Difference between revisions of "Cluster Bombs"

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[[Image:Clusterbombs.jpg‎ |thumb|150px|Cluster Bombs being moved aboard the [[United States]] aircraft carrier [[USS Independence]].]]
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'''Cluster Bombs,''' are a type of military weapon primarily used because of their effectiveness against tanks and large areas. All cluster weapons consist of two primary elements: a container or dispenser; and sub munitions, often called bomblets. These bombs can be dropped from medium to high altitude.<ref>http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/world/2001/cluster_bomb/</ref> Although cluster bombs can cover large areas they do not have the procession guidance that other bombs have, this is why cluster bombs are known as "dumb bombs". Although cluster bombs have some drawbacks, military officials state that they are necessary and needed. <ref>http://www.commondreams.org/headlines/090800-02.htm</ref>.
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==Types of Cluster Bombs==
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! Name
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! Use<ref>http://www.iraqwar.org/Washbombs.htm</ref>
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! Amount of Bomblets in Bomb<ref>http://www.iraqwar.org/Washbombs.htm</ref>
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|-
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| '''CBU-52B'''
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| Softball sized bomblets used on enemy light skinned vehicles and also against enemy soldiers 
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|220
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|-
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| '''CBU-58A/B'''
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| Similar to the CBU-52, this cluster bomb is also used for light skinned vehicles, although this bomb contains more baseball sized bomblets in its dispenser. It is particularly good at attacking large areas.
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|650
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|-
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| '''CBU-59B Rockeye II'''
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| A more modern cluster bomb, this bomb carries dart shaped bomblets that can be used against modern armor.
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|700
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|-
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| '''CBU-71/B'''
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|Similar to the CBU-58, this munition is good when attacking large areas. It contains a “random delay fusing option.”
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|650
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|-
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| '''CBU-72 Fuel Air Explosive'''
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| Containing three deferent types of bomblets,  this bomb is used to detonate minefields, demolish bunkers and aircraft. This bomb uses a incendiary to help create an explosion on impact. 
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|n/a
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|-
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| '''CBU-87 CEM Combined Effects Munition'''
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| This weapon is composed of multipurpose is a free-fall cluster bomb, each bomblet is capable of penetrating up to 177 mm of armor( seven inches) Bomblets can cover an area of  800 feet by 400 ft.
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| 202
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|-
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|-
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|'''CBU-89'''
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| This dispenser holds 72 anti-armor mines and 22 anti-personal mines. This weapon contains a “kill mechanism” which can magnetic influence the fuse to go off on enemy armor. 
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| 92
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|-
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| '''CBU-97 Sensor Fused Weapon'''
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| This weapon combins a “cosmic cluster munitions” with a skeet type warhead. Using a parachute and an infrared sensor, this bomb is effective on motorized vehicles.
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| 40
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|-
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|'''CBU-97/B Sensor Fused Weapon'''
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| Used in NATO’s Kosovo campaign, this weapon can cover an area the size of a football field. Its warhead can contains a Explosive-Formed Projectile that destroys hard and soft targets.
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|40
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|-
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|''' MK-20 Rockeye'''
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| Dispenser holds dart shaped bomblets used against armor and enemy soldiers.
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|247
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|-
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|}
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==History==
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In May of 1974, the [[United States Air Force]] awarded a contract to [[Aeroget]] for the design, development, fabrication, and test of what became know as a Combined Effects Munitions (or cluster bomblet).  The [[United States]] awarded a second contract to Honeywell, Inc, which later spun off into [[Alliant]], in 1984. These two providers were the sole providers of cluster munitions for the [[United States Military]]. <ref> http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/cbu-87.htm</ref>
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===Gulf War===
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[[Image:Airplanedroppingclusterbombs.jpg‎ |thumb|250px|A United States [[B-1 Bomber]] drops its load of cluster bombs.]]
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Cluster bombs first use by the United States was during [[Operation Desert Storm]]. In this operation the United States dropped 1,100 cluster bombs munitions. <ref>http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/cbu-87.htm</ref>Most of these were CBU-87S, a bomb which is designed to destroy light armor vehicles and enemy soldiers. The bombs had an approximately five percent dud rate<ref>http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/cbu-87.htm</ref>.
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===Kosovo===
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In [[NATO]]'s air assault of [[Kosovo]], NATO allies used more then 1,765 cluster bombs.<ref> http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/arms/cluster-bck1031.htm</ref>The U.N. Mine Action Coordination Center reported that these bombs had an estimated seven percent dud rate, which they estimated leaving 20,000 bomblets after the war. [[Human Rights Watched]],a liberal organization, claimed that these bombs led to over, “150 civilian deaths, or 18 to 30 percent of all civilian deaths.”<ref>http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/arms/cluster-bck1031.htm</ref> After the air war allied troops cleared cluster bombs that had failed to go off.<ref>http://www.nato.int/Kosovo/press/1999/k990924a.htm</ref>
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===Afghanistan===
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Despite criticism the United States continued use of cluster weapons in [[Afghanistan]], although their use was less in number then previous operations. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff [[Richard Myers]], stated during the Afghanistan mission that, "We only use the cluster munitions when they are the most effective weapon for the intended target," Myers said. "There have not been a great number of them used, but they have been used." <ref>http://english.people.com.cn/english/200110/26/eng20011026_83213.html</ref>.
