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Caliphs (Arabic: خليفة) are Islamic spiritual leaders succeeding Mohammed.

Caliph, in Arabic, means "successor" or "steward." In the Koran, Allah refers to humans as the "stewards" of the Earth. This term has come to mean "successor" of Muhammed. The title of Caliph has been adopted by various Muslim rulers throughout history and is still used by some small Islamic denominations.