Difference between revisions of "Bible"

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[[Image:800px-Crop Book of Isaiah 2006-06-06.jpg|thumb|300px|right|The Holy Bible, opened to the Book of Isaiah.]]
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The bible is rubbish its an absolute lie!
The '''Bible''', or the '''Holy Scriptures''', is the collection of texts sacred to [[Judaism]] and [[Christianity]], and consists of two parts: the thirty-nine books of the Jewish faith known as the '''Tanakh''', or the [[Old Testament]]; and the twenty-seven books and letters of the [[New Testament]] of the Christian faith.  Originally written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, the Bible has been translated in more than two thousand languages; in terms of sales and distribution the Bible is the most-widely distributed, largest-selling book in history; <ref> The Bible continues to be the best-selling book ever. Americans alone buy 25 million Bibles a year, according to Publisher's Weekly. Bible sales are now reaching $609 million a year, with specialty Bibles available for myriad "niche" audiences, from motorcycle riders to campers, brides and archaeologists. "Immerse," a water-resistant Bible for troops overseas, is now available from publisher Bardin & Marsee. [http://www.washtimes.com/national/20070529-111815-7952r.htm Polls: Most believe Bible as God's word] - Jennifer Harper, ''The Washington Times'' - May 30, 2007] </ref>
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the over-all influence and impact the Bible has had on literature, culture, and history is beyond calculation.
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==Name==
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The word "Bible" had its origins in an ancient [[Phoenicia]]n seaport called [[Byblos]], which was so-named as a result of the trade and manufacture of writing material based on the [[papyrus]] or byblos reed, used extensively in antiquity for making [[scroll]]s and [[book]]s.  The [[Greek language|Greek]] word ''biblos'' was based upon this, and it came to be the word for ''book'' (a small book was termed ''biblion''), and by the 2nd century A.D. Greek [[Christianity|Christians]] had called the Scriptures ''ta Biblia'' ('''τα βιβλία''' ''the books''), which was transferred to [[Latin]] by dropping the ''ta''; the word made its way to [[Old French]] where the plural was dropped in favor of the singular, hence becoming the [[English]] word ''Bible''. (Unger, pg 143; Moulton; Blass)
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==Books of the Bible==
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===The Old Testament===
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{| border="1" align="right" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" width="360" style="margin-left:5px"
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|-
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!colspan="2" align="center" style="color: white; height: 30px; background: green  no-repeat scroll top left;"|Old Testament layout
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|-
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!align ="center" style="color: white; height: 30px; background: navy no-repeat scroll top left;"|Jewish
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!align ="center" style="color: white; height: 30px; background: navy no-repeat scroll top left;"|Christian
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|-
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|Genesis
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|Genesis
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|-
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|Exodus
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|Exodus
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|-
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|Leviticus
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|Leviticus
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|-
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|Numbers
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|Numbers
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|-
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|Deuteronomy
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|Deuteronomy
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|-
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|Joshua
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|Joshua
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|-
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|Samuel
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|Judges
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|-
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|Kings
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|Ruth
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|-
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|Isaiah
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|1st Samuel
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|-
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|Jeremiah
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|2nd Samuel
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|-
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|Ezekiel
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|1st Kings
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|-
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|The Minor Prophets
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|2nd Kings
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|-
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|Pslams
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|1st Chronicles
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|-
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|Proverbs
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|2nd Chronicles
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|-
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|Job
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|Ezra
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|-
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|Song of Songs
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|Nehemiah
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|-
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|Ruth
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|Esther
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|-
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|Lamentations
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|Job
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|-
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|Ecclesiastes
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|Psalms
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|-
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|Ester
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|Proverbs
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|-
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|Daniel
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|Ecclesiastes
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|-
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|Ezra
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|Song of Solomon
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|-
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|Chronicles
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|Isaiah
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|-
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|
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|Jeremiah
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|-
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|
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|Lamentations
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|-
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|
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|Ezekiel
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|-
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|
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|Daniel
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|-
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|
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|The Minor Prophets
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|-
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!colspan="2" align="center" style="color: white; height: 30px; background: green  no-repeat scroll top left;"|Dates of each Book
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|-
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!align ="center" style="color: white; height: 30px; background: red no-repeat scroll top left;"|Old Testament
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!align ="center" style="color: white; height: 30px; background: navy no-repeat scroll top left;"|New Testament
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|-
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|Genesis, 1440-1400 B.C.