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===Iraq===
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Amid criticism the United States continued work on improving the cluster munitions to reduce the dud rate. The United States military began to improve its weapons for its new operation in Iraq. They used nearly 10,800 cluster weapons in Iraq; their British allies used almost 2,200.<ref>http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-12-10-cluster-bomb-cover_x.htm </ref> This time the improvements showed, as the new bombs only had a one percent dud rate. The Department of Defense described cluster bombs vital and versatile, but admitted that they are aware of their flaws. In 2007 the Pentagon adopted the Cohan policy, which requires the military to purchase only cluster munitions that have a one percent, or less dud rate.<ref>http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2007/01/07/ING2INDCJ91.DTL</ref>
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==Damage==
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One of the main arguments for the use of cluster bombs is that they are the best alternative, causing the least unnecessary damage. The [[Israel]] Ministry of Foreign Affairs found that cluster bombs caused less damage then a regular (250-1,000 kg) bomb.<ref> http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/About+the+Ministry/Behind+the+Headlines/Legal+and+operational+aspects+of+the+use+of+cluster+bombs+5-Sep-2006.htm </ref> The United States Airforce Review wrote that,"The use of cluster munitions may actually reduce collateral damage. As pointed out at the Lugano Conference, without cluster bombs, air forces must use more high explosive ordnance to accomplish the military goal, creating the increased possibility of a weapon missing its target and causing unintended collateral damage." <ref> http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m6007/is_2001_Spring/ai_92044664/pg_11</ref> Cluster bombs are continuously being improved as shown by its decrease in dud rate from the Gulf War(5%) to the current operation in Iraq(1%).
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==Effectiveness==
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Military strategist state that cluster bombs are  a "necessity" for military operations.<ref> http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m6007/is_2001_Spring/ai_92044664/pg_11</ref> Forces value cluster bombs because a single volley can impede advancing troops, destroy airfields, and surface-to-air missile sites.<ref> http://www.envirosagainstwar.org/know/read.php?itemid=5076</ref> According to [[United Kingdom]] Secretary of State for Defense, Mr Geoffrey Hoon," [Cluster Bombs], these are extremely effective weapons. They are the most effective weapons against armored and certain kinds of soft skinned vehicles…"<ref> http://www.isisuk.demon.co.uk/0811/isis/uk/regpapers/no79_paper.html</ref> United States officials have stated that there is no available alternative that offers the same effectiveness as cluster bombs.<ref> http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-12-10-cluster-bomb-cover_x.htm</ref>
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==Banning==
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Belgium became the first country to ban cluster bombs in February of 2006 <ref> http://hrw.org/english/docs/2006/07/24/isrlpa13798.htm</ref> and soon countries began to hold conferences calling for the banning of cluster bombs use.  At a conference in Oslo Norway, Forty-Six countries agreed to stop their use of cluster munitions in 2008. The [[United States]], [[China]] and [[Russia]], were strongly against banning such an effective weapon. These forty six nations that  signed the treaty include: [[Afghanistan]], [[Angola]], [[Argentina]], [[Austria]], [[Belgium]], [[Bosnia]] and [[Herzegovina]], [[Canada]], [[Chile]], [[Columbia]], [[Costa Rica]], [[Croatia]], [[Czech Republic]], [[Denmark]],[[Egypt]], [[Finland]], [[France]], [[Germany]], [[Guatemala]], [[Holy See]], [[Hungary]], [[Iceland]], [[Indonesia]], [[Ireland]], [[Italy]], [[Jordan]], [[Latvia]], [[Lebanon]], [[Liechtenstein]], [[Lithuania]], [[Luxembourg]], [[Malta]], [[Mexico]], [[Mozambique]], [[Netherlands]], [[New Zealand]], [[Norway]], [[Peru]], [[Portugal]], [[Serbia]], [[Slovakia]], [[Slovenia]], [[South Africa]], [[Spain]], [[Sweden]], [[Switzerland]], and the [[United Kingdom]]. The Lima Conference on Cluster Munitions was held in [[Peru]] in May 2007. Here twenty more nations agreed to stop their use of cluster bombs, bringing the total to 70 countries to agreement. Despite agreeing to the treaty some countries placed major exceptions to their agreement. One exception was the use of cluster bombs that include self destruct fuses<ref>http://www.fcnl.org/issues/item_print.php?item_id=2652&issue_id=138</ref>. Countries that agreed to ban cluster bombs use at the Peru conference included, [[Albania]], [[Cambodia]], [[Chad]], [[Laos]], [[Greece]], [[Guinea-Bissau]], [[Nigeria]], [[Thailand]], [[Saudi Arabia]], [[Yemen]], and  [[Nigeria]]. <ref>http://www.fcnl.org/issues/item_print.php?item_id=2652&issue_id=138</ref>  
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==References==
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<small><references/></small>
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[[Category:Weapons]]
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Revision as of 13:28, 7 September 2007

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