Difference between revisions of "Charles Darwin"

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[[Image:Evolution.jpg|alt=evolution darwin theory|right|thumb|225px|Late in [[Charles Darwin|Charles Darwin's]] life, Darwin told the Duke of Argyll that he frequently had overwhelming thoughts that the natural world was the [[Intelligent design|result of design]].<ref>http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/teleological-arguments/notes.html</ref> In a letter to [[Asa Gray]], Darwin confided: "...I am quite conscious that my speculations run quite beyond the bounds of true [[science]]."<ref>http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-2109</ref> See also: [http://creation.com/question-evolution Question evolution! campaign] ]]  
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'''Charles Darwin''' (12 February 1809 - 19 April 1882) was a famous naturalist born in England. Charles Darwin is best known for the theory of [[Evolution|evolution]] by [[Natural selection|natural selection]] presented in his book "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life."  The concept is that organisms are modified over vast amounts of time by naturally occurring processes, originating from common ancestors that lived tens of millions of years ago. Outside the area of evolutionary theory in particular, Charles Darwin was regarded as an expert on barnacles, as well as being credited with discovering how coral [[atoll]]s were formed.
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{{Infobox scientist
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|name = Charles Darwin
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|birth_name = Charles Robert Darwin
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|image = Charles Darwin seated crop.jpg
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|alt=Three quarter length studio photo showing Darwin's characteristic large forehead and bushy eyebrows with deep set eyes, pug nose and mouth set in a determined look. He is bald on top, with dark hair and long side whiskers but no beard or moustache. His jacket is dark, with very wide lapels, and his trousers are a light check pattern. His shirt has an upright wing collar, and his cravat is tucked into his waistcoat which is a light fine checked pattern.
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|caption = Darwin, aged 45 in 1854, by then working towards publication of ''[[On the Origin of Species|{{nowrap|On the Origin of Species}}]]''
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|birth_date = {{birth date|1809|2|12|df=y}}
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|birth_place = [[The Mount, Shrewsbury]], [[Shropshire]],  [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|United Kingdom]]
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|death_date = {{death date and age|1882|4|19|1809|2|12|df=yes}}
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|death_place = [[Down House]], [[Downe]], [[Kent]], United Kingdom
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|residence = England
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|citizenship = [[British Citizenship|British]]
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|nationality = [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|British]]
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|ethnicity = English
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|fields = [[natural history|Naturalist]]
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|workplaces = [[Geological Society of London]]
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|alma_mater = (tertiary education):<br> [[University of Edinburgh]] (medicine) <br />[[University of Cambridge]] (ordinary Bachelor of Arts)
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|doctoral_advisor = <!--there were no PhDs in Cambridge at the time-->
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|academic_advisors = [[John Stevens Henslow]]<br />[[Adam Sedgwick]]
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|doctoral_students = <!--there were no PhDs in Cambridge at the time-->
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|notable_students =
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|known_for = ''[[The Voyage of the Beagle]]''<br>''[[On the Origin of Species]]''<br>[[evolution]] by <br>[[natural selection]],<br>[[common descent]]
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|author_abbrev_bot =
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|author_abbrev_zoo =
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|influences = [[Alexander von Humboldt]]<br>[[John Herschel]]<br>[[Charles Lyell]]
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|influenced = [[Joseph Dalton Hooker]]<br>[[Thomas Henry Huxley]]<br>[[George Romanes]]<br>[[Ernst Haeckel]]<br>[[John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury|Sir John Lubbock]]
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|awards = [[Royal Medal]] (1853)<br>[[Wollaston Medal]] (1859)<br>[[Copley Medal]] (1864)
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|signature = Charles Darwin Signature.svg
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|signature_alt = "Charles Darwin", with the surname underlined by a downward curve that mimics the curve of the initial "C"
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|footnotes =
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|spouse = [[Emma Darwin]] (married 1839)
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}}
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'''Charles Robert Darwin''', [[Royal Society|FRS]] (12&nbsp;February 1809&nbsp;– 19&nbsp;April 1882) was an English [[natural history|naturalist]].{{Ref_label|A|I|none}} He established that all [[species]] of life have descended over time from [[common descent|common ancestors]],<ref>{{cite book|author=Coyne, Jerry A. |title=Why Evolution is True|publisher=Viking|year=2009 |pages=8–11|isbn=978-0-670-02053-9}}</ref> and proposed the [[scientific theory]] that this [[Phylogenetics|branching pattern]] of [[evolution]] resulted from a process that he called [[natural selection]], in which the [[struggle for existence]] has a similar effect to the [[artificial selection]] involved in [[selective breeding]].<ref name="Larson79-111">{{Harvnb|Larson|2004| pp=79–111}}</ref>
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Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book ''[[On the Origin of Species]]'', overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of [[transmutation of species]].<ref>{{cite book |title=Why Evolution is True |last = Coyne |first=Jerry A. |authorlink=Jerry Coyne |year=2009 |publisher=[[Oxford University Press]] |location= Oxford |isbn=0-19-923084-6 |page=17 |quote=In ''The Origin'', Darwin provided an alternative hypothesis for the development, diversification, and design of life. Much of that book presents evidence that not only supports evolution but at the same time refutes creationism. In Darwin's day, the evidence for his theories was compelling but not completely decisive.}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Forerunners of Darwin |last=Glass |first=Bentley |authorlink=Bentley Glass |year=1959 |publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press |location=Baltimore, MD |isbn= 0-8018-0222-9|page=iv |quote=Darwin's solution is a magnificent synthesis of evidence...a synthesis...compelling in honesty and comprehensiveness}}</ref> By the 1870s the [[scientific community]] and much of the general public had accepted [[evolution as theory and fact|evolution as a fact]]. However, many favoured [[The eclipse of Darwinism|competing explanations]] and it was not until the emergence of the [[modern evolutionary synthesis]] from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.<ref name=JvW>{{Harvnb|van Wyhe|2008}}</ref><ref name=b3847>{{harvnb|Bowler|2003|pp=178–179, 338, 347}}</ref> In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the [[life sciences]], explaining the [[biodiversity|diversity of life]].<ref>[http://darwin-online.org.uk/biography.html The Complete Works of Darwin Online – Biography.] ''darwin-online.org.uk''. Retrieved 2006-12-15<br />{{Harvnb|Dobzhansky|1973}}</ref><ref>As Darwinian scholar Joseph Carroll of the University of Missouri–St. Louis puts it in his introduction to a modern reprint of Darwin's work: "''The Origin of Species'' has special claims on our attention. It is one of the two or three most significant works of all time—one of those works that fundamentally and permanently alter our vision of the world...It is argued with a singularly rigorous consistency but it is also eloquent, imaginatively evocative, and rhetorically compelling." {{cite book |title=On the origin of species by means of natural selection |editor=Carroll, Joseph |year=2003 |publisher=Broadview |location= Peterborough, Ontario|isbn= 1-55111-337-6|page=15 |url= }}</ref>
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==General Biography of Charles Darwin==
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Charles Darwin was born in [[Shrewsbury]], [[England]] in 1809 to his parents Dr. Robert Darwin and Susannah Wedgewood. Darwin's mother was a religious woman but his father was, for the most part, a weak deist. Despite his lack of theistic religious belief, the Darwin's father allowed Charles to be baptized into the Anglican Church and encouraged him to become a clergyman. Darwin's mother died in 1817. In 1825 Charles Darwin went on to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh. There, he became horrified with the brutality of surgery before anesthesia was invented and quit his medical studies.  
  
Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his [[medical education]] at the [[University of Edinburgh]]; instead, he helped to investigate [[marine invertebrates]]. Studies at the [[University of Cambridge]] encouraged his passion for [[natural science]].<ref name=whowas>{{Harvnb|Leff|2000|loc=[http://www.aboutdarwin.com/darwin/WhoWas.html About Charles Darwin]}}</ref> His [[Second voyage of HMS Beagle|five-year voyage]] on {{HMS|Beagle}} established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported [[Charles Lyell]]'s [[uniformitarian]] ideas, and publication of his [[The Voyage of the Beagle|journal of the voyage]] made him famous as a popular author.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 210, 284–285}}</ref>
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In 1831 Charles Darwin graduated from Christ's College at Cambridge with a BA degree in the classics and theology. On December 27 of the same year Charles Darwin departed on the ''HMS Beagle'' for a five year voyage of exploration. The ''Beagle'' returned to English shores on October 2 1836. In 1837, Charles Darwin drew his now famous depiction of [[common ancestry]] in the form of a branching tree.<ref>Charles Darwin, Transmutation Notebook B 1837:36</ref> The following year he discovered the concept of ''[[natural selection]].'' Darwin insists that naturally occurring phenomena and factors working together in blind tandem have produced nature and eventually mankind.
  
Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and [[fossil]]s he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=263–274}}</ref> Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority.<ref>{{harvnb|van Wyhe|2007|pp=184, 187}}</ref> He was writing up his theory in 1858 when [[Alfred Russel Wallace]] sent him an essay which described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of [[On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection|both of their theories]].<ref>{{cite doi|10.1007/BF00351923}}</ref> Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature.<ref name = JvW/> In 1871 he examined [[human evolution]] and [[sexual selection]] in ''[[The Descent of Man|The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex]]'', followed by ''[[The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals]]''. His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined [[earthworm]]s and their effect on soil.<ref>{{Harvnb|Freeman|1977}}</ref>
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However, Charles Darwin originally based the idea of human evolution on a racist assumption<ref>Milton, Richard ''Shattering the Myths of Darwinism'' 1997:186,287 says "Darwin [was] openly racist"</ref>, [after God was rejected as Creator], made in the late 1830s<ref>Barlow, Nora (editor) ''The Autobiography of Charles Darwin'' 1958:130</ref>, that Fuegians (natives of Tierra del Fuego) resembled primates that he had observed in the London zoo.<ref>Larson, Edward J. ''Evolution: The Remarkable History Of A Scientific Theory'' 2004:66,67</ref> In 1842 he wrote out a ''sketch'' of his theory but did not publish it. Again, in 1844 Charles Darwin produced what is known today as an ''essay'' of the same theory more developed but he still chose not to publish.  
  
In recognition of Darwin's pre-eminence as a scientist, he was honoured with a [[state funeral]] and buried in [[Westminster Abbey]], close to [[John Herschel]] and [[Isaac Newton]].<ref name=DarwinsBurial>{{Harvnb|Leff|2000|loc=[http://www.aboutdarwin.com/darwin/burial.html Darwin's Burial]}}<br>{{Harvnb|van Wyhe|2008b|pp=60–61}}</ref> Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.newscientist.com/special/darwin-200|title=Special feature: Darwin 200|accessdate=2 April 2011 | work=New Scientist}}</ref><ref>{{cite book| last = Hart| first = Michael H.| author-link = Michael H. Hart| year = 2000| title = The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History| publication-place = New York| publisher=Citadel|ref=harv| isbn = 0-89104-175-3}}</ref>
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Finally, in 1859, Charles Darwin published his famous theory about how the species may have been produced without any aid from a Divine Creator. He titled his book ''On [[The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection]], or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life''. In 1871, well after his theory enjoyed widespread success, Darwin published his ideas on human evolution in a two-volume book titled ''[[The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex]].''
  
==Life==
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==Religious Views of Charles Darwin==
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===Childhood and education===
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''See also:'' [[Religious views of Charles Darwin]]
{{see also|Charles Darwin's education|Darwin-Wedgwood family}}
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Charles Robert Darwin was born in [[Shrewsbury]], Shropshire, England on 12 February 1809 at his family home, [[The Mount, Shrewsbury|The Mount]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://darwin.baruch.cuny.edu/biography/shrewsbury/mount/|title=The Mount House, Shrewsbury, England (Charles Darwin)|author=John H. Wahlert|date=11 June 2001|work=Darwin and Darwinism|publisher=[[Baruch College]]|accessdate=26 November 2008}}</ref> He was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier [[Robert Darwin]], and [[Susannah Darwin]] (''née'' Wedgwood). He was the grandson of [[Erasmus Darwin]] on his father's side, and of [[Josiah Wedgwood]] on his mother's side.
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[[File:Charles Darwin 1816.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Three quarter length portrait of seated boy smiling and looking at the viewer. He has straight mid brown hair, and wears dark clothes with a large frilly white collar. In his lap he holds a pot of flowering plants|The seven-year-old Charles Darwin in 1816.]]
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[[Image:CharlesDarwin.jpg|thumb|150px|right|Charles Darwin in 1880 at the age of 71.]]
Both families were largely [[Unitarianism|Unitarian]], though the Wedgwoods were adopting [[Anglicanism]]. Robert Darwin, himself quietly a [[Freethought#England and France|freethinker]], had baby Charles [[baptism|baptised]] in November 1809 in the Anglican [[St Chad's Church, Shrewsbury]], but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother. The eight-year-old Charles already had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818 he joined his older brother [[Erasmus Alvey Darwin|Erasmus]] attending the nearby Anglican [[Shrewsbury School]] as a [[boarding school|boarder]].<ref name=skool>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 12–15}}<br />{{harvnb|Darwin|1958|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=21 21–25]}}</ref>
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Charles Darwin likely abandoned [[Christianity]] as a student when he disappointed his father by refusing to become a minister.  In his autobiography Charles Darwin wrote about the diminishment of his religious faith and Darwin stated that he was an [[agnostic]].<ref>http://www.update.uu.se/~fbendz/library/cd_relig.htm</ref>  Darwin wrote the following: "The mystery of the beginning of all things is insoluble to us; and I for one must be content to remain an Agnostic."<ref>http://www.update.uu.se/~fbendz/library/cd_relig.htm</ref>  However, Darwin stated in his private notebooks that he was a [[materialism|materialist]], which is a type of [[atheism|atheist]].<ref>http://www.creation.com/content/view/1877</ref>
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<ref>Barrett, Paul H. ''Darwin on Man'' 1974:276</ref><ref>''American Scientist''  May 1977:323</ref> In the 1996 ''British Journal for the Philosophy of Science'' Kim Sterelny wrote in a book review the following: "I have no doubt that Darwin was a [[Materialism|materialist]] and a mechanist..."<ref>http://www.jstor.org/view/00070882/ap020188/02a00130/1?frame=noframe&userID=80cdbf39@buffalo.edu/01cce4405c00501c2c38a&dpi=3&config=jstor British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Volume 47, 1996, page 641</ref>  Furthermore, Charles Darwin’s casual mentioning of a ‘creator’ in earlier editions of The Origin of Species appears to have been a merely a ploy to downplay the implications of his [[materialism|materialistic]] theory.<ref>http://www.creation.com/content/view/1877</ref> [[Creation Ministries International]] states the following regarding why it is maintained that Charles Darwin was privately a materialist:
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{{cquote|[[Ernst Mayr]]’s recent book on Darwin, One Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Evolutionary Thought, Harvard, 1991, also acknowledges that Darwin’s references to purpose were to appease both the public and his wife. His early, private notebooks show his materialism well established. For instance, in one of them he addresses himself as, ‘O, you materialist!’ and says, ‘Why is thought, being a secretion of [[brain]], more wonderful than [[gravity]] as a property of matter?’ He clearly already believed that the idea of a separate realm of the spirit was nonsense, as is further shown when he warns himself not to reveal his beliefs, as follows:
  
Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the [[University of Edinburgh Medical School]] with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. He found lectures dull and [[surgery]] distressing, so neglected his studies. He learned [[taxidermy]] from [[John Edmonstone]], a freed black slave who had accompanied [[Charles Waterton]] in the South American [[rainforest]], and often sat with this "very pleasant and intelligent man".<ref name=eddy>{{harvnb|Darwin|1958|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=48 47–51]}}</ref>
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‘to avoid saying how far I believe in materialism, say only that emotions, instincts, degrees of talent which are hereditary are so because brain of child resembles parent stock.<ref>http://www.creation.com/content/view/1877</ref>}}
  
In Darwin's second year he joined the [[Plinian Society]], a student [[natural history]] group whose debates strayed into [[radicalism (historical)|radical]] [[materialism]]. He assisted [[Robert Edmond Grant]]'s investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of [[marine invertebrates]] in the [[Firth of Forth]], and on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in [[oyster]] shells were the eggs of a skate [[leech]]. One day, Grant praised [[Jean-Baptiste Lamarck|Lamarck's]] [[Lamarckism|evolutionary ideas]]. Darwin was astonished, but had recently read the similar ideas of his grandfather Erasmus and remained indifferent.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=72–88}}</ref> Darwin was rather bored by [[Robert Jameson]]'s natural history course which covered geology including the debate between [[Neptunism]] and [[Plutonism]]. He learned [[alpha taxonomy|classification]] of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the [[Royal Museum|University Museum]], one of the largest museums in Europe at the time.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=42–43}}</ref>
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Scholars refer to the private notebook in which Charles Darwin stated he was a materialist as the "M" notebook of 1838.<ref>Barrett, Paul H. ''Darwin on Man'' 1974:276</ref> [[Ernst Mayr]] wrote that "It is apparent that Darwin lost his faith in the years 1836-39, much of it clearly prior to the reading of [[Robert Malthus|Malthus]]. In order not to hurt the feelings of his friends and of his wife, Darwin often used deistic language in his publications, but much in his Notebooks indicates that by this time he had become a 'materialist' (more or less = atheist)". <ref>''American Scientist''  May 1977:323</ref>
  
This neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to [[Christ's College, Cambridge]], for a [[Bachelor of Arts]] degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican [[parson]]. As Darwin was unqualified for the ''[[Tripos]]'', he joined the ''ordinary'' degree course in January 1828.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=47–48, 89–91}}</ref> He preferred [[equestrianism|riding]] and [[shooting sports|shooting]] to studying. His cousin [[William Darwin Fox]] introduced him to the popular craze for [[beetle]] collecting; Darwin pursued this zealously, getting some of his finds published in [[James Francis Stephens|Stevens']] ''Illustrations of British entomology''. He became a close friend and follower of botany professor [[John Stevens Henslow]] and met other leading naturalists who saw scientific work as religious [[natural theology]], becoming known to these [[University don|dons]] as "the man who walks with Henslow". When his own exams drew near, Darwin focused on his studies and was delighted by the language and logic of [[William Paley]]'s ''Evidences of Christianity''.<ref name=dar57>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1958|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=59 57–67]}}</ref> In his final examination in January 1831 Darwin did well, coming tenth out of 178 candidates for the ''ordinary'' degree.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|p=97}}</ref>
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Perhaps the best explanation of Darwin's worldview from 1836 onwards was that Darwin was a [[weak atheism|weak atheist]] who often had overwhelming thoughts that nature was the product of a mind.<ref>[http://www.equip.org/articles/is-darwinism-atheistic- Is Darwinism Atheistic? An Examination of the Beliefs and Practices of Charles Darwin]</ref>  <ref>http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/teleological-arguments/notes.html</ref><ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=j9MEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=Dr.+Aveling+has+published+an+account+of+a+conversation+with+my+father.+I+think+that+the+readers+of+this+pamphlet+(%27The+Religious+Views+of+Charles+Darwin,%27+Free+Thought+Publishing+Company,+1883)+may+be+misled+into+seeing+more+resemblance+than+really+existed&source=web&ots=-eyumeD-3g&sig=V1ooJ7WLHqu1csnVz39scxdV4Mg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result</ref>
  
Darwin had to stay at Cambridge until June. He studied Paley's ''Natural Theology'', which made an [[teleological argument|argument for divine design in nature]], explaining [[adaptation]] as God acting through [[Physical law|laws of nature]].<ref name=syd5-7>{{Harvnb|von Sydow|2005|pp=5–7}}</ref> He read [[John Herschel]]'s new book, which described the highest aim of [[natural philosophy]] as understanding such laws through [[inductive reasoning]] based on observation, and [[Alexander von Humboldt]]'s ''Personal Narrative'' of scientific travels. Inspired with "a burning zeal" to contribute, Darwin planned to visit [[Tenerife]] with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the [[tropics]]. In preparation, he joined [[Adam Sedgwick]]'s [[geology]] course, then travelled with him in the summer for a fortnight, in order to map [[strata]] in [[Wales]].<ref name=db>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1958|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=69 67–68]}}<br />{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=128–129, 133–141}}</ref>
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Charles Darwin’s casual mentioning of a ‘creator’ in earlier editions of The Origin of Species appears to have been a merely a ploy to downplay the implications of his [[materialism|materialistic]] theory.<ref>http://creation.com/charles-darwin-s-real-message-have-you-missed-it</ref> [[Intelligent design]] advocate John Calvert declares that atheists often don't reveal their atheism and stealthily try to promote their atheism.<ref>[http://www.wnd.com/index.php?pageId=207581 Atheism: A stealth religion]</ref> It can be argued that this was Darwin's approach.
  
===Voyage of the ''Beagle''===
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For example, Charles Darwin wrote:
{{details|Second voyage of HMS Beagle}}
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{{cquote|“It appears to me (whether rightly or wrongly) that direct arguments against Christianity & theism produce hardly any effect on the public; & freedom of thought is best promoted by the gradual illumination of men’s minds which follow[s] from the advance of science. It has, therefore, been always my object to avoid writing on religion, & I have confined myself to science.<ref>http://www.nysun.com/arts/war-peace/42267/</ref>}}
[[File:Voyage of the Beagle-en.svg|thumb|400px|alt=Route from Plymouth, England, south to Cape Verde then southwest across the Atlantic to Bahia, Brazil, south to Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, the Falkland Islands, round the tip of South America then north to Valparaiso and Callao. Northwest to the Galapagos Islands before sailing west across the Pacific to New Zealand, Sydney, Hobart in Tasmania, and King George's Sound in Western Australia. Northwest to the Keeling Islands, southwest to Mauritius and Cape Town, then northwest to Bahia and northeast back to Plymouth.|The voyage of the ''Beagle'']]
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After a week with student friends at [[Barmouth]], Darwin returned home on 29 August to find a letter from Henslow proposing him as a suitable (if unfinished) gentleman naturalist for a self-funded [[supernumerary]] place on {{HMS|Beagle}} with captain [[Robert FitzRoy]], more as a companion than a mere collector. The ship was to leave in four weeks on an expedition to chart the coastline of South America.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-105.html|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 105 – Henslow, J. S. to Darwin, C. R., 24 Aug 1831|accessdate=29 December 2008}}</ref> [[Robert Darwin]] objected to his son's planned two-year voyage, regarding it as a waste of time, but was persuaded by his brother-in-law, [[Josiah Wedgwood II|Josiah Wedgwood]], to agree to (and fund) his son's participation.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 94–97}}</ref>
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After delays, the voyage began on 27 December 1831; it lasted almost five years. As FitzRoy had intended, Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while the ''Beagle'' [[hydrography|surveyed and charted]] coasts.<ref name=JvW/><ref name=kix>{{harvnb|Keynes|2000|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1840&pageseq=12 ix–xi]}}</ref> He kept careful notes of his observations and theoretical speculations, and at intervals during the voyage his specimens were sent to Cambridge together with letters including a copy of [[The Voyage of the Beagle|his journal]] for his family.<ref>{{Harvnb|van Wyhe|2008b|pp=18–21}}</ref> He had some expertise in geology, beetle collecting and dissecting [[marine invertebrates]], but in all other areas was a novice and ably collected specimens for expert appraisal.<ref name=fnGal>{{cite web|url=http://darwin-online.org.uk/EditorialIntroductions/Chancellor_Keynes_Galapagos.html|title=Darwin's field notes on the Galapagos: 'A little world within itself'|author=Gordon Chancellor|coauthors=[[Randal Keynes]]|month=October| year=2006|publisher=[[Darwin Online]]|accessdate=16 September 2009}}</ref> Despite suffering badly from seasickness, Darwin wrote copious notes while on board the ship. Most of his zoology notes are about marine invertebrates, starting with [[plankton]] collected in a calm spell.<ref name=kix/><ref name=plankton>{{Harvnb|Keynes|2001|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1925&viewtype=text&pageseq=53 21–22]}}</ref>
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Given the Victorian anti-atheism sentiments of many during this period, Darwin did want to appear to be an agnostic as can be seen by this quote:
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{{cquote|Dr. Aveling has published an account of a conversation with my father. I think that the readers of this pamphlet ('The Religious Views of Charles Darwin,' Free Thought Publishing Company, 1883) may be misled into seeing more resemblance than really existed between the positions of my father and Dr. Aveling: and I say this in spite of my conviction that Dr. Aveling gives quite fairly his impressions of my father's views. Dr. Aveling tried to show that the terms "Agnostic" and "Atheist" were practically equivalent-that an atheist is one who, without denying the existence of God, is without God, inasmuch as he is unconvinced of the existence of a Deity. My father's replies implied his preference for the unaggressive attitude of an Agnostic. Dr. Aveling seems (page 5) to regard the absence of aggressiveness in my father's views as distinguishing them in an unessential manner from his own. But, in my judgment, it is precisely differences of this kind which distinguish him so completely from the class of thinkers to which Dr. Aveling belongs.<ref>http://books.google.com/books?id=j9MEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=Dr.+Aveling+has+published+an+account+of+a+conversation+with+my+father.+I+think+that+the+readers+of+this+pamphlet+(%27The+Religious+Views+of+Charles+Darwin,%27+Free+Thought+Publishing+Company,+1883)+may+be+misled+into+seeing+more+resemblance+than+really+existed&source=web&ots=-eyumeD-3g&sig=V1ooJ7WLHqu1csnVz39scxdV4Mg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result</ref>}}
  
On their first stop ashore at [[Santiago, Cape Verde|St. Jago]], Darwin found that a white band high in the [[volcanic rock]] cliffs included seashells. FitzRoy had given him the first volume of [[Charles Lyell]]'s ''Principles of Geology'' which set out [[uniformitarian]] concepts of land slowly rising or falling over immense periods,{{Ref_label|B|II|none}} and Darwin saw things Lyell's way, theorising and thinking of writing a book on geology.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=183–190}}</ref>
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The ''Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' declares:
In [[Brazil]] Darwin was delighted by the [[Bahia coastal forests|tropical forest]],<ref>{{harvnb|Keynes|2001|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1925&pageseq=73 41–42]}}</ref> but detested the sight of [[slavery]].<ref>{{harvnb|Darwin|1958|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=75 73–74]}}</ref>
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{{cquote|In 1885, the Duke of Argyll recounted a conversation he had had with Charles Darwin the year before Darwin's death:  
  
At [[Punta Alta]] in [[Patagonia]] he made a major find of fossil bones of huge extinct [[mammal]]s in cliffs beside modern seashells, indicating recent [[extinction]] with no signs of change in climate or catastrophe. He identified the little known ''[[Megatherium]]'' by a tooth and its association with bony armour which had at first seemed to him like a giant version of the armour on local [[armadillo]]s. The finds brought great interest when they reached England.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp= 223–235}}<br>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1835|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1&viewtype=text&pageseq=7 7]}}<br>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|p= 210}}</ref><ref name=k206>{{harvnb|Keynes|2001|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1925&pageseq=138 206–209]}}</ref> On rides with [[gaucho]]s into the interior to explore geology and collect more fossils he gained social, political and [[anthropology|anthropological]] insights into both native and colonial people at a time of revolution, and learnt that two types of [[rhea (bird)|rhea]] had separate but overlapping territories.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 189–192, 198}}</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Eldredge|2006}}</ref> Further south he saw stepped plains of shingle and seashells as [[raised beach]]es showing a series of elevations. He read Lyell's second volume and accepted its view of "centres of creation" of species, but his discoveries and theorising challenged Lyell's ideas of smooth continuity and of extinction of species.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 131, 159}}<br />{{harvnb|Herbert|1991|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=A342&pageseq=16 174–179]}}</ref><ref name=HurrahChiloe>{{cite web|url= http://darwin-online.org.uk/EditorialIntroductions/Chancellor_fieldNotebooks1.8.html|title=Darwin Online: 'Hurrah Chiloe': an introduction to the Port Desire Notebook|accessdate=24 October 2008}}</ref>
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In the course of that conversation I said to Mr. Darwin, with reference to some of his own remarkable works on the Fertilisation of [[Orchid]]s, and upon The [[Earthworm]]s, and various other observations he made of the wonderful contrivances for certain purposes in nature—I said it was impossible to look at these without seeing that they were the effect and the expression of Mind. I shall never forget Mr. Darwin's answer. He looked at me very hard and said, “Well, that often comes over me with overwhelming force; but at other times,” and he shook his head vaguely, adding, “it seems to go away.”(Argyll 1885, 244] <ref>http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/teleological-arguments/notes.html</ref>}}
  
[[File:HMS Beagle by Conrad Martens.jpg|thumb|left|alt=On a sea inlet surrounded by steep hills, with high snow covered mountains in the distance, someone standing in an open canoe waves at a square-rigged sailing ship, seen from the front|As [[HMS Beagle|HMS ''Beagle'']] surveyed the coasts of South America, Darwin theorised about geology and extinction of giant mammals.]]
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[[Scientism]] can also be seen in Darwin's worldview. The scientism in Darwins's worldview can be seen in the previously cited quote of Darwin:
Three Fuegians on board, who had been seized during the [[HMS Beagle#First voyage|first ''Beagle'' voyage]] and had spent a year in England, were taken back to [[Tierra del Fuego]] as missionaries. Darwin found them friendly and civilised, yet their relatives seemed "miserable, degraded savages", as different as wild from domesticated animals.<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1845|pp= [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F14&viewtype=text&pageseq=218 205–208]}}</ref> To Darwin the difference showed cultural advances, not racial inferiority. Unlike his scientist friends, he now thought there was no unbridgeable gap between humans and animals.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp= 244–250}}</ref> A year on, the mission had been abandoned. The Fuegian they had named [[Jemmy Button]] lived like the other natives, had a wife, and had no wish to return to England.<ref>{{harvnb|Keynes|2001|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1925&pageseq=258 226–227]}}</ref>
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{{cquote|It appears to me (whether rightly or wrongly) that direct arguments against Christianity and theism produce hardly any effect on the public; and freedom of thought is best promoted by the gradual illumination of men's minds which follows from the advance of science.<ref>http://www.christianitytoday.com/books/features/bccorner/020204.html</ref>}}  
  
Darwin experienced an earthquake in [[Chile]] and saw signs that the land had just been raised, including [[mussel]]-beds stranded above high tide. High in the [[Andes]] he saw seashells, and several fossil trees that had grown on a sand beach. He theorised that as the land rose, [[island|oceanic islands]] sank, and [[coral reef]]s round them grew to form [[atoll]]s.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 160–168, 182}}<br />{{Harvnb|Darwin|1887|p= [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1452.1&viewtype=text&pageseq=278 260]}}</ref><ref name=atolls>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1958|loc=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1497&viewtype=text&pageseq=100 p 98–99]}}</ref>
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According to Charles Darwin the "manifestly false history of the world" <ref>ibid. Barlow 1958:85.</ref> as recorded in the Old Testament and New Testament miracles led him to reject Biblical veracity <ref>ibid. Barlow 1958:85-87.</ref>. Eminent Darwin biographer, Professor Janet Browne, sums up Darwin's views concerning religion: Darwin "mapped out a comparative evolution of the religious sense, proposing that religious belief was ultimately nothing more than a primitive urge to bestow a cause on otherwise inexplicable natural events...In short, he made no secret of his view that he did not believe religion to have any rational foundation at all" <ref>Browne, Janet  ''Charles Darwin The Power of Place'' 2002:341</ref>. When he died in 1882 at the age of seventy-three, Darwin was buried at Westminster Abbey next to Sir [[Isaac Newton]].
  
On the geologically new [[Galápagos Islands]] Darwin looked for evidence attaching wildlife to an older "centre of creation", and found [[mockingbird]]s allied to those in Chile but differing from island to island. He heard that slight variations in the shape of [[tortoise]] shells showed which island they came from, but failed to collect them, even after eating tortoises taken on board as food.<ref name=k356>{{harvnb|Keynes|2001|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1925&pageseq=388 356–357]}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Sulloway|1982|p=19}}</ref> In Australia the [[marsupial]] [[Potoridae|rat-kangaroo]] and the [[platypus]] seemed so unusual that Darwin thought it was almost as though two distinct Creators had been at work.<ref name=Crows>{{cite web|url=http://darwin-online.org.uk/EditorialIntroductions/Chancellor_fieldNotebooks1.3.html|title=Darwin Online: Coccatoos & Crows: An introduction to the Sydney Notebook|accessdate=2 January 2009}}</ref> He found the [[Indigenous Australians|Aborigines]] "good-humoured & pleasant", and noted their depletion by European settlement.<ref>{{harvnb|Keynes|2001|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1925&pageseq=430 398–399].}}</ref>
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There exists in hostile Darwin literature a story about a Christian called Lady Hope who visited and spoke with a dying Charles Darwin.  This appears to be merely a legend, and there is no evidence that Lady Hope ever converted or even visited Darwin on his deathbed. <ref>http://www.carm.org/evo_questions/deathbed.htm</ref><ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/2009/03/31/darwins-deathbed-conversion-legend</ref>
  
The ''Beagle'' investigated how the atolls of the [[Cocos (Keeling) Islands]] had formed, and the survey supported Darwin's theorising.<ref name=atolls/> FitzRoy began writing the official ''Narrative'' of the ''Beagle'' voyages, and after reading Darwin's diary he proposed incorporating it into the account.<ref name=Letter301>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-301.html|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 301 – Darwin, C.R. to Darwin, C.S., 29 Apr 1836}}</ref> Darwin's ''[[The Voyage of the Beagle|Journal]]'' was eventually rewritten as a separate third volume, on natural history.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|p= 336}}</ref>
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== Charles Darwin, Nazi ideology development and eugenics ==
  
In [[Cape Town]] Darwin and FitzRoy met [[John Herschel]], who had recently written to Lyell praising his [[uniformitarianism]] as opening bold speculation on "that mystery of mysteries, the replacement of extinct species by others" as "a natural in contradistinction to a miraculous process".<ref name=Rascals>{{harvnb|van Wyhe|2007|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=A544&pageseq=21 197]}}</ref>
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In a [[Creation Ministries International]] article entitled ''Darwin and eugenics:
When organising his notes as the ship sailed home, Darwin wrote that if his growing suspicions about the mockingbirds, the tortoises and the [[Falkland Islands Wolf|Falkland Islands Fox]] were correct, "such facts undermine the stability of Species", then cautiously added "would" before "undermine".<ref name=xix>{{Harvnb|Keynes|2000|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1840&pageseq=22 xix–xx]}}<br />{{Harvnb|Eldredge|2006}}</ref> He later wrote that such facts "seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species".<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1859|loc=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F373&viewtype=text&pageseq=16 p. 1]}}</ref>
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Darwin was indeed a ‘Social Darwinist’'' Bill Muehlenberg writes:
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{{cquote|‘Darwin’s work is filled with references to the work of those involved in creating a radical new “scientific” justification for labeling races, classes, and individuals as “inferior”. Darwin writes in The Descent of Man that “a most important obstacle in civilized countries to an increase in the number of men of a superior class” is the tendency of society’s “very poor and reckless”, who are “often degraded by vice”, to increase faster than “the provident and generally virtuous members”.<ref>[http://creation.com/darwin-and-eugenics ''Darwin and eugenics:
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Darwin was indeed a ‘Social Darwinist’'' by Bill Muehlenberg]</ref>}}
  
===Inception of Darwin's evolutionary theory===
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In addition, Dennis Sewell declared cornering the Darwin family:
{{details|Inception of Darwin's theory}}
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{{cquote|[In the] years leading up to the First World War, the eugenics movement looked like a Darwin family business. … Darwin’s son Leonard replaced his cousin Galton as chairman of the national Eugenics Society in 1911. In the same year an offshoot of the society was formed in Cambridge. Among its leading members were three more of Charles Darwin’s sons, Horace, Francis and George.” <ref>[http://creation.com/eugenics-a-darwin-family-business Eugenics: “a Darwin family business”]</ref>}}
[[File:Charles Darwin by G. Richmond.png|thumb|left|200px|upright|alt=Three quarter length portrait of Darwin aged about 30, with straight brown hair receding from his high forehead and long side-whiskers, smiling quietly, in wide lapelled jacket, waistcoat and high collar with cravat.|While still a young man, Charles Darwin joined the scientific elite]]
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When the ''Beagle'' reached [[Falmouth, Cornwall]], on 2 October 1836, Darwin was already a celebrity in scientific circles as in December 1835 [[John Stevens Henslow|Henslow]] had fostered his former pupil's reputation by giving selected naturalists a pamphlet of Darwin's geological letters.<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1835|loc=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/EditorialIntroductions/Freeman_LettersOnGeology.html editorial introduction]}}</ref> Darwin visited his home in Shrewsbury and saw relatives, then hurried to [[Cambridge]] to see Henslow, who advised on finding naturalists available to catalogue the collections and agreed to take on the botanical specimens. Darwin's father organised investments, enabling his son to be a self-funded [[gentleman scientist]], and an excited Darwin went round the London institutions being fêted and seeking experts to describe the collections. Zoologists had a huge backlog of work, and there was a danger of specimens just being left in storage.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 195–198}}</ref>
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Charles Darwin is often considered a [[Proto-Nazi]] for his evolutionary paradigm's influence on [[eugenics]]. Eugenics is the concept of artificially 'evolving' humans by determining who can live, die, or reproduce. [[Adolf Hitler]] would later on use Darwin's theory of [[evolution]] to justify his eugenics programs, including the [[Holocaust]].
  
