Blue Cross/Blue Shield
Blue Cross/Blue Shield is the name used by large health insurance companies that operate in one or several states. In some states it holds a virtual monopoly, while in other states it is part of an oligopoly.
In Alabama Blue Cross Blue Shield holds 80% of the market, leaving patients with little competition and few other options. In other states, such as Michigan, the Blue Cross/Blue Shield company also holds overwhelming market share.
They were created by doctors in the 1940s trying to forestall socialized medicine.