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|Matthew, A.D. 60-65
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|-
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|Exodus, 1440-1400 B.C.
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|Mark, A.D. 60-65
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|-
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|Leviticus, 1440-1400 B.C.
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|Luke, A.D. 58-65
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|-
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|Numbers, 1440-1400 B.C.
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|John, A.D. 95
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|-
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|Deuteronomy, 1440-1400 B.C.
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|Acts, A.D. 58-65
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|-
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|Joshua, 1400-1360 B.C.
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|Romans, A.D. 58
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|-
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|Judges, c. 1020 B.C.
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|1st Corinthians, A.D. 57
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|-
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|Ruth, c. 1090 B.C.
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|2nd Corinthians, A.D. 57
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|-
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|1st Samuel
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|Galatians, A.D. 56
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|-
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|2nd Samuel
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|Ephesians, A.D. 62-63
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|-
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|1st Kings, 609-600 B.C.
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|Philippians, A.D. 58-60
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|-
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|2nd Kings, 609-600 B.C.
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|Colosians, A.D. 61-63
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|-
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|1st Chronicles, c. 400 B.C.
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|1st Thessalonians, A.D. 52
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|-
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|2nd Chronicles, c. 400 B.C.
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|2nd Thessalonians, A.D. 53
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|-
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|Ezra, c. 400 B.C.
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|1st Timothy, A.D. 62-65
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|-
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|Nehemiah, c. 400 B.C.
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|2nd Timothy, A.D. 65-66
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|-
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|Esther, 464-425 B.C.
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|Titus, A.D. 65
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|-
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|Job, 1440-1400 B.C.
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|Philemon, A.D. 65
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|-
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|Psalms, 1004-965 B.C.
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|Hebrews, A.D. 63-64
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|-
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|Proverbs, 965-925 B.C.
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|James, A.D. 63-64
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|-
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|Eccleisiastes, 965-925 B.C.
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|1st Peter, A.D. 64
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|-
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|Song of Solomon, 965-925 B.C.
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|2nd Peter, A.D. 65
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|-
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|Isaiah, 785-697 B.C.
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|1st John, A.D. 90-100
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|-
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|Jeremiah, 587-538 B.C.
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|2nd John, A.D. 90-100
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|-
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|Lamentations, 587-538 B.C.
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|3rd John, A.D. 90-100
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|-
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|Ezekiel, 592-572 B.C.
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|Jude, c. A.D. 70-75
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|-
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|Daniel, 539-520 B.C.
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|Revelation, A.D. 96-98
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|-
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|Hosea, 753-731 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Joel, 835-796 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Amos, 787-747 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Obadiah, 848-841 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Jonah, 771-754 B.C.
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|-
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|Micah, 715-687 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Nahum, 661-612 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Habbakuk, 625-608 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Zephaniah, 621-608 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Haggai, 520 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Zechariah, 520 B.C.
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|
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|-
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|Malachi, 455 B.C.
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|
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|}
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The [[Old Testament]], also called the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, consists of thirty-nine books. The books themselves were originally written in [[Hebrew]], and later on in the [[Aramaic]] language of Palestine; the Greek language version written after the conquest of [[Alexander the Great]] is known as the [[Septuagint]].  [[Melito]], a bishop of [[Sardis]] in [[Lydia]] (in what is now [[Turkey]]), is said to have coined the phrase ''Old Testament'' about A.D. 170.  The Old Testament is divided in three parts (hence, "Tanakh") within the Jewish community: the [[Torah]] ("Law"), or [[Pentateuch]], the five books of [[Moses]]; [[Nevi'im]] ("Prophets"), and [[Ketuvim]] ("Writings,” or [[Hagiographa]]). Here the arrangement of the books differs somewhat from the Old Testament as used by Christians, however the actual writing of each book remains the same.
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====Torah====
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The Five books of Moses, in their Hebrew and English names:
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*Bereisheet ("in the beginning"), or [[Genesis]]
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*Shemot (“names”), or [[Exodus]]
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*Vayikra (“and God called”), or [[Leviticus]]
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*Bemidbar (“in the Wilderness”), or [[Numbers]]
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*Devarim (“words”), or [[Deuteronomy]]
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The first eleven chapters of ''Genesis'' provide the account of the [[Creation]], the history of God's early relationship with humanity, and the [[Deluge]] of [[Noah]]. The remaining thirty-nine chapters detail the account of God's covenant with the early Hebrew nation, led by the patriarchs [[Abraham]], [[Isaac]] and [[Jacob]] (or Israel), and one of Jacob's children, [[Joseph]]. It tells the beginnings of God's chosen people, of how God commanded Abraham to leave his family and home to settle in the land of [[Canaan]], and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt.  The remainder of the Torah, beginning with ''Exodus'', tells the story of the great Hebrew leader [[Moses]], and of the Hebrews through their sojourn and slavery in Egypt, their escape from bondage, and their wanderings in the desert until they finally enter the Promised Land.