[[Charles Lyell]] eagerly met Darwin for the first time on 29 October and soon introduced him to the up-and-coming anatomist [[Richard Owen]], who had the facilities of the [[Royal College of Surgeons of England|Royal College of Surgeons]] to work on the fossil bones collected by Darwin. Owen's surprising results included other gigantic extinct [[ground sloth]]s as well as the ''[[Megatherium]]'', a near complete skeleton of the unknown ''[[Scelidotherium]]'' and a [[hippopotamus]]-sized [[rodent]]-like skull named ''[[Toxodon]]'' resembling a giant [[capybara]]. The armour fragments were actually from ''[[Glyptodon]]'', a huge armadillo-like creature as Darwin had initially thought.<ref>{{Harvnb|Owen|1840|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F9.1&pageseq=26 16], [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F9.1&pageseq=83 73], [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F9.1&pageseq=116 106]}}<br>{{Harvnb|Eldredge|2006}}</ref><ref name=k206/> These extinct creatures were related to living species in South America.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 201–205}}<br>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=349–350}}</ref>
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== Darwin's obsessive preoccupation with his public persona and reactions to criticism ==
  
In mid-December Darwin took lodgings in Cambridge to organise work on his collections and rewrite his ''Journal''.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=345–347}}</ref> He wrote his first paper, showing that the South American landmass was slowly rising, and with Lyell's enthusiastic backing read it to the [[Geological Society of London]] on 4 January 1837. On the same day, he presented his mammal and bird specimens to the [[Zoological Society of London|Zoological Society]]. The ornithologist [[John Gould]] soon announced that the Galapagos birds that Darwin had thought a mixture of [[Common Blackbird|blackbirds]], "[[Grosbeak|gros-beaks]]" and [[finch]]es, were, in fact, twelve [[Darwin's finches|separate species of finches]]. On 17 February Darwin was elected to the Council of the Geological Society, and Lyell's presidential address presented Owen's findings on Darwin's fossils, stressing geographical continuity of species as supporting his uniformitarian ideas.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 207–210}}<br />{{Harvnb|Sulloway|1982|pp=20–23}}</ref>
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In 2002, Richard Milner wrote in a Scientific American in a article entitled [http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000B62D6-7E63-1D7E-90FB809EC5880000# "Putting Darwin in his Place"], that Darwin ''"clipped, catalogued and indexed hundreds of offprints, about 350 reviews and 1,600 articles, as well as satires, parodies and Punch caricatures, with which he filled hefty scrapbooks..."''  And it appears as if the criticism of his work may have troubled Darwin. Milner in the aforementioned article, wrote that after [[Charles Lyell]] published a very weak endorsement of Darwin's Antiquity of Man, ''"Darwin's disappointment brought on 10 days of vomiting, faintness and stomach distress".  Also when anatomist St. George Mivart made a strong attack on The Descent of Man,  Milner wrote it "triggered two months of "giddiness" and inability to work..." ''
  
Early in March, Darwin moved to London to be near this work, joining Lyell's social circle of scientists and [[expert]]s such as [[Charles Babbage]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-346.html|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 346 – Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., 27 Feb 1837|accessdate=19 December 2008}} proposes a move on Friday 3 March 1837,<br />Darwin's Journal ({{harvnb|Darwin|2006|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=side&itemID=CUL-DAR158.1–76&pageseq=22 12 verso]}}) backdated from August 1838 gives a date of 6 March 1837</ref> who described God as a programmer of laws. Darwin stayed with his [[freethought|freethinking]] brother [[Erasmus Alvey Darwin|Erasmus]], part of this [[British Whig Party|Whig]] circle and close friend of writer [[Harriet Martineau]] who promoted [[Malthusianism]] underlying the controversial Whig [[Poor Law Amendment Act 1834|Poor Law reforms]] to stop welfare from causing overpopulation and more poverty. As a [[Unitarianism|Unitarian]] she welcomed the [[radicalism (historical)|radical]] implications of [[transmutation of species]], promoted by [[Robert Edmond Grant|Grant]] and younger surgeons influenced by [[Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire|Geoffroy]]. Transmutation was anathema to Anglicans defending social order,<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=201, 212–221}}</ref> but reputable scientists openly discussed the subject and there was wide interest in [[John Herschel]]'s letter praising Lyell's approach as a way to find a [[Physical law|natural cause]] of the origin of new species.<ref name=Rascals/>
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== Darwin's Sickness and Controversy Regarding His Sickness ==
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[[File:Darwin monkey cartoon.jpg|left|thumbnail|150px|Caricature of Charles Darwin ]]
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For more on this topic see: [[Charles Darwin's illness]]
  
Gould met Darwin and told him that the Galápagos [[mockingbird]]s from different islands were separate species, not just varieties, and what Darwin had thought was a "[[wren]]" was also [[Warbler Finch|in the finch group]]. Darwin had not labelled the finches by island, but from the notes of others on the ''Beagle'', including FitzRoy, he allocated species to islands.<ref>{{Harvnb|Sulloway|1982|pp=9, 20–23}}</ref> The two [[rhea (bird)|rheas]] were also distinct species, and on 14 March Darwin announced how their distribution changed going southwards.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|p=360}}<br />{{cite web|url=http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1643&viewtype=text&pageseq=1|title=Darwin, C. R. (Read 14 March 1837) Notes on Rhea americana and Rhea darwinii, ''Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London''|accessdate=17 December 2008}}</ref>
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For most of his adult life Charles Darwin suffered from very poor health.<ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v17/i4/darwins_illness.asp</ref> The 1992 ''New Encyclopaedia Britannica '' stated that Darwin's illness was psychogenic in origin (A psychogenic illness is one that originates in the mind or in mental condition). <ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v17/i4/darwins_illness.asp</ref> A 1997 article in the [[Journal of the American Medical Association]] entitled "Charles Darwin and Panic Disorder" states that the "variable intensity of symptoms and chronic, prolonged course without physical deterioration also indicate that his illness was [[Psychiatry|psychiatric]]." <ref>''Charles Darwin and Panic Disorder''" by Thomas J. Barloon, MD and Russel Noyes, Jr., January 8, 1997 ''Journal of the American Medical Association''</ref> In regards to illness associated with evolutionary ideas a journal article in the ''American Journal of Medicine'' declares that Darwin suffered from "psychoneurosis provoked and exaggerated by his [[theory of evolution|evolutionary]] ideas".<ref>"The Illness of Charles Darwin", William B. Bean, September 1978, American Journal of Medicine</ref> The American Journal of Medicine article also declared that his Darwin's wife, Emma, greatly disapproved of his evolutionist ideas and "This, facsimile of public reaction, must have kept lively his anxiety and torment". <ref>"The Illness of Charles Darwin", William B. Bean, September 1978, American Journal of Medicine</ref> According to the abstract for a 1997 journal article in the ''Notes and Records of the Royal Society'' the psychogenic hypothesis for the origin of Darwin's illness "holds the field" but the article questions the validity of this diagnoses and mentions the work of Ralph Colp Jr. MD, a physician and psychiatrist (For details see: [[Darwin's Sickness]]). <ref>http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/content/c5la8dhfh8v7tbx8/</ref><ref>http://www.pathlights.com/ce_encyclopedia/Encyclopedia/20hist06.htm</ref>  
  
[[File:Darwin tree.png|right|thumb|alt=A page of hand-written notes, with a sketch of branching lines.|In mid-July 1837 Darwin started his "B" notebook on ''Transmutation of Species'', and on page 36 wrote "I think" above his first [[tree of life (science)|evolutionary tree]].]]
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Given Darwin's likely psychogenic or psychobiological illness various [[Creationism|creationists]] have stated that Darwin's illness was the result of guilt and/or fear. <ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v17/i4/darwins_illness.asp</ref><ref>http://www.pathlights.com/ce_encyclopedia/Encyclopedia/20hist06.htm</ref>
By mid-March, Darwin was speculating in his ''Red Notebook'' on the possibility that "one species does change into another" to explain the geographical distribution of living species such as the rheas, and extinct ones such as the strange ''[[Macrauchenia]]'' which resembled a giant [[guanaco]]. His thoughts on lifespan, [[asexual reproduction]] and [[sexual reproduction]] developed in his "B" notebook around mid-July on to variation in offspring "to adapt & alter the race to ''changing'' world" explaining the [[Galápagos tortoise]]s, mockingbirds and rheas. He sketched branching descent, then a [[genealogy|genealogical]] branching of a single [[tree of life (science)|evolutionary tree]], in which "It is absurd to talk of one animal being higher than another", discarding [[Jean-Baptiste Lamarck|Lamarck's]] independent [[lineage (evolution)|lineages]] progressing to higher forms.<ref>{{harvnb|Herbert|1980|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1583e&pageseq=9 7–10]}}<br />{{Harvnb|van Wyhe|2008b|p=44}}<br />{{harvnb|Darwin|1837|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=side&itemID=CUL-DAR121.-&pageseq=1 1–13, 26, 36, 74]}}<br />{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=229–232}}</ref>
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===Overwork, illness, and marriage===
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== Charles Darwin and Pangenesis==
{{See also|Charles Darwin's health}}
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While developing this intensive study of [[transmutation of species|transmutation]], Darwin became mired in more work. Still rewriting his ''Journal'', he took on editing and publishing the expert reports on his collections, and with Henslow's help obtained a Treasury grant of [[pound sterling|£]]1,000 to sponsor this multi-volume ''[[Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle]]'', a sum equivalent to about £{{formatnum:{{inflation|UK|1000|1837|r=-3}}}} in {{#expr:{{CURRENTYEAR}}-2}}.{{inflation-fn|UK}} He stretched the funding to include his planned books on geology, and agreed unrealistic dates with the publisher.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=367–369}}</ref> As the [[Victorian era]] began, Darwin pressed on with writing his ''Journal'', and in August 1837 began correcting [[Galley proof|printer's proofs]].<ref>{{harvnb|Keynes|2001|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1925&pageseq=21 xix]}}</ref>
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Darwin's health suffered from the pressure. On 20 September he had "an uncomfortable palpitation of the heart", so his doctors urged him to "knock off all work" and live in the country for a few weeks. After visiting Shrewsbury he joined his Wedgwood relatives at [[Maer Hall]], Staffordshire, but found them too eager for tales of his travels to give him much rest. His charming, intelligent, and cultured cousin [[Emma Darwin|Emma Wedgwood]], nine months older than Darwin, was nursing his invalid aunt. His uncle [[Josiah Wedgwood II|Jos]] pointed out an area of ground where cinders had disappeared under [[loam]] and suggested that this might have been the work of [[earthworm]]s, inspiring "a new & important theory" on their role in [[pedogenesis|soil formation]] which Darwin presented at the Geological Society on 1 November.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 233–234}}<br />{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-404.html|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 404 – Buckland, William to Geological Society of London, 9 Mar 1838|accessdate=23 December 2008}}</ref>
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''See also:'' [[Theories of evolution]]
  
[[William Whewell]] pushed Darwin to take on the duties of Secretary of the Geological Society. After initially declining the work, he accepted the post in March 1838.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 233–236}}.</ref> Despite the grind of writing and editing the ''Beagle'' reports, Darwin made remarkable progress on transmutation, taking every opportunity to question expert naturalists and, unconventionally, people with practical experience such as farmers and [[pigeon keeping|pigeon fanciers]].<ref name=JvW/><ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 241–244, 426}}</ref> Over time his research drew on information from his relatives and children, the family butler, neighbours, colonists and former shipmates.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|p=xii}}</ref> He included mankind in his speculations from the outset, and on seeing an [[orangutan]] in the zoo on 28 March 1838 noted its childlike behaviour.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 241–244}}</ref>
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[[Pangenesis]] was an [[evolution|evolutionary]] notion that was developed by Charles Darwin. [[Creation science|Creation scientist]] Dr. [[Jerry Bergman]] wrote concerning pangenesis:
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{{cquote|Pangenesis is based on the idea that all somatic cells produce ‘gemmules’ or gene material that is ‘thrown off’ into the body’s circulatory system. These gemmules multiply by dividing, and eventually collect in the organism’s eggs and sperm (the gametes). Consequently, the experiences of their bearers are imprinted in the gemmules, and then can be passed on to the organism’s offspring. Darwin discussed his pangenesis idea in great detail, and felt confident that it would provide a feasible mechanism to produce new genetic information.<ref>http://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j17_2/j17_2_19-25.pdf</ref>}}
  
[[File:Emma Darwin.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Three quarter length portrait of woman aged about 30, with dark hair in centre parting straight on top, then falling in curls on each side. She smiles pleasantly and is wearing an open necked blouse with a large shawl pulled over her arms|Darwin chose to marry his cousin, [[Emma Darwin|Emma Wedgwood]].]]
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Despite there being devastating experimental evidence against the notion of pangenesis provided by [[Francis Galton]], Charles Darwin stubbornly held to the notion of pangenesis as he had no [[naturalism|naturalistic]] explanation on how genetic information could be formed.<ref>http://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j17_2/j17_2_19-25.pdf</ref>
The strain took a toll, and by June he was being laid up for days on end with stomach problems, headaches and heart symptoms. For the rest of his life, he was repeatedly incapacitated with episodes of stomach pains, vomiting, severe [[boil]]s, palpitations, trembling and other symptoms, particularly during times of stress such as attending meetings or making social visits. The cause of [[Charles Darwin's illness|Darwin's illness]] remained unknown, and attempts at treatment had little success.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 252, 476, 531}}<br />{{harvnb|Darwin|1958|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=119 115]}}</ref>
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On 23 June he took a break and went "geologising" in Scotland. He visited [[Glen Roy]] in glorious weather to see the parallel "roads" cut into the hillsides at three heights. He later published his view that these were marine [[raised beach]]es, but then had to accept that they were shorelines of a [[proglacial lake]].<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|p= 254}}<br />{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=377–378}}<br />{{Harvnb|Darwin|1958|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=86 84]}}</ref>
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==Criticism of the Work of Charles Darwin by Cliff Lillo==
  
Fully recuperated, he returned to Shrewsbury in July. Used to jotting down daily notes on animal breeding, he scrawled rambling thoughts about career and prospects on two scraps of paper, one with columns headed ''"Marry"'' and ''"Not Marry"''. Advantages included "constant companion and a friend in old age&nbsp;... better than a dog anyhow", against points such as "less money for books" and "terrible loss of time."<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1958|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1497&viewtype=text&pageseq=238 232–233]}}</ref> Having decided in favour, he discussed it with his father, then went to visit Emma on 29 July. He did not get around to proposing, but against his father's advice he mentioned his ideas on transmutation.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=256–259}}</ref>
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Cliff Lillo wrote:
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{{quotebox|Darwin was wrong when he says that science has not yet proved [[Lamarck]] in error about [[spontaneous generation]], wrong when he says that changes in habit can be [[inherited]], and wrong when he says that use or disuse of an organ can be passed along from parent to child, etc. [http://www.creationinthecrossfire.com/Articles/OriginofSpecies.html]}}
  
