma that arose for Obama during his campaign was his connection to his preacher Jeremiah Wright. Obama and his wife (raised a Baptist) were members of the Trinity United Church of Christ[28] in Chicago, a chruch that embraced black liberation theology and its emphasis on empowering so-called "oppressed groups" against "establishment forces". This denomination was the first in America to ordain gays as ministers.[29] Church pastor Jeremiah Wright had been making inflammatory comments and posting his sermons online for sale. These include the statement "G-d damn America," and in describing the September 11th attacks, "We have supported state terrorism against the Palestinians and black South Africans, and now we are indignant because the stuff we have done overseas is now brought right back to our own front yards. America's chickens are coming home to roost."[30] In addition, Rev. Wright blamed America saying "We supported Zionism shamelessly while ignoring the Palestinians and branding anybody who spoke out against it as being anti-Semitic."

In April 2008, after 20 years in the church, candidate Obama made public statements poised to set him at odds with the man who conducted his wedding and baptized his children. With the negative publicity persisting, a month later Obama ended the friendship, left Wright's church, and blamed the media.[31] Obama claimed “It’s not fair to the other members of the church who seek to worship in peace...", and distanced himself from Wright's sermons as "a bunch of rants that aren't grounded in the truth."[32][33]

Presidential career

Main article: Obama administration
President Barack Obama meets with former President George H. W. Bush in the Oval Office, Feb. 15, 2011. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza).

Under Obama's stewardship the United States has suffered the largest deficits[34][35] in history and a credit downgrade from the rating agency Standard & Poor.[36] Poverty[37] increased to levels not seen in 50 years.[38] When his economic stimulus program was adopted unemployment rose and stagnated in the 10% range, [39] leaving tens of millions without hope of finding a job.[40]

Patrick H. Caddell and Douglas E. Schoen, writing in the Wall Street Journal, noted, "Rather than being a unifier, Mr. Obama has divided America on the basis of race, class and partisanship." The commentators also note Obama's approach to governance has encouraged radical leftists to pursue a similar strategy on his behalf. Mary Frances Berry, former head of the U.S. Civil Rights Commission, acknowledged that the Obama administration has taken to polarizing America around the issue of race as a means of diverting attention from other issues, saying, "Having one's opponent rebut charges of racism is far better than discussing joblessness."[41] Caddell and Schoen, who worked for President Carter and Clinton, respectively, further stated, "Mr. Obama has also cynically divided the country on class lines. He has taken to playing the populist card time and time again. He bashes Wall Street and insurance companies whenever convenient to advance his programs, yet he has been eager to accept campaign contributions and negotiate with these very same banks and corporations behind closed doors in order to advance his political agenda... President Obama's divisive approach to governance has weakened us as a people and paralyzed our political culture."[42]

Domestic policy

Popular bills

Obama's first act of office was to sign the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act - effectively nullifying the Supreme Court case Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., which ruled that Ledbetter had to have filed a pay discrimination suit within 180 days of the first time Ledbetter was payed less than her male peers;[43] the law made corporations subject to suit within 180 days of each time the employee was unfairly paid.[44]

On January 2, 2011, Obama signed the James Zadroga 9/11 Healthcare and Compensation Act.[45] The act, which afforded 9/11 first responders who were sickened by the dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center health care and compensation, passed Congress after its sponsored agreed to scale down the pricing from 7.4 to 4.2 billion dollars.[46]

Economic plan

Barack Obama advocates the use of Keynesian economic concepts despite the fact that the pedophile John Maynard Keynes was incompetent and a fraud.[47]
See also: Obamunism and American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Critics of the Obama administration have coined the word "Obamunism" to describe Barack Obama's socialistic and "fascism light" economic planning policies (Benito Mussolini defined fascism as the wedding of state and corporate powers. Accordingly, trend forecaster Gerald Celente labels Obama's corporate bailouts as being "fascism light" in nature).[48][49] Obamunism can also refer to Obama's ruinous fiscal policies and reckless monetary policies.[50][51][52]

Wall Street firms and banks that were bailed out were among Obama's biggest campaign supporters.[53] Therefore, the Obama administration bailouts of corrupt, unproductive, and reckless Wall Street firms was hardly surprising, although it certainly was not helpful in making the United States economy more productive and prosperous. A 2005 study found that government corporate bailouts are often done for mere political considerations and the economic resources allocated exhibit significantly worse economic performance than resources allocated using purely business considerations.[54] Proponents of free market capitalism said Bernanke should not have bailed out failing firms and instead should have allowed free market capitalism to quickly recover as it did in the depression of 1920 without government intervention (free market capitalists assert that government intervention drags out economic recessions and depressions).[55]

Top trend forecaster Gerald Celente predicts that the corrupt economic policies of the Obama administration will lead to a second great depression (Celente predicted the 1987 US stock market crash, the dot.com crash, the US 2008/2009 recession, and the collapse of the USSR in the early 1990s) and may lead to a "second American Revolution" (Celente predicted the tax protests that are now occurring in America).[56][57] Celente also asserts that the costly and inefficient temporary short term methods that the Obama administration is using to alleviate economic problems in the short term (which is causing massive increases in Obama administration deficit spending) is only making matters worse and will not prevent the worse economic depression in United States history from occurring.[58][59]