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====Nevi'im====
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The [[Nevi'im]] is the story of the rise toward, and ultimately reaching, the Hebrew monarchy; the sad period of anarchy and revolt leading to the division into the two kingdoms of Judah and Israel; and the prophets who judged the kings of both in God's name. It ends with the conquest of both kingdoms and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. The Minor Prophets are considered a single book in the Nevi'um; in Christianity they have been split into twelve separate books and named for their authors.
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* [[Joshua (Biblical book)|Joshua]]
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* [[Judges (Biblical book)|Judges]]
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* [[I Samuel]]
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* [[II Samuel]]
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* [[I Kings]]
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* [[II Kings]]
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* [[Isaiah (Biblical book)|Isaiah]]
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* [[Jeremiah (Biblical book)|Jeremiah]]
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* [[Ezekiel (Biblical book)|Ezekiel]]
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* [[The Minor Prophets]]
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**[[Hosea (Biblical book)|Hosea]]
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** [[Joel (Biblical book)|Joel]]
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** [[Amos (Biblical book)|Amos]]
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** [[Obadiah (Biblical book)|Obadiah]]
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** [[Jonah (Biblical book)|Jonah]]
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** [[Micah (Biblical book)|Micah]]
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** [[Nahum (Biblical book)|Nahum]]
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** [[Habakkuk (Biblical book)|Habakkuk]]
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** [[Zephaniah (Biblical book)|Zephaniah]]
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** [[Haggai (Biblical book)|Haggai]]
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** [[Zechariah (Biblical book)|Zechariah]]
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** [[Malachi (Biblical book)|Malachi]]
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====Ketuvim====
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The [[Ketuvim]], or "Writings," contain lyrical poetry, philosophical reflections on life, and the writings of the prophets and other Jewish leaders during the exile in Babylon.
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* [[Psalms]]
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* [[Proverbs]]
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* [[Book of Job]]
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* [[Song of Songs]], also called [[Song of Solomon]] in the Christian Bible.
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* [[Book of Ruth]]
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* [[Lamentations]]
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* [[Ecclesiastes]]
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* [[Esther]]
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* [[Daniel (Biblical book)|Daniel]]
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* [[Ezra]], divided into the two books of Ezra and [[Nehemiah]] in the Christian Bible.
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* [[Books of Chronicles]]
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[[David]] has been named as the author of the ''Psalms''; [[Solomon]] is believed to have written ''Song of Songs'' in his youth, the ''Proverbs'' in his prime, and ''Ecclesiastes'' during his old age.  The prophet [[Jeremiah]] is thought to have written the aptly-named ''Lamentations'' at the beginning of the exile in Babylon. The ''Book of Ruth'' is the only biblical book that centers entirely on a non-Jew, a Moabite who married a Jew and became an ancestor of both David and Jesus Christ. ''Esther'' is unique as it is the only book in the Bible not to mention God.  Moses is considered to be the author of ''Job''.
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==== Inspiration ====
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Although the Old Testament is written by many [[homo sapiens|human]] authors, New Testament authors claim that these men were writing under the inspiration of God.
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The apostle [[Paul]] wrote that "All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness" ({{Bible ref|2_Timothy|3|16}}).
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Similarly the apostle [[Saint Peter|Peter]] wrote, "Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet's own interpretation. For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit" ({{Bible ref|2_Peter|1|20-21}}).
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===The New Testament===
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The [[New Testament]] is a collection of twenty-seven books and letters, written by the early Christian community, and written primarily in [[Greek]]. The emphasis of the New Testament is the life, teachings, and gift of salvation from the central figure of the whole work, Jesus of Nazareth.  These books are grouped into the following:
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====[[Gospels|The Gospels]]====
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The ''Gospels'' contain the history of Jesus.  The ''Acts of the Apostles'' are a continuance of the Gospels, documenting the history of the early church, beginning immediately following Jesus' death and resurrection.  Of the authors, only Matthew and John had met Jesus; they were among His disciples during His earthly ministry.  Mark was a companion of Peter, and his gospel was the first to be written down, about A.D. 50.  Luke is considered the author of both his gospel and the ''Acts''.