====Malthus and natural selection====
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Contemporary evolutionary biology strongly agrees that Lamarckian inheritance and spontaneous generation never or almost never occur. The early 20th century synthesis between Mendelian genetics and natural selection provides a non-Lamarckian basis for inheritance of biological characteristics.
Continuing his research in London, Darwin's wide reading now included the sixth edition of [[Thomas Malthus|Malthus's]] ''[[An Essay on the Principle of Population]]'', and on 28 September 1838 he noted its assertion that human "population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio", a [[geometric progression]] so that population soon exceeds food supply in what is known as a [[Malthusian catastrophe]]. Darwin was well prepared to compare this to [[A. P. de Candolle|de Candolle's]] "warring of the species" of plants and the struggle for existence among wildlife, explaining how numbers of a species kept roughly stable. As species always breed beyond available resources, favourable variations would make organisms better at surviving and passing the variations on to their offspring, while unfavourable variations would be lost. He wrote that the "final cause of all this wedging, must be to sort out proper structure, & adapt it to changes", so that "One may say there is a force like a hundred thousand wedges trying force into every kind of adapted structure into the gaps of in the economy of nature, or rather forming gaps by thrusting out weaker ones."<ref name=JvW/><ref name="134e">{{cite web | title = Darwin transmutation notebook E pp. 134e–135e | url = http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=CUL-DAR123.-&pageseq=112 | accessdate =4 June 2012 }}</ref> This would result in the formation of new species.<ref name=JvW/><ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 264–265}}<br />{{Harvnb|Browne|1995|pp= 385–388}}<br />{{Harvnb|Darwin|1842|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1556&viewtype=text&pageseq=39 7]}}</ref> As he later wrote in his autobiography;
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{{Quote|"In October 1838, that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work..."<ref name="autobio 120">{{harvnb|Darwin|1958|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=124 120]}}</ref>}}
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== Family Life ==
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Author Peter Brent wrote of Darwin's relationship with his wife Emma and stated that "Their ties to each other were linked to childhood and the very beginnings of memory. They had a common history, a joint tradition. It is hard to think their relationship a passionate one, but it was happy, and the happiness had deep roots."<ref>Peter Brent, "Darwin: A Man of Enlarged Curiosity", page 316</ref> Charles Darwin displayed a dependency on his wife that was childlike.  Darwin wrote a letter to his wife in 1848 that said, "My dearest old Mammy ... Without you, when sick I feel most desolate .. Oh Mammy I do long to be with you and under your protection for then I feel safe."<ref>http://www.bradburyac.mistral.co.uk/dar9.html</ref>  Peter Brent states that it is hard to imagine that the letter was from thirty-nine year old man writing to his wife rather than a young child writing to its mother.<ref>http://www.bradburyac.mistral.co.uk/dar9.html</ref>  In their article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, entitled Charles Darwin and Panic stated that Darwin felt "nervousness when Emma leaves me".<ref>''Charles Darwin and Panic Disorder''" by Thomas J. Barloon, MD and Russel Noyes, Jr., January 8, 1997 Journal of the American Medical Association</ref>  Darwin had ten children with his wife Emma, <ref>http://darwin-online.org.uk/EditorialIntroductions/Browne_EmmaDiaries.html</ref> who was also his cousin. <ref>[http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1152536/The-descent-man-We-trace-claim-Charles-Darwin-ancestor.html The descent of man] Mail Online, February 23, 2009</ref>
  
By mid December Darwin saw a similarity between farmers picking the best stock in [[selective breeding]], and a Malthusian Nature selecting from chance variants so that "every part of newly acquired structure is fully practical and perfected",<ref>{{cite web |url=http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=CUL-DAR124.-&pageseq=63|title=Darwin transmutation notebook E p. 75|accessdate=17 March 2009 }}</ref> thinking this comparison "a beautiful part of my theory".<ref>{{cite web |url=http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=CUL-DAR124.-&pageseq=61|title=Darwin transmutation notebook E p. 71|accessdate=17 March 2009 }}</ref> He later called his theory [[natural selection]], an analogy with what he termed the [[artificial selection]] of selective breeding.<ref name=JvW/>
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==Darwin's Racism==
  
On 11 November, he returned to Maer and proposed to Emma, once more telling her his ideas. She accepted, then in exchanges of loving letters she showed how she valued his openness in sharing their differences, also expressing her strong [[Unitarianism|Unitarian]] beliefs and concerns that his honest doubts might separate them in the afterlife.<ref name=Belief>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/content/view/130/125/|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Belief: historical essay|accessdate=25 November 2008 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20090225124103/http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/content/view/130/125/ |archivedate=22 February 2009}}</ref> While he was house-hunting in London, bouts of illness continued and Emma wrote urging him to get some rest, almost prophetically remarking "So don't be ill any more my dear Charley till I can be with you to nurse you." He found what they called "Macaw Cottage" (because of its gaudy interiors) in [[Gower Street (London)|Gower Street]], then moved his "museum" in over Christmas. On 24 January 1839 Darwin was elected a [[Fellow of the Royal Society|Fellow of the]] [[Royal Society]].<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 272–279}}</ref>
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''For more information please see'': [[Social effects of the theory of evolution]]
  
On 29 January Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians, then immediately caught the train to London and their new home.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|p= 279}}</ref>
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Charles Darwin wrote in his work  ''[[The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex]]'':
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{{cquote|At some future period not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace the savage races throughout the world. At the same time the anthropomorphous apes...will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man and his nearest Allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilised state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as the baboon, instead of as now between the Negro or Australian and the gorilla.<ref>http://www.aim.org/wls/90/</ref><ref name="DoM6">[http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext00/dscmn10.txt The Descent of Man], chapter VI</ref>}}
  
===Preparing the theory of natural selection for publication===
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==Darwin's Belief in Male Superiority==
{{details|Development of Darwin's theory}}
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Charles Darwin wrote in his work ''[[The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex]]'':
[[File:Charles and William Darwin.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Darwin in his thirties, with his son dressed in a frock sitting on his knee.|Darwin in 1842 with his eldest son, [[Darwin-Wedgwood family|William Erasmus Darwin]]]]
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{{cquote|... a higher eminence, in whatever he takes up, than can women—whether requiring deep thought, reason, or imagination, or merely the use of the senses and hands. If two lists were made of the most eminent men and women in poetry, painting, sculpture, music (inclusive of both composition and performance), history, science, and philosophy, with half-a-dozen names under each subject, the two lists would not bear comparison. We may also infer, from the law of the deviation from averages, so well illustrated by Mr. Galton, in his work on “Hereditary Genius” that ... the average of mental power in man must be above that of women.<ref>http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/2007/08/24/feedback-female-inferiority</ref>}}
  
Darwin now had the framework of his theory of [[natural selection]] "by which to work",<ref name="autobio 120" /> as his "prime hobby".<ref name=Letter419>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-419.html|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 419 – Darwin, C. R. to Fox, W. D., (15 June 1838)|accessdate=8 February 2008}}</ref> His research included extensive experimental [[selective breeding]] of plants and animals, finding evidence that species were not fixed and investigating many detailed ideas to refine and substantiate his theory.<ref name=JvW/> For fifteen years this work was in the background to his main occupation of writing on geology and publishing expert reports on the ''Beagle'' collections.<ref name=vw186>{{Harvnb|van Wyhe|2007|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=A544&pageseq=10 186–192]}}</ref>
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==Charles Darwin and the Cult of Personality==
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There is a cult of personality and type of religiousity currently surrounding Charles Darwin.  [[Stephen Jay Gould]] wrote the following in 1978: ""... all theories [of natural selection] cite God in their support, and ... Darwin comes close to this status among evolutionary biologists ...".<ref>http://www.bradburyac.mistral.co.uk/dar1.html</ref> In 2002, Michael White similarly wrote: "Of course today, for biologists, Darwin is second only to God, and for many he may rank still higher."<ref>http://www.bradburyac.mistral.co.uk/dar1.html</ref>
  
When FitzRoy's ''Narrative'' was published in May 1839, Darwin's ''[[The Voyage of the Beagle|Journal and Remarks]]'' was such a success as the third volume that later that year it was published on its own.<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1887|loc=[http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=39003&pageno=32 p. 32.]}}</ref> Early in 1842, Darwin wrote about his ideas to [[Charles Lyell]], who noted that his ally "denies seeing a beginning to each crop of species".<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|p=292}}</ref>
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==Just how intelligent was Darwin?==
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A look at some of Darwin's writing reveals that he sometimes did not think himself that intelligent, and that he had strong misanthropic tendencies. "‎I am very poorly today and very stupid." he wrote, "and [I] hate everybody and everything."  
  
Darwin's book ''[[The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs]]'' on his theory of [[atoll]] formation was published in May 1842 after more than three years of work, and he then wrote his first "pencil sketch" of his theory of natural selection.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=292–293}}<br />{{Harvnb|Darwin|1842|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1556&pageseq=18 xvi–xvii]}}</ref> To escape the pressures of London, the family moved to rural [[Down House]] in September.<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1954|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=118 114]}}</ref> On 11 January 1844 Darwin mentioned his theorising to the botanist [[Joseph Dalton Hooker]], writing with melodramatic humour "it is like confessing a murder".<ref>{{harvnb|van Wyhe|2007|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=A544&pageseq=7 183–184]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-729.html#back-mark-729.f6|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 729 – Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., (11 January 1844)|accessdate=8 February 2008}}</ref> Hooker replied "There may in my opinion have been a series of productions on different spots, & also a gradual change of species. I shall be delighted to hear how you think that this change may have taken place, as no presently conceived opinions satisfy me on the subject."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-734.html|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 734 – Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 29 January 1844|accessdate=8 February 2008}}</ref>
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One of Darwin's biographers characterized him as "'nerdy [and] prone to anxiety'....He was not quick, witty, or social. He spent decades working out his ideas, slowly, mostly by himself, writing letters and tending to a weak heart and a constantly upset stomach. He was a Slow Processor, who soaked in the data, thought, stared, tried to make sense of what he was seeing, hoping for a breakthrough. All around were snappier brains, busy being dazzling, but not Darwin's, which just plodded on..." <ref>[http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2012/10/18/163181524/charles-darwin-and-the-terrible-horrible-no-good-very-bad-day]</ref>
  
[[File:Darwins Thinking Path.JPG|thumb|right|alt=Path covered in sandy gravel winding through open woodland, with plants and shrubs growing on each side of the path.|Darwin's "sandwalk" at [[Down House]] was his usual "Thinking Path".<ref>{{harvnb|Darwin|1887|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1452.1&pageseq=132 114–116]}}</ref>]]
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== See also ==
  
By July, Darwin had expanded his "sketch" into a 230-page "Essay", to be expanded with his research results if he died prematurely.<ref>{{Harvnb|van Wyhe|2007|p= 188}}</ref> In November the anonymously published sensational best-seller ''[[Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation]]'' brought wide interest in transmutation. Darwin scorned its amateurish geology and zoology, but carefully reviewed his own arguments. Controversy erupted, and it continued to sell well despite contemptuous dismissal by scientists.<ref>{{harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=461–465}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-814.html#back-mark-814.f5|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 814 – Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., (7 Jan 1845)|accessdate=24 November 2008}}</ref>
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*[[Charles Galton Darwin]]
 