The Obama administration has been sharply criticized for its massive deficit spending and its reckless monetary policy via vast increases in the money supply.[50][51][60] Celente predicts that if a "second American Revolution" occurs in a peaceful and productive manner, it may include a third party movement of governance that will advocate a more free market capitalism approach to the American economy and a more strict interpretation of the United States constitution as far as the authors' original intent.[56][57]

During what the White House billed as Recovery Summer, one half million workers per week continued losing their jobs. His signature legislative achievement, ObamaCare, the federal courts have found to be unconstitutional[61] and is credited as a major cause of uncertainty, high unemployment,[62] lagging job creation,[63] and risk of a credit default crisis.[64][65]

His 2012 Budget plan has been roundly criticized in the mainsream and liberal press as not a serious effort to deal with the nation's economic crisis.[66]

Healthcare
Main article: Obamacare

On March 23, 2010, Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). The act had originated in the House of Representatives and passed September 17, 2009. The act was amended and passed the Senate prior to Democrat Ted Kennedy's passing along party lines - just a filibuster-proof majority at 60-39. In a de facto rejection of the bill, Massachusetts voters elected a Republican candidate, Scott Brown, who promised to vote against the bill,[67] but another Senate vote would not occur. After Obama made a promise to issue an executive order that would ultimately prohibit the use of taxpayer subsidies to pay for abortion services,[68] the House of Representatives would pass the bill as it left the Senate 219-212, with 34 Democrats and all other parties dissenting.[69]

Amongst other things, the act mandates that the population purchase health care coverage or face punitive tax measures, and on this basis has been constitutionally challenged in the federal courts, with mixed results (three courts have upheld the act, two have declared it unconstitutional); thus, the Act is likely destined for Supreme Court reviewal.

Gulf oil spill

Main article: Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster

President Obama authorized offshore oil drilling in the Gulf of Mexico[70] stating, "oil rigs today generally don’t cause spills"[71] and was widely criticized for his mishandling of the "worst environmental disaster in US history."[72][73]

Don't Ask Don't Tell

Main article: Don't Ask Don't Tell

Candidate Obama promised to repeal a policy that originated in the Clinton era that prohibited inquiries into military personnel's sexual orientation while also barring "out" homosexuals from serving in the military. Liberals expressed anger when time passed and no effort to repeal the law was seen;[74] in fact, Obama's justice department filed a brief arguing against the Supreme Court granting a writ of certiorari to a gay soldier challenging the law (the writ was not granted). In response, the soldier, James Pietrangelo II, a former Army infantryman and lawyer, said, “[Obama's] a coward, a bigot and a pathological liar. This is a guy who spent more time picking out his dog, Bo, and playing with him on the White House lawn than he has working for equality for gay people."[75]

On December 15th, 2010, a bill was introduced in the House of Representatives to repeal the law - it passed a day later by a vote of 250-175;[76] it passed the Senate three days later 65-31.[77] Obama signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 on December 22nd.[78]

The Pentagon itself could not immediately implement the repeal and questioned whether it would hurt combat readiness.[78] Senator John McCain, the senior Republican on the Armed Services Committee, opposed the bill, saying "It may be premature to make such a change at this time and in this manner, without further consideration of this report and further study of the issue by Congress – for of all the people we serve, one of our highest responsibilities is to the men and women of our armed services, especially those risking their lives in combat.”[79]

Foreign policy

As Senator, Obama was highly critical of President Bush and promised change. As President, Obama has tripled down in Afghanistan, widened the war into Pakistan, multiplied drone attacks, bombed Yemen and Somalia, and started an undeclared NATO war in Libya. On presidential war powers, surveillance questions, Guantanamo, detention policy and habeas corpus, Obama has similarly stayed the course, or expanded Bush's precedents. In a speech on May 19, 2011 Obama fully embraced the Bush Doctrine of preventative war.[80]

Commander-in-chief

By Obama's second year as Commander-in-Chief, 559 American troops died in Iraq and Afghanistan - significantly more than the 469 who died during Presisdent George W. Bush's final year in office. And growing numbers of civilian contractors also have fallen. In the first half of 2010, 250 contractors reportedly died in Iraq and Afghanistan - more than the 235 military personnel who fell during the same period.[81]

Afghanistan
Main article: Afghanistan War

Obama escalated troop strength[82] and defense costs in Afghanistan from $43.5 billion in George Bush's last year to $113.7 billion for 2011.[83] Adviser to General Stanley McChrystal David Kilcullen wrote, "One of the big strategic shifts is the use of language now which talks about Pakistan and Afghanistan as the same theater. Now we talked about Af-Pak long before the Obama administration came about, but the public use of that term, and the description of it as the Afghanistan-Pakistan campaign, sends a new message to people about how the administration is going to think about Afghanistan and Pakistan."[82] This became evident when, under the orders of Obama, a military SEALs team killed September 11th mastermind Osama bin Laden in Abottabad, Pakistan.[84]