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*[[Gospel of Matthew]]
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*[[Gospel of Mark]]
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*[[Gospel of Luke]]
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*[[Gospel of John]]
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*[[Acts of the Apostles]]
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====[[Pauline Epistles]]====
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These are letters written to various early Christian communities by the Apostle Paul.
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*[[Epistle to the Romans]]
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*[[First Epistle to the Corinthians]]
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*[[Second Epistle to the Corinthians]]
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*[[Epistle to the Galatians]]
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*[[Epistle to the Philippians]]
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*[[Epistle to Philemon]]
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*[[First Epistle to the Thessalonians]]
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*[[Second Epistle to the Thessalonians]]
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*[[Epistle to the Ephesians]]
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*[[Epistle to the Colossians]]
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*[[First Epistle to Timothy]]
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*[[Second Epistle to Timothy]]
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*[[Epistle to Titus]]
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Paul has been attributed by many as the author of ''Epistle to the Hebrews'', but several others, such as Barnabas, Silas, Stephen, Apollos and Priscilla are also claimed to be the author.  The controversy, however, does not affect the genuiness of the epistle. (Unger, pg. 748)
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*[[Epistle to the Hebrews]]
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====[[General Epistles]]====
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*[[Epistle of James]]
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*[[First Epistle of Peter]]
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*[[Second Epistle of Peter]]
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*[[First Epistle of John]]
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*[[Second Epistle of John]]
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*[[Third Epistle of John]]
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*[[Epistle of Jude]]
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====Revelation====
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The [[Book of Revelation]] is the last work in the New Testament as well as the whole Bible, written close to A.D. 100 by the [[Apostle John]] during his exile on the Greek island of [[Patmos]]. Revelation is concerned with the condition of the [[Seven Churches of Asia]] before going deeply into a description of the last days prior to the beginning of the [[Millennial Age]].
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==History of the Bible==
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[[Image:Gutenburg1.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Printers copy of a page from a Gutenberg Bible, printed in Germany about 1469.]]
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The oldest books of the Bible are certainly the five books of the Torah and ''Job''.  In ''1st Kings'' 6:1, Solomon is stated to have begun building the Temple "''in the 480th year after the children of Israel were come up out of the land of Egypt''".  It had been established by scholars and historians that Solomon had begun building the Temple in the fourth year of his reign, or 961 B.C., making the [[date of the Exodus]] under Moses to have been 1441 B.C.  During the following forty years Moses wrote the Torah and ''Job'', completing them before his death at [[Mt. Nebo]] about 1400 B.C.  According to Biblical scholar and historian Robert D. Wilson the Torah as it stands dates from the time of Moses, the five books constitute one continuous work, and was written by a single individual, Moses himself (Wilson, pg 11).
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The remaining books of the Old Testament were written at various times since the death of Moses, with ''Malachi'', the last Old Testament book, being written about 455 B.C.  During this period each of the books was written and re-written on parchment or papyrus, with the editors taking great care in their work; a single Biblical book hand-written today can take weeks to complete.  The older scrolls were disposed of by burial or systematic destruction when worn from normal usage; as a result, the oldest surviving examples of Biblical manuscripts are those which have been carefully preserved either by direct actions of people (such as monasteries), or by removal from forces of decay.  Currently, the oldest surviving manuscripts are those found within the caves of Qumran in 1948 and known as the [[Dead Sea Scrolls]], dating between 250 B.C. to A.D. 70; the complete ''Isaiah'' scroll of this collection dates to 150 B.C.
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Around 200 B.C. the Septuagint, a Greek-language version of the Old Testament, was completed.  This was due to the Hellenization of large areas of the Middle East after the conquest of Alexander the Great, making Greek the de-facto language for everyday communications and business.  The Septuagint marks the first time in history that the Bible was translated into a foreign language.