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Darwin completed his third geological book in 1846. He now renewed a fascination and expertise in [[marine invertebrates]], dating back to his student days with [[Robert Edmond Grant|Grant]], by dissecting and classifying the [[barnacle]]s he had collected on the voyage, enjoying observing beautiful structures and thinking about comparisons with allied structures.<ref>{{Harvnb|van Wyhe|2007|pp=190–191}}</ref> In 1847, Hooker read the "Essay" and sent notes that provided Darwin with the calm critical feedback that he needed, but would not commit himself and questioned Darwin's opposition to continuing acts of [[creation myth|creation]].<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 320–323, 339–348}}</ref>
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In an attempt to improve his chronic ill health, Darwin went in 1849 to Dr. [[James Manby Gully|James Gully]]'s [[Great Malvern|Malvern]] spa and was surprised to find some benefit from [[hydrotherapy]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-1236.html|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 1236 – Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 28 Mar 1849|accessdate=24 November 2008}}</ref> Then in 1851 his treasured daughter [[Anne Darwin|Annie]] fell ill, reawakening his fears that his illness might be hereditary, and after a long series of crises she died.<ref>{{harvnb|Browne|1995|pp=498–501}}</ref>
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In eight years of work on barnacles (Cirripedia), Darwin's theory helped him to find "[[homology (biology)|homologies]]" showing that slightly changed body parts served different functions to meet new conditions, and in some [[genus|genera]] he found minute males [[parasitism|parasitic]] on [[hermaphrodite]]s, showing an [[Androdioecy|intermediate stage]] in evolution of [[Gonochorism|distinct sexes]].<ref name=barlowbio117>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1954|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=121 117–118]}}</ref> In 1853 it earned him the [[Royal Society]]'s Royal Medal, and it made his reputation as a [[biology|biologist]].<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 383–387}}</ref> He resumed work on his theory of species in 1854, and in November realised that divergence in the character of descendants could be explained by them becoming adapted to "diversified places in the economy of nature".<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 419–420}}</ref>
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===Publication of the theory of natural selection===
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{{details|Publication of Darwin's theory}}
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[[File:Charles Darwin by Maull and Polyblank, 1855-crop.png|upright|thumb|left|alt=Studio photo showing Darwin's characteristic large forehead and bushy eyebrows with deep set eyes, pug nose and mouth set in a determined look. He is bald on top, with dark hair and long side whiskers but no beard or moustache.|Charles Darwin, aged 46 in 1855, by then working towards publication of his theory of [[natural selection]]. He wrote to Hooker about this portrait, "if I really have as bad an expression, as my photograph gives me, how I can have one single friend is surprising."<ref>[http://darwin-online.org.uk/EditorialIntroductions/vanWyhe_MaullandPolyblankPhoto.html Darwin Online: Photograph of Charles Darwin by Maull and Polyblank for the Literary and Scientific Portrait Club (1855)], John van Wyhe, December 2006</ref>]]
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By the start of 1856, Darwin was investigating whether eggs and [[seed]]s could survive travel across seawater to spread species across oceans. [[Joseph Dalton Hooker|Hooker]] increasingly doubted the traditional view that species were fixed, but their young friend [[Thomas Henry Huxley]] was firmly against evolution. [[Charles Lyell|Lyell]] was intrigued by Darwin's speculations without realising their extent. When he read a paper by [[Alfred Russel Wallace]], "On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species", he saw similarities with Darwin's thoughts and urged him to publish to establish precedence. Though Darwin saw no threat, he began work on a short paper. Finding answers to difficult questions held him up repeatedly, and he expanded his plans to a "big book on species" titled ''Natural Selection''. He continued his researches, [[Correspondence of Charles Darwin|obtaining information]] and specimens from naturalists worldwide including Wallace who was working in [[Borneo]]. The American botanist [[Asa Gray]] showed similar interests, and on 5 September 1857 Darwin sent Gray a detailed outline of his ideas including an abstract of ''Natural Selection''. In December, Darwin received a letter from Wallace asking if the book would examine [[human evolution|human origins]]. He responded that he would avoid that subject, "so surrounded with prejudices", while encouraging Wallace's theorising and adding that "I go much further than you."<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 412–441, 457–458, 462–463}}</ref>
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Darwin's book was only partly written when, on 18 June 1858, he received a paper from Wallace describing natural selection. Shocked that he had been "forestalled", Darwin sent it on that day to Lyell, as requested by Wallace,<ref>Ball, P. (2011). Shipping timetables debunk Darwin plagiarism accusations: Evidence challenges claims that Charles Darwin stole ideas from Alfred Russel Wallace. Nature. [http://www.nature.com/news/shipping-timetables-debunk-darwin-plagiarism-accusations-1.9613 online]</ref><ref>J. van Wyhe and K. Rookmaaker. (2012). A new theory to explain the receipt of Wallace's Ternate Essay by Darwin in 1858. ''Biological Journal of the Linnean Society''10.1111/j.1095-8312.2011.01808.x</ref>  and although Wallace had not asked for publication, Darwin suggested he would send it to any journal that Wallace chose. His family was in crisis with children in the village dying of [[scarlet fever]], and he put matters in the hands of Lyell and Hooker. After some discussion, they decided on a joint presentation at the [[Linnean Society of London|Linnean Society]] on 1 July of ''[[On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection]]''; however, Darwin's baby son died of the scarlet fever and he was too distraught to attend.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 466–470}}</ref>
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There was little immediate attention to this announcement of the theory; the president of the Linnean Society remarked in May 1859 that the year had not been marked by any revolutionary discoveries.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|2002|pp=40–42, 48–49}}</ref> Only one review rankled enough for Darwin to recall it later; Professor [[Samuel Haughton]] of Dublin claimed that "all that was new in them was false, and what was true was old."<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1958|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1497&viewtype=text&pageseq=126 122]}}</ref> Darwin struggled for thirteen months to produce an abstract of his "big book", suffering from ill health but getting constant encouragement from his scientific friends. Lyell arranged to have it published by [[John Murray (publisher)|John Murray]].<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 374–474}}</ref>
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''[[On the Origin of Species]]'' proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1,250 copies oversubscribed when it went on sale to booksellers on 22 November 1859.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|p= 477}}</ref> In the book, Darwin set out "one long argument" of detailed observations, inferences and consideration of anticipated objections.<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1859|loc= [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F373&viewtype=text&pageseq=477 p 459]}}</ref> His only allusion to human evolution was the understatement that "light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history".<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1859|loc= [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F373&viewtype=text&pageseq=506 p 490]}}</ref> His theory is simply stated in the introduction:
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{{quotation|As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be ''naturally selected''. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1859|loc= [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F373&viewtype=text&pageseq=20 p 5]}}</ref>}}
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He put a strong case for [[common descent]], but avoided the then controversial term "[[evolutionism|evolution]]", and at the end of the book concluded that:
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{{quotation|There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1859|loc= [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F373&viewtype=text&pageseq=508 p 492]}}</ref>}}
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===Responses to publication===
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[[File:Charles Darwin by Julia Margaret Cameron 2.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Three quarter length portrait of sixty year old man, balding, with white hair and long white bushy beard, with heavy eyebrows shading his eyes looking thoughtfully into the distance, wearing a wide lapelled jacket.|During the Darwin family's 1868 holiday in her [[Isle of Wight]] cottage, [[Julia Margaret Cameron]] took portraits showing the bushy beard Darwin grew between 1862 and 1866.]]
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[[File:Editorial cartoon depicting Charles Darwin as an ape (1871).jpg|thumb|upright|alt=White bearded head of Darwin with the body of a crouching ape.|An 1871 caricature following publication of ''[[The Descent of Man]]'' was typical of many showing Darwin with an [[ape]] body, identifying him in popular culture as the leading author of evolutionary theory.<ref name=b373/>]]
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{{details|Reaction to Darwin's theory}}
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The book aroused international interest, with less controversy than had greeted the popular ''[[Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation]]''.<ref>{{harvnb|van Wyhe|2008b|p=48}}</ref> Though Darwin's illness kept him away from the public debates, he eagerly scrutinised the scientific response, commenting on press cuttings, reviews, articles, satires and caricatures, and [[Correspondence of Charles Darwin|corresponded on it]] with colleagues worldwide.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|2002|pp=103–104, 379}}</ref> Darwin had only said "Light will be thrown on the origin of man",<ref>{{harvnb|Darwin|1859|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F373&pageseq=506 488]}}</ref> but the first review claimed it made a creed of the "men from monkeys" idea from ''Vestiges''.<ref>{{harvnb|Browne|2002|p=87}}<br />{{harvnb|Leifchild|1859}}</ref> Amongst early favourable responses, Huxley's reviews swiped at [[Richard Owen]], leader of the scientific establishment Huxley was trying to overthrow.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=477–491}}</ref> In April, Owen's review attacked Darwin's friends and condescendingly dismissed his ideas, angering Darwin,<ref>{{harvnb|Browne|2002|pp=110–112}}</ref> but Owen and others began to promote ideas of supernaturally guided evolution.<ref>{{harvnb|Bowler|2003|p=186}}</ref>
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The [[Church of England]]'s response was mixed. Darwin's old Cambridge tutors [[Adam Sedgwick|Sedgwick]] and [[John Stevens Henslow|Henslow]] dismissed the ideas, but [[liberal Christianity|liberal clergymen]] interpreted natural selection as an instrument of God's design, with the cleric [[Charles Kingsley]] seeing it as "just as noble a conception of Deity".<ref name=Darwinanddesign>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/content/view/110/104/|title=Darwin and design: historical essay|year=2007|publisher=Darwin Correspondence Project|accessdate=17 September 2008 |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20090615191012/http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/content/view/110/104/ |archivedate=15 June 2009}}</ref> In 1860, the publication of ''[[Essays and Reviews]]'' by seven liberal Anglican theologians diverted [[clergy|clerical]] attention from Darwin, with its ideas including [[higher criticism]] attacked by church authorities as [[heresy]]. In it, [[Baden Powell (mathematician)|Baden Powell]] argued that [[miracle]]s broke God's laws, so belief in them was [[atheism|atheistic]], and praised "Mr Darwin's masterly volume &#91;supporting&#93; the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature".<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp= 487–488, 500}}</ref> [[Asa Gray]] discussed [[teleology]] with Darwin, who imported and distributed Gray's pamphlet on [[theistic evolution]], ''Natural Selection is not inconsistent with [[natural theology|Natural Theology]]''.<ref name=Darwinanddesign/><ref name=miles>{{Harvnb|Miles|2001}}</ref> The most famous confrontation was at the public [[1860 Oxford evolution debate]] during a meeting of the [[British Association for the Advancement of Science]], where the [[Bishop of Oxford]] [[Samuel Wilberforce]], though not opposed to [[transmutation of species]], argued against Darwin's explanation and human descent from apes. [[Joseph Dalton Hooker|Joseph Hooker]] argued strongly for Darwin, and [[Thomas Henry Huxley|Thomas Huxley]]'s legendary retort, that he would rather be descended from an ape than a man who misused his gifts, came to symbolise a triumph of science over religion.<ref name=Darwinanddesign/><ref>{{harvnb|Bowler|2003|p=185}}</ref>
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Even Darwin's close friends Gray, Hooker, Huxley and Lyell still expressed various reservations but gave strong support, as did many others, particularly younger naturalists. Gray and Lyell sought reconciliation with faith, while Huxley portrayed a polarisation between religion and science. He campaigned pugnaciously against the authority of the clergy in education,<ref name=Darwinanddesign/> aiming to overturn the dominance of clergymen and aristocratic amateurs under Owen in favour of a new generation of professional scientists. Owen's claim that brain anatomy proved humans to be a separate [[order (biology)|biological order]] from apes was shown to be false by Huxley in a long running dispute parodied by Kingsley as the "[[Great Hippocampus Question]]", and discredited Owen.<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|2002|pp=156–159}}</ref>
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[[Darwinism]] became a movement covering a wide range of evolutionary ideas. In 1863 [[Charles Lyell|Lyell's]] ''[[Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man]]'' popularised prehistory, though his caution on evolution disappointed Darwin. Weeks later Huxley's ''[[Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature]]'' showed that anatomically, humans are apes, then ''[[The Naturalist on the River Amazons]]'' by [[Henry Walter Bates]] provided empirical evidence of natural selection.<ref name=B217>{{harvnb|Browne|2002|pp=217–226}}</ref> Lobbying brought Darwin Britain's highest scientific honour, the [[Royal Society]]'s [[Copley Medal]], awarded on 3 November 1864.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-4652.html|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 4652 – Falconer, Hugh to Darwin, C. R., 3 Nov (1864)|accessdate=1 December 2008}}</ref> That day, Huxley held the first meeting of what became the influential ''[[X Club]]'' devoted to "science, pure and free, untrammelled by religious dogmas".<ref name=Letter4807>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-4807.html#mark-4807.f8|title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Letter 4807 – Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., (7–8 Apr 1865)|accessdate=1 December 2008}}</ref> By the end of the decade most scientists agreed that evolution occurred, but only a minority supported Darwin's view that the chief mechanism was natural selection.<ref>{{harvnb|Bowler|2003|p=196}}</ref>
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The ''Origin of Species'' was translated into many languages, becoming a staple scientific text attracting thoughtful attention from all walks of life, including the "working men" who flocked to Huxley's lectures.<ref>{{harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=507–508}}<br />{{Harvnb|Browne|2002|pp=128–129, 138}}</ref> Darwin's theory also resonated with various movements at the time{{Ref_label|C|III|none}} and became a key fixture of [[popular culture]].{{Ref_label|D|IV|none}} Cartoonists parodied animal ancestry in an old tradition of showing humans with animal traits, and in Britain these droll images served to popularise Darwin's theory in an unthreatening way. While ill in 1862 Darwin began growing a beard, and when he reappeared in public in 1866 caricatures of him as an [[ape]] helped to identify all forms of [[evolutionism]] with Darwinism.<ref name=b373>{{harvnb|Browne|2002|pp=373–379}}</ref>
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===''Descent of Man'', sexual selection, and botany===
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[[File:1878 Darwin photo by Leonard from Woodall 1884 - cropped grayed partially cleaned.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Head and shoulders portrait, increasingly bald with rather uneven bushy white eyebrows and beard, his wrinkled forehead suggesting a puzzled frown|By 1878, an increasingly famous Darwin had suffered years of illness.]]
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:''More detailed articles cover Darwin's life from [[Darwin from Orchids to Variation|Orchids to Variation]], from [[Darwin from Descent of Man to Emotions|Descent of Man to Emotions]] and from [[Darwin from Insectivorous Plants to Worms|Insectivorous Plants to Worms]]''
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Despite repeated bouts of illness during the last twenty-two years of his life, Darwin's work continued. Having published ''[[On the Origin of Species]]'' as an [[abstract (summary)|abstract]] of his theory, he pressed on with experiments, research, and writing of his "big book". He covered [[human evolution|human descent]] from earlier animals including evolution of society and of mental abilities, as well as explaining decorative beauty in wildlife and diversifying into innovative plant studies.
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Enquiries about insect [[pollination]] led in 1861 to novel studies of wild [[orchid]]s, showing adaptation of their flowers to [[Pollination syndrome|attract specific moths]] to each species and ensure [[heterosis|cross fertilisation]]. In 1862 ''[[Fertilisation of Orchids]]'' gave his first detailed demonstration of the power of natural selection to explain complex ecological relationships, making testable predictions. As his health declined, he lay on his sickbed in a room filled with inventive experiments to trace the movements of [[vine|climbing plants]].<ref>{{harvnb|van Wyhe|2008b|pp=50–55}}</ref> Admiring visitors included [[Ernst Haeckel]], a zealous proponent of ''Darwinismus'' incorporating [[Lamarckism]] and [[Johann Wolfgang von Goethe|Goethe]]'s idealism.<ref>[http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/correspondence-volume-14 Darwin Correspondence Project: Introduction to the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Volume 14.] Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 25 June 2012</ref> Wallace remained supportive, though he increasingly turned to [[Spiritualism (religious movement)|Spiritualism]].<ref>{{harvnb|Smith|1999}}.</ref>
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''[[The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication]]'' of 1868 was the first part of Darwin's planned "big book", and included his unsuccessful hypothesis of [[pangenesis]] attempting to explain [[heredity]]. It sold briskly at first, despite its size, and was translated into many languages. He wrote most of a second part, on natural selection, but it remained unpublished in his lifetime.<ref>{{Harvnb|Freeman|1977|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=A1&pageseq=123 122]}}</ref>
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[[File:Man is But a Worm.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Darwin's figure is shown seated, dressed in a toga, in a circular frame labelled "TIME'S METER" around which a succession of figures spiral, starting with an earthworm emerging from the broken letters "CHAOS" then worms with head and limbs, followed by monkeys, apes, primitive men, a loin cloth clad hunter with a club, and a gentleman who tips his top hat to Darwin.|[[Punch (magazine)|Punch's]] [[almanac]] for 1882, published shortly before Darwin's death, depicts him amidst evolution from chaos to Victorian gentleman with the title ''Man Is But A Worm''.]]
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[[Charles Lyell|Lyell]] had already popularised human prehistory, and [[Thomas Henry Huxley|Huxley]] had shown that anatomically humans are apes.<ref name=B217/> With ''[[The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex]]'' published in 1871, Darwin set out evidence from numerous sources that humans are animals, showing continuity of physical and mental attributes, and presented [[sexual selection]] to explain impractical animal features such as the [[peacock]]'s plumage as well as human evolution of culture, differences between sexes, and physical and cultural [[race (classification of human beings)|racial characteristics]], while emphasising that humans are all one species.<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1871|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F937.2&pageseq=402 385–405]}}<br />{{Harvnb|Browne|2002|pp=339–343}}</ref> His research using images was expanded in his 1872 book ''[[The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals]]'', one of the first books to feature printed photographs, which discussed the [[evolutionary psychology|evolution of human psychology]] and its continuity with the [[ethology|behaviour of animals]]. Both books proved very popular, and Darwin was impressed by the general assent with which his views had been received, remarking that "everybody is talking about it without being shocked."<ref>{{Harvnb|Browne|2002|pp=359–369}}<br />{{harvnb|Darwin|1887|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1452.3&pageseq=145 133]}}</ref> His conclusion was "that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system–with all these exalted powers–Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin."<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1871|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F937.2&viewtype=text&pageseq=422 405]}}</ref>
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His evolution-related experiments and investigations led to books on ''[[Insectivorous Plants (book)|Insectivorous Plants]], [[The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetable Kingdom]]'', different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, and ''[[The Power of Movement in Plants]]''. In his last book he returned to ''[[The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms]]''.
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===Death and legacy===
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{{see also|Darwin from Insectivorous Plants to Worms}}
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In 1882 he was diagnosed with what was called “[[angina pectoris]]” which then meant coronary thrombosis and disease of the heart. At the time of his death, the physicians diagnosed “anginal attacks”, and “heart-failure”.<ref>{{cite web
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|title=Darwin's Illness
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|first=Ralph
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|last=Colp
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|url=http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.5744/florida/9780813032313.003.0014
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|accessdate=24 June 2012
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}}</ref>
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He died at [[Down House]] on 19 April 1882. His last words were to his family, telling Emma "I am not the least afraid of death – Remember what a good wife you have been to me – Tell all my children to remember how good they have been to me", then while she rested, he repeatedly told Henrietta and Francis "It's almost worth while to be sick to be nursed by you".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=side&itemID=CUL-DAR210.9&pageseq=16|title=[Reminiscences of Charles Darwin's last years.] CUL-DAR210.9|author=Darwin, Emma|authorlink=Emma Darwin|year= 1882|accessdate=8 January 2009}}</ref> He had expected to be buried in St Mary's churchyard at [[Downe]], but at the request of Darwin's colleagues, after public and parliamentary petitioning, [[William Spottiswoode]] (President of the [[Royal Society]]) arranged for Darwin to be honoured with a [[state funeral]] and burial in [[Westminster Abbey]], close to [[John Herschel]] and [[Isaac Newton]].<ref name=DarwinsBurial /><ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=664–677}}</ref>
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Darwin had convinced most scientists that [[evolution]] as [[common descent|descent with modification]] was correct, and he was regarded as a great scientist who had revolutionised ideas. Though few agreed with his view that "natural selection has been the main but not the exclusive means of modification", he was honoured in June 1909 by more than 400 officials and scientists from across the world who met in [[Cambridge]] to [[Darwin Day|commemorate his centenary]] and the fiftieth anniversary of ''[[On the Origin of Species]]''.<ref name=b222>{{harvnb|Bowler|2003|pp=222–225}}<br>{{Harvnb|van Wyhe|2008}}<br>{{harvnb|Darwin|1872|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F391&pageseq=449 421]}}</ref> During this period, which has been called "[[the eclipse of Darwinism]]", scientists proposed various alternative evolutionary mechanisms which eventually proved untenable. The development of the [[modern evolutionary synthesis]] from the 1930s to the 1950s, incorporating [[natural selection]] with [[population genetics]] and [[Gregor Mendel|Mendelian]] [[genetics]], brought broad scientific consensus that natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. This synthesis set the frame of reference for modern debates and refinements of the theory.<ref name=b3847/>
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==Children==
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{| class="toccolours" style="float: right; clear:right; margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em; font-size: 85%; background:#e0e0ee; color:black; width:32em; max-width:50%" cellspacing="5"
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|-
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|colspan=2|<div class="center"></div>
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<div class="center"></div>
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|-
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!<div class="center">Darwin's children</div>
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|-
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|[[William Erasmus Darwin]]||(27 December 1839 – 1914)
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|-
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|[[Anne Darwin|Anne Elizabeth Darwin]]||(2 March 1841 – 23 April 1851)
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|-
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|Mary Eleanor Darwin||(23 September 1842 – 16 October 1842)
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|-
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|[[Etty Darwin|Henrietta Emma "Etty" Darwin]]||(25 September 1843 – 1929)
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|-
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|[[George Darwin|George Howard Darwin]]||(9 July 1845 – 7 December 1912)
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|-
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|[[Darwin – Wedgwood family|Elizabeth "Bessy" Darwin]]||(8 July 1847 – 1926)
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|-
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|[[Francis Darwin]]||(16 August 1848 – 19 September 1925)
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|-
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|[[Leonard Darwin]]||(15 January 1850 – 26 March 1943)
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|-
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|[[Horace Darwin]]||(13 May 1851 – 29 September 1928)
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|-
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|[[Charles Waring Darwin]]||(6 December 1856 – 28 June 1858)
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|}
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The Darwins had ten children: two died in infancy, and [[Anne Darwin|Annie's]] death at the age of ten had a devastating effect on her parents. Charles was a devoted father and uncommonly attentive to his children.<ref name=whowas/> Whenever they fell ill, he feared that they might have inherited weaknesses from [[inbreeding]] due to the close family ties he shared with his [[cousin marriage|wife and cousin]], [[Emma Darwin|Emma Wedgwood]]. He examined this topic in his writings, contrasting it with the advantages of crossing amongst many organisms.<ref>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|p=447}}.</ref> Despite his fears, most of the surviving children and many of their descendants went on to have distinguished careers (see [[Darwin – Wedgwood family|Darwin-Wedgwood family]]).<ref>{{harvnb|Leff|2000|loc=[http://www.aboutdarwin.com/darwin/Children.html Darwin's Children]}}</ref>
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Of his surviving children, [[George Darwin|George]], [[Francis Darwin|Francis]] and [[Horace Darwin|Horace]] became Fellows of the Royal Society,<ref>{{cite web |title=List of Fellows of the Royal Society / 1660–2006 / A-J |url=http://royalsociety.org/trackdoc.asp?id=4274&pId=1727 |accessdate=16 September 2009 |format=PDF| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080609050919/http://royalsociety.org/trackdoc.asp?id=4274&pId=1727| archivedate = 9 June 2008}}</ref> distinguished as [[astronomer]],<ref>{{MacTutor Biography|id=Darwin}}</ref> [[botanist]] and [[civil engineer]], respectively. His son [[Leonard Darwin|Leonard]] went on to be a soldier, politician, economist, [[eugenics|eugenicist]] and mentor of the statistician and [[evolutionary biology|evolutionary biologist]] [[Ronald Fisher]].<ref>Edwards, A. W. F. 2004. Darwin, Leonard (1850–1943). In: ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press.</ref>
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==Views and opinions==
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===Religious views===
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{{Details|Charles Darwin's religious views}}
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[[File:Annie Darwin.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Three quarter length studio photo of seated girl about nine years old, looking slightly plump and rather solemn, in a striped dress, holding a basket of flowers on her lap.|In 1851 Darwin was devastated when his daughter [[Anne Darwin|Annie]] died. By then his faith in Christianity had dwindled, and he had stopped going to church.<ref name=jvw41>{{harvnb|van Wyhe|2008b|p=41}}</ref>]]
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Darwin's family tradition was [[nonconformism|nonconformist]] [[Unitarianism]], while his father and grandfather were [[freethought|freethinkers]], and his [[baptism]] and [[boarding school]] were [[Church of England]].<ref name=skool/> When going to Cambridge to become an [[Anglicanism|Anglican]] clergyman, he did not doubt the [[Biblical inerrancy|literal truth]] of the Bible.<ref name=dar57/> He learned [[John Herschel]]'s science which, like [[William Paley]]'s [[natural theology]], sought explanations in laws of nature rather than miracles and saw [[adaptation]] of species as [[teleological argument|evidence of design]].<ref name=syd5-7/><ref name=db/> On board the ''Beagle'', Darwin was quite [[orthodoxy|orthodox]] and would quote the Bible as an authority on [[morality]].<ref name=biorelig>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1958|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1497&viewtype=side&pageseq=87 85–96]}}</ref> He looked for "centres of creation" to explain distribution,<ref name=k356/> and related the [[antlion]] found near [[kangaroo]]s to distinct "periods of Creation".<ref name=Crows/>
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By his return he was [[Historical criticism|critical of the Bible as history]], and wondered why all religions should not be equally valid.<ref name=biorelig/> In the next few years, while intensively speculating on geology and [[transmutation of species]], he gave much thought to religion and openly discussed this with [[Emma Darwin|Emma]], whose beliefs also came from intensive study and questioning.<ref name=Belief/> The [[theodicy]] of Paley and [[Thomas Malthus]] vindicated evils such as starvation as a result of a benevolent creator's laws which had an overall good effect. To Darwin, [[natural selection]] produced the good of adaptation but removed the need for design,<ref>{{harvnb|von Sydow|2005|pp=8–14}}</ref> and he could not see the work of an omnipotent deity in all the pain and suffering such as the [[ichneumon wasp]] paralysing [[caterpillar]]s as live food for its eggs.<ref name=miles/> He still viewed organisms as perfectly adapted, and ''[[On the Origin of Species]]'' reflects theological views. Though he thought of religion as a [[tribe|tribal]] survival strategy, Darwin was reluctant to give up the idea of [[deism|God as an ultimate lawgiver]]. He was increasingly troubled by the [[problem of evil]].<ref>{{harvnb|von Sydow|2005|pp=4–5, 12–14}}</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Moore|2006}}</ref>
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Darwin remained close friends with the [[Perpetual curate|vicar]] of Downe, [[John Brodie-Innes|John Innes]], and continued to play a leading part in the parish work of the church,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwin-and-the-church-article |title=Darwin Correspondence Project – Darwin and the church: historical essay|accessdate=4 January 2009}}</ref> but from around 1849 would go for a walk on Sundays while his family attended church.<ref name=jvw41/> He considered it "absurd to doubt that a man might be an ardent theist and an evolutionist"<ref name=Fordyce>[http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/darwinletters/calendar/entry-12041.html Letter 12041] – Darwin, C. R. to Fordyce, John, 7 May 1879</ref><ref name=spencer>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/belief/2009/sep/17/darwin-evolution-religion Darwin's Complex loss of Faith] [[The Guardian]] 17 September 2009</ref> and, though reticent about his religious views, in 1879 he wrote that "I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God. – I think that generally ... an agnostic would be the most correct description of my state of mind."<ref name=Belief/><ref name=Fordyce/>
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The "[[Elizabeth Cotton, Lady Hope|Lady Hope Story]]", published in 1915, claimed that Darwin had reverted to Christianity on his sickbed. The claims were repudiated by Darwin's children and have been dismissed as false by historians.<ref>{{harvnb|Moore|2005}}<br />{{Harvnb|Yates|2003}}</ref>
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===Human society===
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Darwin's views on social and political issues reflected his time and social position. He thought men's eminence over women was the outcome of sexual selection, a view disputed by [[Antoinette Brown Blackwell]] in ''[[The Sexes Throughout Nature]]''.<ref name=Vandermassen>{{cite journal|author=Vandermassen, Griet|title=Sexual Selection: A Tale of Male Bias and Feminist Denial|url=http://ejw.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/11/1/9|journal=European Journal of Women's Studies|year=2004|volume=11|issue=9|doi=10.1177/1350506804039812|accessdate=24 November 2009|pages=11–13|ref=harv}}</ref> He valued European civilisation and saw colonisation as spreading its benefits, with the sad but inevitable effect of extermination of savage peoples who did not become civilised. Darwin's theories presented this as natural, and were cited to promote policies which went against his humanitarian principles.<ref>{{cite web
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|first=Tony
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|last=Barta
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|title=Mr Darwin's shooters: on natural selection and the naturalizing of genocide
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|url= http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a713721865&fulltext=713240928
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|work=Patterns of Prejudice, Volume 39, Issue 2
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|publisher=Routledge
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|pages=116–137
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|doi=10.1080/00313220500106170
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|date=2 June 2005
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|accessdate=20 May 2009
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}}</ref> Darwin was strongly against slavery, against "ranking the so-called races of man as distinct species", and against ill-treatment of native people.<ref>{{harvnb|Wilkins|2008|pp=408–413}}</ref>{{Ref_label|F|VI|none}}
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Darwin was intrigued by his [[Cousin#Mathematical definitions|half-cousin]] [[Francis Galton]]'s argument, introduced in 1865, that [[Historiometry|statistical analysis]] of [[heredity]] showed that moral and mental human traits could be inherited, and principles of animal breeding could apply to humans. In ''[[The Descent of Man]]'' Darwin noted that aiding the weak to survive and have families could lose the benefits of [[natural selection]], but cautioned that withholding such aid would endanger the instinct of sympathy, "the noblest part of our nature", and factors such as education could be more important. When Galton suggested that publishing research could encourage intermarriage within a "caste" of "those who are naturally gifted", Darwin foresaw practical difficulties, and thought it "the sole feasible, yet I fear [[utopian]], plan of procedure in improving the human race", preferring to simply publicise the importance of inheritance and leave decisions to individuals.<ref>{{harvnb|Desmond|Moore|1991|pp=556–557, 572, 598}}<br />{{Harvnb|Darwin|1871|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F937.1&pageseq=180 167–173], [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F937.2&pageseq=419 402–403]}}<br />{{cite web|url=http://www.galton.org/letters/darwin/correspondence.htm|title=Correspondence between Francis Galton and Charles Darwin|accessdate=8 November 2008}}</ref>
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Francis Galton named this field of study "[[eugenics]]" in 1883.{{Ref_label|E|V|none}}
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==Evolutionary social movements==
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[[File:VanityFair-Darwin2.jpg|thumb|upright|left|alt=Full length portrait of a very thin white bearded Darwin, seated but leaning eagerly forward and smiling.|Caricature from 1871 ''[[Vanity Fair (British magazine)|Vanity Fair]]'']]
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{{Further|Darwinism|Eugenics|Social Darwinism}}
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Darwin's fame and popularity led to his name being associated with ideas and movements which at times had only an indirect relation to his writings, and sometimes went directly against his express comments.
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[[Thomas Malthus]] had argued that [[Malthusian catastrophe|population growth beyond resources]] was ordained by God to get humans to [[Protestant work ethic|work productively]] and show restraint in getting families, this was used in the 1830s to justify [[workhouse]]s and [[laissez-faire economics]].<ref name=wm>{{harvnb|Wilkins|1997}}<br />{{Harvnb|Moore|2006}}</ref> Evolution was by then seen as having social implications, and [[Herbert Spencer]]'s 1851 book ''Social Statics'' based ideas of human freedom and individual liberties on his [[Lamarckism|Lamarckian]] evolutionary theory.<ref>{{Harvnb|Sweet|2004}}</ref>
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Soon after the ''Origin'' was published in 1859, critics derided his description of a struggle for existence as a [[Malthusianism|Malthusian]] justification for the English industrial capitalism of the time. The term ''[[Darwinism]]'' was used for the evolutionary ideas of others, including Spencer's "[[survival of the fittest]]" as free-market progress, and [[Ernst Haeckel]]'s [[racism|racist]] ideas of [[Ernst Haeckel#Polygenism and racial theory|human development]]. Writers used [[natural selection]] to argue for various, often contradictory, ideologies such as laissez-faire dog-eat dog capitalism, racism, warfare, [[colonialism]] and [[New Imperialism|imperialism]]. However, Darwin's holistic view of nature included "dependence of one being on another"; thus [[pacifism|pacifists]], socialists, liberal social reformers and anarchists such as [[Peter Kropotkin]] stressed the value of co-operation over struggle within a species.<ref>{{Harvnb|Paul|2003|pp=223–225}}</ref> Darwin himself insisted that social policy should not simply be guided by concepts of struggle and selection in nature.<ref>{{Harvnb|Bannister|1989}}</ref>
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After the 1880s a [[eugenics]] movement developed on ideas of biological inheritance, and for scientific justification of their ideas appealed to some concepts of Darwinism. In Britain, most shared Darwin's cautious views on voluntary improvement and sought to encourage those with good traits in "positive eugenics". During the "[[Eclipse of Darwinism]]" a scientific foundation for eugenics was provided by [[Mendelian inheritance|Mendelian]] [[genetics]]. Negative eugenics to remove the "feebleminded" were popular in America, Canada and Australia, and [[eugenics in the United States]] introduced [[compulsory sterilization]] laws, followed by several other countries. Subsequently, [[Nazi eugenics]] brought the field into disrepute.{{Ref_label|E|V|none}}
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The term "[[Social Darwinism]]" was used infrequently from around the 1890s, but became popular as a derogatory term in the 1940s when used by [[Richard Hofstadter]] to attack the laissez-faire conservatism of those like [[William Graham Sumner]] who opposed reform and socialism. Since then it has been used as a term of abuse by those opposed to what they think are the moral consequences of evolution.<ref>{{Harvnb|Paul|2003}}<br />{{Harvnb|Kotzin|2004}}</ref><ref name=wm/>
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==Commemoration==
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{{main|Commemoration of Charles Darwin}}
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[[File:Charles Robert Darwin by John Collier.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Three-quarter portrait of a senior Darwin dressed in black before a black background. His face and six-inch white beard are dramatically lit from the side. His eyes are shaded by his brows and look directly and thoughtfully at the viewer.|In 1881 Darwin was an eminent figure, still working on his contributions to evolutionary thought that had an enormous effect on many fields of science.]]
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During Darwin's lifetime, many geographical features were given his name. An expanse of water adjoining the [[Beagle Channel]] was named ''[[Darwin Sound]]'' by [[Robert FitzRoy]] after Darwin's prompt action, along with two or three of the men, saved them from being marooned on a nearby shore when a collapsing [[glacier]] caused a large wave that would have swept away their boats,<ref>{{Harvnb|FitzRoy|1839|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F10.2&viewtype=text&pageseq=267 216–8]}}</ref> and the nearby [[Mount Darwin (Andes)|Mount Darwin]] in the Andes was named in celebration of Darwin's 25th birthday.<ref>{{harvnb|Leff|2000|loc=[http://www.aboutdarwin.com/timeline/time_04.html Darwin's Timeline]}}</ref> When the ''[[HMS Beagle|Beagle]]'' was surveying Australia in 1839, Darwin's friend [[John Lort Stokes]] sighted a natural harbour which the ship's captain [[John Clements Wickham|Wickham]] named ''[[Port Darwin]]'': a nearby settlement was renamed [[Darwin, Northern Territory|Darwin]] in 1911, and it became the capital city of Australia's [[Northern Territory]].<ref name=NTDoPaI>{{cite web|url=http://www.ipe.nt.gov.au/whatwedo/landinformation/place/origins/palmdarwin.html|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20060918153343/http://www.ipe.nt.gov.au/whatwedo/landinformation/place/origins/palmdarwin.html|archivedate=18 September 2006|title=Territory origins| accessdate=15 December 2006|publisher=Northern Territory Department of Planning and Infrastructure, Australia}}</ref>
+
 
