Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a Bill of Rights for Canadian citizens; it took effect in 1982 after the approval by Parliament. The Charter was sponsored by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and endorsed by 9 of the 10 provinces, with Quebec the holdout. Every law passed by the national or provincial parliaments that is inconsistent with the Charter is, to the extent of the inconsistency, of no force and effect. It makes the Supreme Court the highest decision-making body in Canada. The Court has issued about 35 rulings a year that depend on the Charter.