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===The Apocrypha===
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The [[Apocrypha]] was written during the four hundred years between the last book of the Old Testament and the birth of Christ.  The term itself comes from the Greek word ''apokruphos'' ("hidden" or "concealed"), and although they have an actual history and literary value, the fourteen books which make up the Apocrypha have been rejected as canonical by both the Jewish faith and most denominations of the Christian church due to historical, geographical, or literal inaccuracies; the teaching of doctrines which contradict inspired Scripture; and a lack of elements and structure which give genuine Scripture its unique characteristic (Unger, pg. 70). The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, among others, include the Apocrypha in their versions of the Bible, considering them to be canonical.  The following are the books which are most frequently referred to by the title ''Apocrypha'':
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*[[1 Esdras]]
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*[[2 Esdras]]
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*[[Book of Tobit]]
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*[[Book of Judith]]
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*[[Book of Wisdom]]
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*[[Ecclesiasticus]], also known as Sirach
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*[[Book of Baruch]]
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*[[Epistle of Jeremy]]
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*[[The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children]]
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*[[Story of Susanna]]
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*[[Bel and the Dragon]]
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*[[Prayer of Manasseh]]
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*[[1 Maccabees]]
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*[[2 Maccabees]]
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*Plus additions to the Book of Esther
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Between 90-95 A.D. the Jewish [[Council of Jamnia]] revised the canon of the Old Testament, ensuring that the books involved conformed to the Torah, were written in the Hebrew language, written in Palestine, and written before 400 B.C.  As a result, the Apocrypha was removed from the canon. [http://agards-bible-timeline.com/q2_bible_english.html]
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===Early New Testament history===
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[[Image:Gospel of Luke in Arab.gif|thumb|This tenth-century Egyptian codex was donated to Pope Eugenius IV by the Coptic delegates at the Council of Ferrara-Florence. Translated from a Coptic original, it is one of the earliest Arabic versions of any part of the New Testament, none of which can be dated before the late eighth or ninth centuries.]]
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In ''1st Timothy'' 5:8 Paul quoted as scripture ''"the laborer is worthy of his hire."''  This line is found nowhere else in the Bible except ''Matthew'' 10:10 and ''Luke'' 5:7.  In ''2nd Peter'' 3:15-16, Peter classes Paul's letters with "other scriptures".  Both lines are indicative of the writing down and general use of the New Testament prior to A.D. 60 (Halley, pg. 741-742).  Spurious "gospels" which are known to have appeared by A.D. 100, make references to the New Testament.  [[Clement of Rome]], writing in his own letter to the Corinthians in A.D. 95, refers to ''Matthew'', ''Luke'', ''Corinthians'', ''Hebrews'', ''1st Timothy'', and ''1st Peter'' (Halley, pg. 743).
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The oldest surviving New Testament fragment of which there is a reliable date is the [[John Rylands Fragment]] (P52) of the ''Gospel of John'', dating from 117-138 A.D., just decades from when the Gospel was first written. <ref>[http://www.biblefacts.org/history/oldtext.html N.T. Ancient Manuscripts]</ref> The time span between the writing of the New Testament and the oldest surviving fragments are well under two hundred years.  By comparison, Greek classics such as [[Herodotus]], [[Plato]], [[Euripides]], and [[Homer]] have a time span well over a thousand years each between the date of the oldest known fragment of writing and the time period they were first written.
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===The Vulgate===
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[[Jerome]], a Latin scholar deeply interested in the study of the Scriptures, completed the second edition of the Bible in the Latin language.  The ''[[Vulgate]]'' was meant to replace the inaccuracies of the earlier ''[[Vetus Latina]]'', the standard Bible of the early Catholic Church.  Jerome had moved to Jerusalem in 382, and set to work on what eventually became a fresh translation of the Bible from the Greek of the ''Septuagint'' to translating the New Testament into Latin; from 390-405 he decided to re-translate his Old Testament directly from the Hebrew then in use by the Jewish community.  The ''Vulgate'' had a marked influence in church history, and remained the standard Latin Bible in the Roman Catholic Church for centuries; such was the length of time in use that it was finally replaced by the ''[[Nova Vulgata]]'' in 1979.
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===Gutenberg's Bible===
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[[Johannes Gutenberg]] of [[Mainz]], [[Germany]] invented the first mechanical printing press in 1448.  His machine consisted of a large press which when cranked down, pressed a sheet of paper upon a platform in which were set thousands of inked metal letter typefaces (called "movable type"), set in place to read for a particular page.  The first book in history printed by this method was the [[Gutenberg Bible]], in the ''Vulgate'' version, of which 180 were printed, and approximately 50 survive today in varying conditions around the world.  The Gutenberg Bible marked another first: Bibles could be mass produced to get into the hands of many more people at a lower cost than if they were printed by hand.