+
More than 120 [[species]] and nine [[genus|genera]] have been named after Darwin.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.darwinfacts.com/ |title=Charles Darwin 200 years – Things you didn't know about Charles Darwin |accessdate=23 May 2009}}</ref> In one example, the group of [[tanager]]s related to those Darwin found in the [[Galápagos Islands]] became popularly known as "[[Darwin's finches]]" in 1947, fostering inaccurate legends about their significance to his work.<ref>{{Harvnb|Sulloway|1982|pp=45–47}}</ref>
+
 
+
Darwin's work has continued to be celebrated by numerous publications and events. The [[Linnean Society of London]] has commemorated Darwin's achievements by the award of the [[Darwin–Wallace Medal]] since 1908. [[Darwin Day]] has become an annual celebration, and in 2009 worldwide events were arranged for the bicentenary of Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of ''[[On the Origin of Species]]''.<ref>{{Cite journal |url=http://www.lrb.co.uk/v32/n01/steven-shapin/the-darwin-show |title= The Darwin Show |first=Steven |last=Shapin |authorlink=Steven Shapin |date=7 January 2010 |publisher=[[London Review of Books]] |quote= |accessdate=25 January 2010 |ref=harv |postscript=<!--None-->}}</ref>
+
 
+
Darwin has been commemorated in the UK, with his portrait printed on the reverse of £10 banknotes printed along with a [[hummingbird]] and [[HMS Beagle|HMS ''Beagle'']], issued by the [[Bank of England note issues|Bank of England]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/current/current_10.htm|title=Bank of England – Current Banknotes – £10 – Design Features|publisher=[[Bank of England]]|accessdate=15 March 2011}}</ref>
+
 
+
A life size seated statue of Darwin can be seen in the main hall of the [[Natural History Museum]] in London.
+
.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nhm.ac.uk/about-us/news/2008/may/darwins-statue-on-the-move13846.html|title=Darwin's statue on the move|date=23 May 2008|publisher=Natural History Museum|accessdate=7 February 2012}}</ref> A seated statue of Darwin stands in front of [[Shrewsbury Library]], the building that used to house [[Shrewsbury School]], which Darwin attended as a boy.
+
 
+
[[Darwin College, Cambridge|Darwin College]], a postgraduate college at [[Cambridge University]], is named after Charles Darwin.
+
 
+
==Works==
+
{{details|Charles Darwin bibliography}}
+
 
+
Darwin was a prolific writer. Even without publication of his works on evolution, he would have had a considerable reputation as the author of ''[[The Voyage of the Beagle]]'', as a geologist who had published extensively on South America and had solved the puzzle of the formation of [[coral atoll]]s, and as a biologist who had published the definitive work on [[barnacle]]s. While ''[[On the Origin of Species]]'' dominates perceptions of his work, ''[[The Descent of Man]]'' and ''[[The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals]]'' had considerable impact, and his books on plants including ''[[The Power of Movement in Plants]]'' were innovative studies of great importance, as was his final work on ''[[The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms]]''.<ref>{{Harvnb|Balfour|1882}}<br />{{Harvnb|van Wyhe|2008}}<br />{{Harvnb|Anonymous|1882}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last = Brummitt|first = R. K.|coauthors = C. E. Powell|title = Authors of Plant Names |publisher=[[Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew]] |year = 1992 |isbn = 1-84246-085-4}}</ref>
+
 
+
==See also==
+
<!-- Please avoid repeating links above -->
+
{{div col|colwidth=20em}}
+
* [[Creation-evolution controversy]]
+
* "[[Darwin among the Machines]]"
+
* [[Darwin's Frog]]
+
* [[European and American voyages of scientific exploration]]
+
* [[Harriet (tortoise)]]
+
* [[History of biology]]
+
* [[History of evolutionary thought]]
+
* [[List of coupled cousins]]
+
* [[List of multiple discoveries#Nineteenth century|List of multiple discoveries]]
+
* [[Multiple discovery]]
+
* [[Patrick Matthew]]
+
* [[Parson-naturalist]]
+
* [[Portraits of Charles Darwin]]
+
* [[Tinamou egg]]
+
* [[Universal Darwinism]]
+
{{div col end}}
+
 
+
==Notes==
+
{{refbegin}}
+
'''<small>I</small>.''' {{Note_label|A|I|none}} Darwin was eminent as a [[naturalist]], geologist, [[biologist]], and author; after working as a physician's assistant and two years as a [[medical student]] was educated as a clergyman; and was trained in [[taxidermy]].<ref name=ODNB>{{Harvnb|Desmond|Moore|Browne|2004|}}</ref>
+
 
+
'''<small>II</small>.''' {{Note_label|B|II|none}} [[Robert FitzRoy]] was to become known after the voyage for [[biblical literalism]], but at this time he had considerable interest in Lyell's ideas, and they met before the voyage when Lyell asked for observations to be made in South America. FitzRoy's diary during the ascent of the River Santa Cruz in [[Patagonia]] recorded his opinion that the plains were [[raised beach]]es, but on return, newly married to a very religious lady, he recanted these ideas. {{Harv|Browne|1995|pp=186, 414}}
+
 
+
'''<small>III</small>.''' {{Note_label|C|III|none}} See, for example, WILLA volume 4, ''[http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/old-WILLA/fall95/DeSimone.html Charlotte Perkins Gilman and the Feminization of Education]'' by Deborah M. De Simone: "Gilman shared many basic educational ideas with the generation of thinkers who matured during the period of "intellectual chaos" caused by Darwin's Origin of the Species. Marked by the belief that individuals can direct human and social evolution, many progressives came to view education as the panacea for advancing social progress and for solving such problems as urbanisation, poverty, or immigration."
+
 
+
'''<small>IV</small>.''' {{Note_label|D|IV|none}} See, for example, the song "A lady fair of lineage high" from [[Gilbert and Sullivan]]'s ''[[Princess Ida]]'', which describes the descent of man (but not woman!) from apes.
+
 