Libya
Main article: Libyan uprising 2011

In February 2011, the political unrest that had spread through the Arab world showed up as protests in Libya. Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi - dictator of Libya for 41 years - responded to the activism with a wave of violence.[85] The United Nations Security Council voted unanimously to impose sanctions, and later authorized all members to take action to protect civilians. Obama, acting without approval from Congress and at the beckoning of the United Nations, directed American forces to take out Libya's air defense system.[85] Obama later said, "[I]f we waited one more day Benghazi, a city nearly the size of Charlotte, could suffer a massacre that would have reverberated across the region and stained the conscience of the world."[86] Alan J. Kuperman - writing an editorial for the Boston Globe - suggested this statement was false, writing, "[I]ntervention did not prevent genocide, because no such bloodbath was in the offing. To the contrary, by emboldening rebellion, US interference has prolonged Libya’s civil war and the resultant suffering of innocents."[87] Kuperman, a professor of public affairs at the University of Texas who authored a book called The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention, further stated that the rebels had tricked the world into thinking a bloodbath was at hand and that Obama had lied to the American people in order to act on this theory.[87]

Khadafy [never] threaten civilian massacre in Benghazi, as Obama alleged. The “no mercy’’ warning, of March 17, targeted rebels only, as reported by The New York Times, which noted that Libya’s leader promised amnesty for those “who throw their weapons away.’’ Khadafy even offered the rebels an escape route and open border to Egypt, to avoid a fight “to the bitter end.’’ [88]

Iraq
Main article: Operation Iraqi Freedom

Obama campaigned on a promise to end the War in Iraq, however 50,000 U.S. troops remain in the country.[89]

Guantanamo Bay
Main article: Guantanamo Bay

One of Obama's campaign promises was that he would close the American detention center at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba - detainees would be flown to other countries while the ones awaiting trial would enter the American court system. Two days after taking office he signed an order directing the military to do so.[90] But, in November 2009 Obama admitted that his self imposed deadline of January 2010 would be missed, and in March 2011 the president went back on his campaign promise, signing an executive order to create a formal system of indefinite detention for the prisoners.[90]

See also

References

  1. "The vast majority (73%) of respondents reported the fiscal stimulus enacted in February 2009 has had no impact on employment to date. While 68% also believe a jobs bill, such as the one recently enacted into law, will have no impact on payrolls, 30% do believe it will boost payrolls moderately". Industry Survey, National Association for Business Economics, April 2010, p. 2 pdf.
  2. EK Brown-Collie and Bruce E. Collier, What Keynes really said about deficit spending, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Vol. 17, No. 3, Spring, 1995
  3. http://money.cnn.com/2010/02/04/news/economy/meltzer_keynes.fortune/
  4. Will the G8 Repudiate the Philosophy of Living Beyond Our Means?
  5. Deathbed of Keynesian Economics will be in the UK
  6. Stacy Schiff. Dreams of His Mother (English) (HTML). The Daily Beast.
  7. Davidson is a longtime Maoist and champion of the Thought of Mao Tse Tung. Davidson's anti-Trotskyite polemic, Left in Form, Right in Essence defends Maoist doctrine.
    Retrieved from 对当代托洛茨基主义的批判:英文论集百花齐放 - 中国文革研究网, March 15, 2010.
  8. NEW PARTY (NP), discoverthenetwork.org.
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  12. The rally was organized by Chicagoans Against War in Iraq (CAWI) later renamed Chicagoans Against War and Injustice. About CAWI by Carl Davidson, Nov 02 2006. Retrieved from Chicagoans Against War and Injustice, March 15, 2010.
  13. Carl Davidson, LinkedIn.com, retrieved March 13, 2010.
  14. Georgie Anne Geyer and Keyes Beach "Cuba: School for U.S. Radicals", Chicago Daily News/Chicago Sun-Times five part series October 1970, excerpted in FBI file Weather Underground Organization (Weatherman), Part 1c pp. 5-7 pdf (113-115 in original). [1]
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  29. Obama's Pastor: G-d Damn America, U.S. to Blame for 9/11
  30. [3], Obama Drops Church Membership in Chicago, May 31, 2008
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  33. http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/107xx/doc10708/11-06-mbr.htm
  34. http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/118xx/doc11873/NovemberMBR.pdf
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  39. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data extracted on: July 19, 2010 (4:31:11 PM).
  40. http://www.politico.com/arena/perm/Mary_Frances_Berry_91E3D9D5-C40D-440C-9D48-1C50CBC60C87.html
  41. http://online.wsj.com/article/NA_WSJ_PUB:SB10001424052748703700904575391553798363586.html
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  43. Joanna L. Grossman (Feb. 13, 2009). The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 (English) (HTML). FindLaw.
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  48. 50.0 50.1 Gerard Jackson (February 16, 2009). Monetary Policy-Not Obama's Stimulus-Is What Needs Watching. Seeking Alpha.
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  51. http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/contrib.php?cycle=2008&cid=N00009638
  52. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=676905
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