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===Wyclif's Bible===
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The first translation of the Bible into English was made under the supervision of the English cleric [[John Wyclif]] in the 1380's, with the assistance of Nicholas Hereford and John Purvey.  Wyclif held that the Bible should be placed directly in the hands of the people, but was this was opposed by the English Church hierarchy of his day; indeed, one of Wyclif's opponents, Henry Knighton, compared giving the Bible to the people in English to "casting pearls before swine".  Archbishop Arundel of Canterbury promulgated a ban on all English Bibles in 1407, and possession of one was considered evidence of [[heresy]].
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Wyclif's was a scholarly translation, based on the [[Latin]], [[Greek]], and [[Hebrew]] texts, but was found to be unweildy due to its adherence to Latin grammar (in which, for instance, verbs tend to be at the end of sentences).  A second Wycliffite translation was prepared late in this period, which avoided this problem, but due to the fact that it could only be distributed in manuscript form, it was an expensive volume.  Outside of the nobility and gentry, it was more common to see only a single [[The Gospels|Gospel]], or  a copy of the Psalms, than an entire Bible, which cost more than the average working person could earn in a year.
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Over the next century, its form of English gradually became antiquated, leading English Protestants such as [[William Tyndale]] to feel that an entirely new translation was needed.
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===Tyndale===
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During the middle of the 16th century there was a renewed sense of the need to get the Bible directly into the hands of the common man; prior to that the Bible was restricted to readings in the Church alone.  The Reformers were a group of people who were shocked at the differences between what the Roman Catholic Church was practicing as opposed to what the Bible stated can or cannot be done (this was one of the causes of the [[Reformation]]).  At great cost to themselves, the Reformers began the work of translating the Bible in the various languages of Europe; the printing press would ensure the newly-translated Bibles would be mass-produced. 
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[[William Tyndale]] was committed to getting the Bible in the hands of his English countrymen.  Expressing open defiance of the Pope, Tyndale declared that if God would spare his life he would make it possible for even an ordinary farmer to know more about the Scriptures than the Pope. [http://www.tbaptist.com/aab/tyndale.htm] Tyndale's translation of the New Testament was completed by 1525, by April, 1526, 6,000 copies were printed and delivered to England. Official opposition led to the destruction of most of them.  Nevertheless, the printing press rendered it impossible to completely suppress such a book, and new copies were printed and smuggled into [[England]] Tyndale was arrested and charged with heresy for his efforts on May 21, 1536, and was executed the following year.  His efforts at translating the Bible led to the Matthews and Bishop's Bibles, then finally to the [[King James Version]], where ninety percent of the text closely follows Tyndale's translation.
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===Authorised or King James Version===
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[[Image:E-sword.jpg|thumb|300px|right|The internet has increased the availability of the Bible world-wide.  Shown here is a screenshot to [[E-Sword]], a freely-downloadable Bible study program. [http://www.e-sword.net] (Rick Meyers, 2007)]]
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In 1601 King [[James I]] selected forty-seven of the ablest scholars in [[England]] to undertake the creation of a standard Bible in English, based upon careful translations of the [[Masoretic Text]] used by the Jewish community, and the best Greek translations (especially the ''[[Textus Receptus]]'') then available.  The scholars were divided into six committees in [[Oxford]], [[Westminster]], and [[Cambridge]], with each scholar had dedicating himself to doing a portion of the Bible, often consulting each other to check the flow and harmony of the work in progress.  The result was the 1611 Authorised Version, known in [[United States of America|America]] as the [[King James Bible|King James Version]].
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The effects of the Authorised Version were profound.  Using less than 2,500 different words in its vocabulary, this Bible was written in a poetic style matched by few.  The work influenced the writings of [[Shakespeare]].  [[John Milton]] has numerous images taken from this Bible in his ''[[Paradise Lost]]''.  The direct style of writing caused it to be easily available to the common man.  Poets and writers, such as [[Herman Melville]], [[Walt Whitman]], [[Emily Dickinson]] and many others were deeply inspired by it.  It altered the course of English history, with England growing to a world power since the book's publication; when asked by a visiting dignitary what made England great, [[Queen Victoria]] pulled out her copy of the Bible and declared "This is the secret of England's greatness." [http://www.mindspring.com/~je_cobb/presidentindex.html]
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=== Other versions ===
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Today, the Bible is available in many versions across the English-speaking world, and has been translated into nearly every language on Earth, including a recently-created language from the fictional world of [[Star Trek]], [[Klingon]]. [http://www.kli.org/wiki/index.php?Klingon%20Bible%20Translation%20Project]  The past two decades saw the emergence of [[internet]] use; the creation of the Bible as a software program was inevitable, and several, such as [[E-Sword]] and Theophilos, are available at no cost with a wealth of Bible-study material as well.