+
'''<small>V</small>.''' {{Note_label|E|V|none}} [[Genetics|Geneticists]] studied human heredity as [[Mendelian inheritance]], while [[eugenics]] movements sought to manage society, with a focus on social class in the United Kingdom, and on disability and ethnicity in the United States, leading to geneticists seeing this as impractical [[pseudoscience]]. A shift from voluntary arrangements to "negative" eugenics included [[compulsory sterilisation]] laws in the United States, copied by [[Nazi Germany]] as the basis for [[Nazi eugenics]] based on virulent racism and "[[racial hygiene]]".<br />({{Cite news
+
| last = Thurtle
+
| first =Phillip
+
| publication-date =
+
| date =Updated 17 December 1996
+
| title =the creation of genetic identity
+
| periodical =SEHR
+
| volume = 5
+
| issue =Supplement: Cultural and Technological Incubations of Fascism
+
| url =http://www.stanford.edu/group/SHR/5-supp/text/thurtle.html
+
| accessdate =11 November 2008
+
| ref = harv
+
| postscript = <!--None-->}}<br />{{Cite news
+
| last = Edwards
+
| first =A. W. F.
+
| date = 1 April 2000 | title =The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection
+
| periodical = Genetics
+
| volume = 154
+
| issue =April 2000
+
| pages = 1419–1426
+
| url =http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/full/154/4/1419#The_Eclipse_of_Darwinism
+
| accessdate =11 November 2008
+
| pmid = 10747041
+
| pmc = 1461012
+
| ref = harv
+
| postscript = <!--None-->
+
}}<br />{{cite web | last = Wilkins | first = John | title = Evolving Thoughts: Darwin and the Holocaust 3: eugenics | url = http://scienceblogs.com/evolvingthoughts/2006/09/darwin_and_the_holocaust_3_eug_1.php | accessdate =11 November 2008}})
+
 
+
'''<small>VI</small>.''' {{Note_label|F|VI|none}} Darwin did not share the then common view that other races are inferior, and said of his [[taxidermy]] tutor [[John Edmonstone]], a freed black slave, "I used often to sit with him, for he was a very pleasant and intelligent man".<ref name=eddy/>
+
 
+
Early in the ''Beagle'' voyage he nearly lost his position on the ship when he criticised FitzRoy's defence and praise of slavery. {{Harv|Darwin|1958|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1497&pageseq=76 74]}} He wrote home about "how steadily the general feeling, as shown at elections, has been rising against Slavery. What a proud thing for England if she is the first European nation which utterly abolishes it! I was told before leaving England that after living in slave countries all my opinions would be altered; the only alteration I am aware of is forming a much higher estimate of the negro character." {{harv|Darwin|1887|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F1452.1&pageseq=264 246]}} Regarding [[Fuegians]], he "could not have believed how wide was the difference between savage and civilized man: it is greater than between a wild and domesticated animal, inasmuch as in man there is a greater power of improvement", but he knew and liked civilised Fuegians like [[Jemmy Button]]: "It seems yet wonderful to me, when I think over all his many good qualities, that he should have been of the same race, and doubtless partaken of the same character, with the miserable, degraded savages whom we first met here."{{Harv|Darwin|1845|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F14&viewtype=text&pageseq=218 205, 207–208]}}
+
 
+
In the ''[[Descent of Man]]'' he mentioned the Fuegians and Edmonstone when arguing against "ranking the so-called races of man as distinct species".<ref>{{Harvnb|Darwin|1871|pp=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F937.1&pageseq=227 214], [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F937.1&viewtype=text&pageseq=245 232].}}</ref>
+
 
+
He rejected the ill-treatment of native people, and for example wrote of massacres of [[Patagonia]]n men, women, and children, "Every one here is fully convinced that this is the most just war, because it is against barbarians. Who would believe in this age that such atrocities could be committed in a Christian civilized country?"{{harv|Darwin|1845|p=[http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F14&pageseq=115 102]}}
+
{{refend}}
+
 
+
==Citations==
+
{{reflist|20em}}
+
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
{{refbegin|colwidth=30em}}
+
{{reflist|2}}
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| year = 1882
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| title =Obituary: Death Of Chas. Darwin
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| title = The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter
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| editor-link =Nora Barlow
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| title =[[The Autobiography of Charles Darwin]] 1809–1882. With the original omissions restored. Edited and with appendix and notes by his granddaughter Nora Barlow
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| publisher=Cambridge University Press
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| url =http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1840&viewtype=text&pageseq=1
+
| accessdate =22 November 2008|ref=harv
+
| isbn= 0-521-46569-9}}
+
* {{cite book
+
| last= Keynes
+
| first= Richard
+
| year= 2001
+
| title=Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary
+
| publisher=Cambridge University Press
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| url =http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1925&viewtype=text&pageseq=1
+
| accessdate =24 October 2008|ref=harv
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| isbn= 0-521-23503-0}}
+
* {{cite web
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| last = Kotzin
+
| first = Daniel
+
| year = 2004
+
| title = Point-Counterpoint: Social Darwinism
+
| publisher=Columbia American History Online
+
| url =http://caho-test.cc.columbia.edu/pcp/14008.html
+
| accessdate =22 November 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite book|last=Larson|first=Edward J.|authorlink=Edward Larson|title=Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory|publisher=Modern Library|year=2004|isbn=0-679-64288-9|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite web
+
| last = Leff
+
| first = David
+
| year = 2000
+
| title =AboutDarwin.com
+
| url =http://www.aboutdarwin.com/index.html
+
| edition =2000–2008
+
| accessdate =30 December 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite journal
+
| last = Leifchild
+
| year =1859
+
| month=19 November
+
| title =Review of `Origin'
+
| periodical =[[Athenaeum (magazine)|Athenaeum]]
+
| issue = 1673
+
| url =http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=image&itemID=CUL-DAR226.1.8&pageseq=1
+
| accessdate =22 November 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite journal
+
| last = Miles
+
| first = Sara Joan
+
| year = 2001
+
| title =Charles Darwin and Asa Gray Discuss Teleology and Design
+
| journal=Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith
+
| volume = 53
+
| pages =196–201
+
| url =http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/2001/PSCF9-01Miles.html
+
| accessdate =22 November 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite news
+
| last = Moore
+
| first = James
+
| author-link =James Moore (biographer)
+
| year = 2005
+
| title = Darwin – A 'Devil's Chaplain'?
+
| publisher=American Public Media
+
| url =http://speakingoffaith.publicradio.org/programs/darwin/moore-devilschaplain.pdf
+
|format=PDF| accessdate =22 November 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite news
+
| last = Moore
+
| first = James
+
| year = 2006
+
| title =Evolution and Wonder – Understanding Charles Darwin
+
| series =Speaking of Faith (Radio Program)
+
| publisher=American Public Media
+
| url =http://speakingoffaith.publicradio.org/programs/darwin/transcript.shtml
+
| accessdate =22 November 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite book
+
| last = Owen
+
| first = Richard
+
| author-link = Richard Owen
+
| year = 1840
+
| editor-last = Darwin
+
| editor-first = C. R.
+
| title = Fossil Mammalia Part 1
+
| series =The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle
+
| location = London
+
| publisher=Smith Elder and Co|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite journal
+
| last = Paul
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| first =Diane B.
+
| year = 2003
+
| contribution =Darwin, social Darwinism and eugenics
+
| editor-last = Hodge
+
| editor-first = Jonathan
+
| editor2-last = Radick
+
| editor2-first = Gregory
+
| title =The Cambridge Companion to Darwin
+
| publisher=Cambridge University Press
+
| pages =214–239
+
| isbn = 0-521-77730-5|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite web
+
| last = Smith
+
| first = Charles H.
+
| title = Alfred Russel Wallace on Spiritualism, Man, and Evolution: An Analytical Essay
+
| year = 1999
+
| url =http://www.wku.edu/~smithch/essays/ARWPAMPH.htm
+
| accessdate =7 December 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite journal
+
| last = Sulloway
+
| first =Frank J.
+
| author-link =Frank Sulloway
+
| year = 1982
+
| title =Darwin and His Finches: The Evolution of a Legend
+
| journal=Journal of the History of Biology
+
| volume = 15
+
| issue = 1
+
| pages =1–53
+
|format=PDF
+
| url =http://www.sulloway.org/Finches.pdf
+
| accessdate =9 December 2008
+
| doi = 10.1007/BF00132004|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite web
+
| last = Sweet
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| first = William
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| title = Herbert Spencer
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| publisher=Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
+
| year = 2004
+
| url = http://www.iep.utm.edu/spencer/
+
| accessdate =16 December 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite web
+
| last = Wilkins
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| first = John S.
+
| year = 1997
+
| title =Evolution and Philosophy: Does evolution make might right?
+
| publisher=[[TalkOrigins Archive]]
+
| url = http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolphil/social.html
+
| accessdate =22 November 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite book
+
| last = Wilkins
+
| first = John S.
+
| year = 2008
+
| contribution =Darwin
+
| editor-last = Tucker
+
| editor-first = Aviezer
+
| title =A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography
+
| series =Blackwell Companions to Philosophy
+
| pages =405–415
+
| publication-place =Chichester
+
| publisher=Wiley-Blackwell
+
| isbn =1-4051-4908-6|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite journal
+
| last = van Wyhe
+
| first = John
+
| title = Mind the gap: Did Darwin avoid publishing his theory for many years?
+
| journal=Notes and Records of the Royal Society
+
| volume = 61
+
| issue =
+
2| pages = 177–205
+
| date = 27 March 2007
+
| doi = 10.1098/rsnr.2006.0171
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| url= http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=A544&pageseq=1
+
| accessdate =7 February 2008|ref=harv
+
}}
+
* {{cite web
+
| last =van Wyhe
+
| first = John
+
| year = 2008
+
| title =Charles Darwin: gentleman naturalist: A biographical sketch
+
| publisher=Darwin Online
+
| url =http://darwin-online.org.uk/darwin.html
+
| accessdate =17 November 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite book
+
| last =van Wyhe
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| first =John
+
| publication-date =1 September 2008
+
| year =2008b
+
| title =Darwin: The Story of the Man and His Theories of Evolution
+
| publication-place =London
+
| publisher=Andre Deutsch Ltd
+
| isbn =0-233-00251-0|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite book
+
| last =von Sydow
+
| first = Momme
+
| year = 2005
+
| contribution =Darwin – A Christian Undermining Christianity? On Self-Undermining Dynamics of Ideas Between Belief and Science
+
| contribution-url =http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090326070105/http://www.psych.uni-goettingen.de/abt/1/sydow/von_Sydow_(2005)_Darwin_A_Christian_Undermining_Christianity.pdf
+
| editor-last = Knight
+
| editor-first =David M.
+
| editor2-last = Eddy
+
| editor2-first =Matthew D.
+
| title =Science and Beliefs: From Natural Philosophy to Natural Science, 1700–1900
+
| location = Burlington
+
| publisher=Ashgate
+
| pages =141–156
+
| isbn =0-7546-3996-7
+
| accessdate =16 December 2008|ref=harv}}
+
* {{cite web
+
| last = Yates
+
| first = Simon
+
| year = 2003
+
| title =The Lady Hope Story: A Widespread Falsehood
+
| publisher=[[TalkOrigins Archive]]
+
| url =http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/hope.html
+
| accessdate =15 December 2006|ref=harv}}
+
{{refend}}
+
  
==External links==
+
==External Links==
{{sisterlinks|s=Charles Robert Darwin|author=yes}}
+
*[http://www.aim.org/wls/author/charles-darwin/ What Liberals Say - Charles Darwin], [[Accuracy In Media]]
* [[The Complete Works of Charles Darwin Online]] – [http://darwin-online.org.uk/ Darwin Online]; Darwin's publications, private papers and bibliography, supplementary works including biographies, obituaries and reviews
+
*[http://foxforum.blogs.foxnews.com/2009/02/12/deseno_darwin/ Darwin's Day for Dummies]
* [http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/ Darwin Correspondence Project] Full text and notes for complete correspondence to 1867, with summaries of all the rest
+
* {{gutenberg author| id=Charles+Darwin| name=Charles Darwin}}; public domain
+
* [http://darwin.amnh.org/ Darwin Manuscript Project]
+
* [http://librivox.org/newcatalog/search.php?title=&author=charles+darwin&status=all&action=Search Works by Charles Darwin in audio format] from [[LibriVox]]
+
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/science_technology/natural_science/topics/3696/ Video and radio clips] [[Canadian Broadcasting Corporation]]
+
* {{dmoz|Science/Biology/History/People/Darwin,_Charles/}}
+
* {{worldcat id|id=lccn-n78-95637}}
+
* {{NRA|P7461}}
+
* [http://www.darwin200.org/ Darwin 200: Celebrating Charles Darwin's bicentenary], [[Natural History Museum]]
+
* [http://www.thesecondevolution.com/darwin_intro.html A Pictorial Biography of Charles Darwin]
+
* [http://www.rationalrevolution.net/articles/darwin_nazism.htm Mis-portrayal of Darwin as a Racist]
+
* [http://www.stanford.edu/group/microdocs/darwinvolcano.html Darwin's Volcano] – a short video discussing Darwin and Agassiz' coral reef formation debate
+
* {{Cite EB1911| wstitle=Darwin, Charles Robert}}
+
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/interactive/2009/feb/12/charles-darwin '' The life and times of Charles Darwin'', an audio slideshow, The Guardian, Thursday 12 February 2009,] (3 min 20 sec).
+
* [http://www.screenaustralia.gov.au/showcases/charlesdarwin/ Darwin's Brave New World] – A 3 part drama-documentary exploring Charles Darwin and the significant contributions of his colleagues Joseph Hooker, Thomas Huxley and Alfred Russel Wallace also featuring interviews with [[Richard Dawkins]], David Suzuki, Jared Diamond
+
* [http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/dossiers/dosdarwinE/darwin.html A naturalist's voyage around the world] Account of the ''Beagle'' voyage using animation, in English from [[French National Centre for Scientific Research|Centre national de la recherche scientifique]]
+
* {{cite book|last=''Anonymous''|others=Illustrated by [[s:Author:Frederick Waddy|Waddy, Frederick]]|title=Cartoon portraits and biographical sketches of men of the day|url=http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Cartoon_portraits_and_biographical_sketches_of_men_of_the_day/C._R._Darwin,_F.R.S.|accessdate=28 December 2010|year=1873|publisher=Tinsley Brothers|location=London|pages=6–7}}
+
* View books owned and annotated by [http://biodiversitylibrary.org/collection/darwinlibrary Charles Darwin] at the online Biodiversity Heritage Library.
+
{{Authority control|LCCN=n/78/95637}}
+
{{Copley Medallists 1851-1900}}
+
{{Evolution}}
+
{{Darwin}}
+
  
{{Persondata<!-- Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:Persondata]] -->
+
[[Category:Biology]]
|NAME= Darwin, Charles Robert
+
[[Category:Evolution]]
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
+
[[Category:Evolutionary Racists]]
|SHORT DESCRIPTION= [[natural history|Naturalist]]
+
|DATE OF BIRTH= 1809-02-12
+
|PLACE OF BIRTH= [[The Mount, Shrewsbury|Mount House]], [[Shrewsbury]], Shropshire, England
+
|DATE OF DEATH= 1882-04-19
+
|PLACE OF DEATH= [[Down House]], Kent, England
+
}}
+
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Darwin, Charles}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Darwin, Charles}}

Revision as of 19:12, 6 December 2012

evolution darwin theory
Late in Charles Darwin's life, Darwin told the Duke of Argyll that he frequently had overwhelming thoughts that the natural world was the result of design.[1] In a letter to Asa Gray, Darwin confided: "...I am quite conscious that my speculations run quite beyond the bounds of true science."[2] See also: Question evolution! campaign

Charles Darwin (12 February 1809 - 19 April 1882) was a famous naturalist born in England. Charles Darwin is best known for the theory of evolution by natural selection presented in his book "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life." The concept is that organisms are modified over vast amounts of time by naturally occurring processes, originating from common ancestors that lived tens of millions of years ago. Outside the area of evolutionary theory in particular, Charles Darwin was regarded as an expert on barnacles, as well as being credited with discovering how coral atolls were formed.

General Biography of Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England in 1809 to his parents Dr. Robert Darwin and Susannah Wedgewood. Darwin's mother was a religious woman but his father was, for the most part, a weak deist. Despite his lack of theistic religious belief, the Darwin's father allowed Charles to be baptized into the Anglican Church and encouraged him to become a clergyman. Darwin's mother died in 1817. In 1825 Charles Darwin went on to study medicine at the University of Edinburgh. There, he became horrified with the brutality of surgery before anesthesia was invented and quit his medical studies.

In 1831 Charles Darwin graduated from Christ's College at Cambridge with a BA degree in the classics and theology. On December 27 of the same year Charles Darwin departed on the HMS Beagle for a five year voyage of exploration. The Beagle returned to English shores on October 2 1836. In 1837, Charles Darwin drew his now famous depiction of common ancestry in the form of a branching tree.[3] The following year he discovered the concept of natural selection. Darwin insists that naturally occurring phenomena and factors working together in blind tandem have produced nature and eventually mankind.

However, Charles Darwin originally based the idea of human evolution on a racist assumption[4], [after God was rejected as Creator], made in the late 1830s[5], that Fuegians (natives of Tierra del Fuego) resembled primates that he had observed in the London zoo.[6] In 1842 he wrote out a sketch of his theory but did not publish it. Again, in 1844 Charles Darwin produced what is known today as an essay of the same theory more developed but he still chose not to publish.

Finally, in 1859, Charles Darwin published his famous theory about how the species may have been produced without any aid from a Divine Creator. He titled his book On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. In 1871, well after his theory enjoyed widespread success, Darwin published his ideas on human evolution in a two-volume book titled The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex.

Religious Views of Charles Darwin

See also: Religious views of Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin in 1880 at the age of 71.