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==Bible Versions==
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*[[King James Version]]
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*[[American Standard Version]]
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*[[Revised Version]]
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*[[New American Standard Version]]
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*[[New King James Version]]
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*[[Douey-Rheims]]
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*[[Good News Version]]
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*[[New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures]]
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*[[Septuagint]]
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*[[Latin Vulgate]]
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*[[Revised Standard Version]]
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*[[Amplified Bible]]
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*[[New English Bible]]
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*[[New International Version]]
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*[[Living Bible]]
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== See also ==
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*[[Bible exegesis]]
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*[[Bible prophecy]]
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==External links==
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===Bible societies ===
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*[http://www.americanbible.org/ American Bible Society]
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*[http://www.biblesociety.org/ United Bible Society]
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*[http://www.ibs.org/ The International Bible Society (New York/Colorado Springs)]
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*[http://www.wbtc.com/site/PageServer World Bible Translation Center]
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*[http://www.wycliffe.org/home.htm Wycliffe Bible Translators]
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*[http://www.labibliaweb.com/ La Biblia] In Spanish.
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===Online, internet, and downloadable Bibles===
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====Hebrew====
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* [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0.htm Hebrew-English Bible] ([[Jewish Publication Society of America|JPS]] 1917 translation; includes Hebrew audio)
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* [http://tanakhml2.alacartejava.net/cocoon/tanakhml/d13.php2xml?sfr=1&prq=1&pnt=tru&acc=tru&dia=tru&enc=heb XML Hebrew-English (KJV) Bible]
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* [http://www.spcm.org/english/Hebrew_OT/ Old Testament in Hebrew]
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====Latin====
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* [http://www.LatinVulgate.com/ Latin Vulgate] — Latin Vulgate with parallel Douay-Rheims and King James English translations
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* [http://www.sacredbible.org/ SacredBible.org] — Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible
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* [http://www.spcm.org/english/Vulgate/ Jerome's Latin Vulgate (405 A.D.)]
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====English====
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* [http://www.audio-bible.com/bible/bible.html AudioBible] — Audio version of the King James Version.
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* [http://www.blueletterbible.org/ Blue Letter Bible] — On-line interactive reference library continuously updated from the teachings and commentaries of selected pastors and teachers who hold to the conservative, historical Christian faith.
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* [http://www.e-sword.net E-sword] — Downloadable Bible for Windows.
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* [http://www.onlinebible.net/ The Online Bible North America] — Downloadable Bible for Windows.
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* [http://www.theophilos.sk/ Theophilos Bible program]
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* [http://www.spcm.org/english/ASB/ American Standard Version].
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* [http://www.gnpcb.org/esv/ English Standard Version] from Good News/Crossway (the publisher).
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* [http://www.verselink.org/ King James Version with dictionary].
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* [http://www.spcm.org/english/KJV/ King James Version].
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* [http://www.newlivingtranslation.com New Living Translation]
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* [http://bible.oremus.org/ New Revised Standard Version].
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* [http://www.europepourchrist.org/biblesite/WEB/ World English Bible].
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* [http://www.dynamicbible.com/ King James Version built using AJAX technologies], with Strongs and Greek Morphological Codes by Robinson.
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* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/index.htm#index The Hypertext Bible] with side-by-side translations in English, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew at the [[Internet Sacred Text Archive]]
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* [http://www.biblegateway.com/ Bible Gateway at GospelCom.net] text search in any one of many translations.
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* [http://www.biblereadthrough.com/ Bible Read-Through] — read through the Bible in a year aid.
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* [http://www.TheFreeBible.com/ TheFreeBible.com] Bible software downloads
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* [http://www.scripture4all.org/ Interlinear (word-by-word) translation of the Christian Bible] Hebrew and Koine Greek
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* [http://www.aramaicpeshitta.com/aramaic_nt_resources.htm Aramaic New Testament resources]
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* [http://www.spcm.org/en/versions.php Over 40 versions of the Bible]
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* [http://www.armenianchurchlibrary.com/Bibletranslationsandstudies.html Eastern and Western Armenian Bible]
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* [http://www.bible9.com/ Online Bible (King James Version & Old Testament)]
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* [http://www.spcm.org/LSG_FR/ Bible — Louis Segond de 1910]
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* [http://www.latinvulgate.com/christverse.aspx Complete Sayings of Christ]
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* [http://bible.crosswalk.com/ParallelBible/ Crosswalk.com Parallel Bible]
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* [http://www.blueletterbible.org/search.html#verse Blue Letter Bible]
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* [http://recoveryversion.org/ Recovery Version Bible]
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====Spanish====
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* [http://www.wbtc.com/site/PageServer?pagename=downloads_spanish Spanish Bible] PDT version
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* [http://www.labibliaweb.com/cid/1 Versiones de la Biblia] In Spanish.