Charles Darwin likely abandoned Christianity as a student when he disappointed his father by refusing to become a minister. In his autobiography Charles Darwin wrote about the diminishment of his religious faith and Darwin stated that he was an agnostic.[7] Darwin wrote the following: "The mystery of the beginning of all things is insoluble to us; and I for one must be content to remain an Agnostic."[8] However, Darwin stated in his private notebooks that he was a materialist, which is a type of atheist.[9] [10][11] In the 1996 British Journal for the Philosophy of Science Kim Sterelny wrote in a book review the following: "I have no doubt that Darwin was a materialist and a mechanist..."[12] Furthermore, Charles Darwin’s casual mentioning of a ‘creator’ in earlier editions of The Origin of Species appears to have been a merely a ploy to downplay the implications of his materialistic theory.[13] Creation Ministries International states the following regarding why it is maintained that Charles Darwin was privately a materialist:

Ernst Mayr’s recent book on Darwin, One Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Evolutionary Thought, Harvard, 1991, also acknowledges that Darwin’s references to purpose were to appease both the public and his wife. His early, private notebooks show his materialism well established. For instance, in one of them he addresses himself as, ‘O, you materialist!’ and says, ‘Why is thought, being a secretion of brain, more wonderful than gravity as a property of matter?’ He clearly already believed that the idea of a separate realm of the spirit was nonsense, as is further shown when he warns himself not to reveal his beliefs, as follows:

‘to avoid saying how far I believe in materialism, say only that emotions, instincts, degrees of talent which are hereditary are so because brain of child resembles parent stock.’[14]

Scholars refer to the private notebook in which Charles Darwin stated he was a materialist as the "M" notebook of 1838.[15] Ernst Mayr wrote that "It is apparent that Darwin lost his faith in the years 1836-39, much of it clearly prior to the reading of Malthus. In order not to hurt the feelings of his friends and of his wife, Darwin often used deistic language in his publications, but much in his Notebooks indicates that by this time he had become a 'materialist' (more or less = atheist)". [16]

Perhaps the best explanation of Darwin's worldview from 1836 onwards was that Darwin was a weak atheist who often had overwhelming thoughts that nature was the product of a mind.[17] [18][19]

Charles Darwin’s casual mentioning of a ‘creator’ in earlier editions of The Origin of Species appears to have been a merely a ploy to downplay the implications of his materialistic theory.[20] Intelligent design advocate John Calvert declares that atheists often don't reveal their atheism and stealthily try to promote their atheism.[21] It can be argued that this was Darwin's approach.

For example, Charles Darwin wrote:

“It appears to me (whether rightly or wrongly) that direct arguments against Christianity & theism produce hardly any effect on the public; & freedom of thought is best promoted by the gradual illumination of men’s minds which follow[s] from the advance of science. It has, therefore, been always my object to avoid writing on religion, & I have confined myself to science.”[22]

Given the Victorian anti-atheism sentiments of many during this period, Darwin did want to appear to be an agnostic as can be seen by this quote:

Dr. Aveling has published an account of a conversation with my father. I think that the readers of this pamphlet ('The Religious Views of Charles Darwin,' Free Thought Publishing Company, 1883) may be misled into seeing more resemblance than really existed between the positions of my father and Dr. Aveling: and I say this in spite of my conviction that Dr. Aveling gives quite fairly his impressions of my father's views. Dr. Aveling tried to show that the terms "Agnostic" and "Atheist" were practically equivalent-that an atheist is one who, without denying the existence of God, is without God, inasmuch as he is unconvinced of the existence of a Deity. My father's replies implied his preference for the unaggressive attitude of an Agnostic. Dr. Aveling seems (page 5) to regard the absence of aggressiveness in my father's views as distinguishing them in an unessential manner from his own. But, in my judgment, it is precisely differences of this kind which distinguish him so completely from the class of thinkers to which Dr. Aveling belongs.[23]

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy declares:

In 1885, the Duke of Argyll recounted a conversation he had had with Charles Darwin the year before Darwin's death:

In the course of that conversation I said to Mr. Darwin, with reference to some of his own remarkable works on the Fertilisation of Orchids, and upon The Earthworms, and various other observations he made of the wonderful contrivances for certain purposes in nature—I said it was impossible to look at these without seeing that they were the effect and the expression of Mind. I shall never forget Mr. Darwin's answer. He looked at me very hard and said, “Well, that often comes over me with overwhelming force; but at other times,” and he shook his head vaguely, adding, “it seems to go away.”(Argyll 1885, 244] [24]

Scientism can also be seen in Darwin's worldview. The scientism in Darwins's worldview can be seen in the previously cited quote of Darwin:

It appears to me (whether rightly or wrongly) that direct arguments against Christianity and theism produce hardly any effect on the public; and freedom of thought is best promoted by the gradual illumination of men's minds which follows from the advance of science.[25]

According to Charles Darwin the "manifestly false history of the world" [26] as recorded in the Old Testament and New Testament miracles led him to reject Biblical veracity [27]. Eminent Darwin biographer, Professor Janet Browne, sums up Darwin's views concerning religion: Darwin "mapped out a comparative evolution of the religious sense, proposing that religious belief was ultimately nothing more than a primitive urge to bestow a cause on otherwise inexplicable natural events...In short, he made no secret of his view that he did not believe religion to have any rational foundation at all" [28]. When he died in 1882 at the age of seventy-three, Darwin was buried at Westminster Abbey next to Sir Isaac Newton.

There exists in hostile Darwin literature a story about a Christian called Lady Hope who visited and spoke with a dying Charles Darwin. This appears to be merely a legend, and there is no evidence that Lady Hope ever converted or even visited Darwin on his deathbed. [29][30]

Charles Darwin, Nazi ideology development and eugenics

In a Creation Ministries International article entitled Darwin and eugenics: Darwin was indeed a ‘Social Darwinist’ Bill Muehlenberg writes:

‘Darwin’s work is filled with references to the work of those involved in creating a radical new “scientific” justification for labeling races, classes, and individuals as “inferior”. … Darwin writes in The Descent of Man that “a most important obstacle in civilized countries to an increase in the number of men of a superior class” is the tendency of society’s “very poor and reckless”, who are “often degraded by vice”, to increase faster than “the provident and generally virtuous members”.’[31]

In addition, Dennis Sewell declared cornering the Darwin family:

[In the] years leading up to the First World War, the eugenics movement looked like a Darwin family business. … Darwin’s son Leonard replaced his cousin Galton as chairman of the national Eugenics Society in 1911. In the same year an offshoot of the society was formed in Cambridge. Among its leading members were three more of Charles Darwin’s sons, Horace, Francis and George.” [32]

Charles Darwin is often considered a Proto-Nazi for his evolutionary paradigm's influence on eugenics. Eugenics is the concept of artificially 'evolving' humans by determining who can live, die, or reproduce. Adolf Hitler would later on use Darwin's theory of evolution to justify his eugenics programs, including the Holocaust.

Darwin's obsessive preoccupation with his public persona and reactions to criticism

In 2002, Richard Milner wrote in a Scientific American in a article entitled "Putting Darwin in his Place", that Darwin "clipped, catalogued and indexed hundreds of offprints, about 350 reviews and 1,600 articles, as well as satires, parodies and Punch caricatures, with which he filled hefty scrapbooks..." And it appears as if the criticism of his work may have troubled Darwin. Milner in the aforementioned article, wrote that after Charles Lyell published a very weak endorsement of Darwin's Antiquity of Man, "Darwin's disappointment brought on 10 days of vomiting, faintness and stomach distress". Also when anatomist St. George Mivart made a strong attack on The Descent of Man, Milner wrote it "triggered two months of "giddiness" and inability to work..."

Darwin's Sickness and Controversy Regarding His Sickness

Caricature of Charles Darwin

For more on this topic see: Charles Darwin's illness

For most of his adult life Charles Darwin suffered from very poor health.[33] The 1992 New Encyclopaedia Britannica stated that Darwin's illness was psychogenic in origin (A psychogenic illness is one that originates in the mind or in mental condition). [34] A 1997 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association entitled "Charles Darwin and Panic Disorder" states that the "variable intensity of symptoms and chronic, prolonged course without physical deterioration also indicate that his illness was psychiatric." [35] In regards to illness associated with evolutionary ideas a journal article in the American Journal of Medicine declares that Darwin suffered from "psychoneurosis provoked and exaggerated by his evolutionary ideas".[36] The American Journal of Medicine article also declared that his Darwin's wife, Emma, greatly disapproved of his evolutionist ideas and "This, facsimile of public reaction, must have kept lively his anxiety and torment". [37] According to the abstract for a 1997 journal article in the Notes and Records of the Royal Society the psychogenic hypothesis for the origin of Darwin's illness "holds the field" but the article questions the validity of this diagnoses and mentions the work of Ralph Colp Jr. MD, a physician and psychiatrist (For details see: Darwin's Sickness). [38][39]

Given Darwin's likely psychogenic or psychobiological illness various creationists have stated that Darwin's illness was the result of guilt and/or fear. [40][41]

Charles Darwin and Pangenesis

See also: Theories of evolution

Pangenesis was an evolutionary notion that was developed by Charles Darwin. Creation scientist Dr. Jerry Bergman wrote concerning pangenesis:

Pangenesis is based on the idea that all somatic cells produce ‘gemmules’ or gene material that is ‘thrown off’ into the body’s circulatory system. These gemmules multiply by dividing, and eventually collect in the organism’s eggs and sperm (the gametes). Consequently, the experiences of their bearers are imprinted in the gemmules, and then can be passed on to the organism’s offspring. Darwin discussed his pangenesis idea in great detail, and felt confident that it would provide a feasible mechanism to produce new genetic information.[42]

Despite there being devastating experimental evidence against the notion of pangenesis provided by Francis Galton, Charles Darwin stubbornly held to the notion of pangenesis as he had no naturalistic explanation on how genetic information could be formed.[43]

Criticism of the Work of Charles Darwin by Cliff Lillo

Cliff Lillo wrote:

Darwin was wrong when he says that science has not yet proved Lamarck in error about spontaneous generation, wrong when he says that changes in habit can be inherited, and wrong when he says that use or disuse of an organ can be passed along from parent to child, etc. [2]

Contemporary evolutionary biology strongly agrees that Lamarckian inheritance and spontaneous generation never or almost never occur. The early 20th century synthesis between Mendelian genetics and natural selection provides a non-Lamarckian basis for inheritance of biological characteristics.

Family Life

Author Peter Brent wrote of Darwin's relationship with his wife Emma and stated that "Their ties to each other were linked to childhood and the very beginnings of memory. They had a common history, a joint tradition. It is hard to think their relationship a passionate one, but it was happy, and the happiness had deep roots."[44] Charles Darwin displayed a dependency on his wife that was childlike. Darwin wrote a letter to his wife in 1848 that said, "My dearest old Mammy ... Without you, when sick I feel most desolate .. Oh Mammy I do long to be with you and under your protection for then I feel safe."[45] Peter Brent states that it is hard to imagine that the letter was from thirty-nine year old man writing to his wife rather than a young child writing to its mother.[46] In their article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, entitled Charles Darwin and Panic stated that Darwin felt "nervousness when Emma leaves me".[47] Darwin had ten children with his wife Emma, [48] who was also his cousin. [49]

Darwin's Racism

For more information please see: Social effects of the theory of evolution

Charles Darwin wrote in his work The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex:

At some future period not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace the savage races throughout the world. At the same time the anthropomorphous apes...will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man and his nearest Allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilised state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as the baboon, instead of as now between the Negro or Australian and the gorilla.[50][51]

Darwin's Belief in Male Superiority

Charles Darwin wrote in his work The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex:

... a higher eminence, in whatever he takes up, than can women—whether requiring deep thought, reason, or imagination, or merely the use of the senses and hands. If two lists were made of the most eminent men and women in poetry, painting, sculpture, music (inclusive of both composition and performance), history, science, and philosophy, with half-a-dozen names under each subject, the two lists would not bear comparison. We may also infer, from the law of the deviation from averages, so well illustrated by Mr. Galton, in his work on “Hereditary Genius” that ... the average of mental power in man must be above that of women.[52]

Charles Darwin and the Cult of Personality

There is a cult of personality and type of religiousity currently surrounding Charles Darwin. Stephen Jay Gould wrote the following in 1978: ""... all theories [of natural selection] cite God in their support, and ... Darwin comes close to this status among evolutionary biologists ...".[53] In 2002, Michael White similarly wrote: "Of course today, for biologists, Darwin is second only to God, and for many he may rank still higher."[54]

Just how intelligent was Darwin?

A look at some of Darwin's writing reveals that he sometimes did not think himself that intelligent, and that he had strong misanthropic tendencies. "‎I am very poorly today and very stupid." he wrote, "and [I] hate everybody and everything."

One of Darwin's biographers characterized him as "'nerdy [and] prone to anxiety'....He was not quick, witty, or social. He spent decades working out his ideas, slowly, mostly by himself, writing letters and tending to a weak heart and a constantly upset stomach. He was a Slow Processor, who soaked in the data, thought, stared, tried to make sense of what he was seeing, hoping for a breakthrough. All around were snappier brains, busy being dazzling, but not Darwin's, which just plodded on..." [55]

See also

References

  1. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/teleological-arguments/notes.html
  2. http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-2109
  3. Charles Darwin, Transmutation Notebook B 1837:36
  4. Milton, Richard Shattering the Myths of Darwinism 1997:186,287 says "Darwin [was] openly racist"
  5. Barlow, Nora (editor) The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1958:130
  6. Larson, Edward J. Evolution: The Remarkable History Of A Scientific Theory 2004:66,67
  7. http://www.update.uu.se/~fbendz/library/cd_relig.htm
  8. http://www.update.uu.se/~fbendz/library/cd_relig.htm
  9. http://www.creation.com/content/view/1877
  10. Barrett, Paul H. Darwin on Man 1974:276
  11. American Scientist May 1977:323
  12. http://www.jstor.org/view/00070882/ap020188/02a00130/1?frame=noframe&userID=80cdbf39@buffalo.edu/01cce4405c00501c2c38a&dpi=3&config=jstor British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Volume 47, 1996, page 641
  13. http://www.creation.com/content/view/1877
  14. http://www.creation.com/content/view/1877
  15. Barrett, Paul H. Darwin on Man 1974:276
  16. American Scientist May 1977:323
  17. Is Darwinism Atheistic? An Examination of the Beliefs and Practices of Charles Darwin
  18. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/teleological-arguments/notes.html
  19. http://books.google.com/books?id=j9MEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=Dr.+Aveling+has+published+an+account+of+a+conversation+with+my+father.+I+think+that+the+readers+of+this+pamphlet+(%27The+Religious+Views+of+Charles+Darwin,%27+Free+Thought+Publishing+Company,+1883)+may+be+misled+into+seeing+more+resemblance+than+really+existed&source=web&ots=-eyumeD-3g&sig=V1ooJ7WLHqu1csnVz39scxdV4Mg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result
  20. http://creation.com/charles-darwin-s-real-message-have-you-missed-it
  21. Atheism: A stealth religion
  22. http://www.nysun.com/arts/war-peace/42267/
  23. http://books.google.com/books?id=j9MEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=Dr.+Aveling+has+published+an+account+of+a+conversation+with+my+father.+I+think+that+the+readers+of+this+pamphlet+(%27The+Religious+Views+of+Charles+Darwin,%27+Free+Thought+Publishing+Company,+1883)+may+be+misled+into+seeing+more+resemblance+than+really+existed&source=web&ots=-eyumeD-3g&sig=V1ooJ7WLHqu1csnVz39scxdV4Mg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result
  24. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/teleological-arguments/notes.html
  25. http://www.christianitytoday.com/books/features/bccorner/020204.html
  26. ibid. Barlow 1958:85.
  27. ibid. Barlow 1958:85-87.
  28. Browne, Janet Charles Darwin The Power of Place 2002:341
  29. http://www.carm.org/evo_questions/deathbed.htm
  30. http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/2009/03/31/darwins-deathbed-conversion-legend
  31. [http://creation.com/darwin-and-eugenics Darwin and eugenics: Darwin was indeed a ‘Social Darwinist’ by Bill Muehlenberg]
  32. Eugenics: “a Darwin family business”
  33. http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v17/i4/darwins_illness.asp
  34. http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v17/i4/darwins_illness.asp
  35. Charles Darwin and Panic Disorder" by Thomas J. Barloon, MD and Russel Noyes, Jr., January 8, 1997 Journal of the American Medical Association
  36. "The Illness of Charles Darwin", William B. Bean, September 1978, American Journal of Medicine
  37. "The Illness of Charles Darwin", William B. Bean, September 1978, American Journal of Medicine
  38. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/content/c5la8dhfh8v7tbx8/
  39. http://www.pathlights.com/ce_encyclopedia/Encyclopedia/20hist06.htm
  40. http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v17/i4/darwins_illness.asp
  41. http://www.pathlights.com/ce_encyclopedia/Encyclopedia/20hist06.htm
  42. http://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j17_2/j17_2_19-25.pdf
  43. http://creation.com/images/pdfs/tj/j17_2/j17_2_19-25.pdf
  44. Peter Brent, "Darwin: A Man of Enlarged Curiosity", page 316
  45. http://www.bradburyac.mistral.co.uk/dar9.html
  46. http://www.bradburyac.mistral.co.uk/dar9.html
  47. Charles Darwin and Panic Disorder" by Thomas J. Barloon, MD and Russel Noyes, Jr., January 8, 1997 Journal of the American Medical Association
  48. http://darwin-online.org.uk/EditorialIntroductions/Browne_EmmaDiaries.html
  49. The descent of man Mail Online, February 23, 2009
  50. http://www.aim.org/wls/90/
  51. The Descent of Man, chapter VI
  52. http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/2007/08/24/feedback-female-inferiority
  53. http://www.bradburyac.mistral.co.uk/dar1.html
  54. http://www.bradburyac.mistral.co.uk/dar1.html
  55. [1]

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