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====Turkish====
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* [http://www.incil.info Turkish Bible] (Turkish Old and New Testament)
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====Others====
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* [http://agards-bible-timeline.com/q2_bible_english.html Bible Timeline]
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* [http://www.myjewishlearning.com/texts/bible/TO_Torah_880.htm?OVRAW=Torah&OVKEY=torah&OVMTC=standard My Jewish Learning.com]
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* [http://search.americanbible.org/ American Bible Society] to search NASB, KJV, CEV, ASV and others.
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* [http://etext.virginia.edu/kjv.browse.html University of Virginia Library] KJV word proximity search.
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* [http://www.1enormousidea.com/Default.aspx?tabid=42 Many translations in English, verse by verse]
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* [http://www.bible-marathi.com Nava Karar] NT Translation from Greek to Marathi
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* [http://www.bible-researcher.com/links12.html Gender-neutral Bible translations].
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* [http://www.evangelicalbible.com/why.htm Word-for-Word vs.Thought-for-Thought translation] Outlines the difference between formal and dynamic equivalent translation philosopy.
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* [http://www.kli.org/wiki/index.php?Klingon%20Bible%20Translation%20Project  Klingon Bible].
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===Commentaries and analysis===
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* [http://www.ldolphin.org/icc-am.html Biblical chronology] by Alan Montgomery, B.Sc.(Hon)
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* [http://www.dinur.org/resources/resourceCategoryDisplay.aspx?categoryID=411&rsid=478 Biblical History], The Jewish History Resource Center — Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
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* [http://www.chabad.org/article.asp?aid=63255 Judaica Press Translation] — online Jewish translation of the Tanakh.
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* [http://www.angdatingdaan.org/biblicaltopics/bib_bible_1.htm Reading and Understanding the Bible].
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* [http://en.bibleinfo.com/ Source for Bible Answers].
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* [http://www.amazingfacts.org/school/af_logon.asp Amazing Facts Bible Studies].
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* [http://www.iishj.org/images/Bible.pdf Learning Bible Today] — a historical approach the Bible.
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* [http://eword.gospelcom.net/comments/gill/ John Gill's Exposition of the Bible] — verse by verse commentary.
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* [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/henry/mhc.i.html/ Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible] — unabridged.
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*[http://www.verselink.org/ Topical References]
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*[http://www.verselink.org/ Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedia]
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===Wikis===
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* [http://bible.tmtm.com BibleWiki]
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* [http://wikible.org Wikible]
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==Bibliography==
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*Unger, Merril F. ''Unger's Bible Dictionary'', Moody Press, Chicago, IL (1966).
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*Unger, Merril F. ''Unger's Bible Handbook'', Moody Press, Chicago, IL (1967).
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*Halley, Henry H. ''Halley's Bible Handbook'', Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI (1965).
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*Wilson, Robert D. ''A Scientific Investigation of the Old Testament'', Sunday School Times, Inc, Philadelphia, PA (1926).
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*Blass, Frederich, and others. ''A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and other early Christian literature,'' translated by Robert W. Funk; University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL (1961); German edition ''Grammatik des Neutestamentlichen Griechisch'' Friedrich Rehkopf, editor, 14th edition. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1976.
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*Moulton, James H., and others. ''A Grammar of New Testament Greek'' (two volumes), edited by Wilbert Francis Howard, T&T Clark Publishers, Harrisburg, PA (1985); originally published 1920, Edinburgh, Scotland.
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*Bauer, Walter. ''Griechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch zu den Scriften des Neuen Testaments und der frühchristlichen Litteratur''. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, editors; 6th edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany (1988). Heading βιβλίον, columns 281-82.
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==References==
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<references/>
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[[Category:Bible]]
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[[Category:Religion]]
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[[Category:Book of Worship]]
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Revision as of 15:26, 3 May 2008

The bible is rubbish its an absolute lie!