Difference between revisions of "Controlled Substances Act"

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In the US, the '''Controlled Substances Act''' regulates [[pharmaceutical]]s. It divides [[drug]]s into classes called schedules and established rules for enforcement of the schedules.  
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In the United States, the '''Controlled Substances Act''' (CSA) regulates drugs with abuse potential. It divides [[drug]]s into classes called schedules, and establishes rules for the process and enforcement of the schedules. Originally focused on psychoactive drugs with abuse potential, the Act now also controls anabolic steroids.
  
 
==Drug Schedules==
 
==Drug Schedules==
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:(C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.
 
:(C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.
  
Examples of Schedule I drugs include heroin and other opiates, methampethines, MDMA (ecstasy), [[LSD]], [[marijuana]], and mescaline.
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Examples of Schedule I drugs include [[heroin]], [[MDMA]] (ecstasy), [[LSD]], [[marijuana]], [[psilocybin]] and mescaline.
  
 
===Schedule II.===
 
===Schedule II.===
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:(C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
 
:(C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
  
Schedule II drugs include some opiate pain medications (e.g., morphine, methadone), cocaine (legal as a topical surgical anesthetic only), Ritalin, amphetamines, opium, and barbiturates.
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Schedule II drugs include [[opium]], certain [[opioids]] (pain medications such as morphine, oxycodone, fentanyl), [[cocaine]] (approved as a topical surgical anesthetic), [[methamphetamine]] (''Desoxyn''), [[amphetamine]] (''Adderall''), [[methylphenidate]] (''Ritalin'') and many [[barbiturates]].
  
 
===Schedule III.===
 
===Schedule III.===
 
:(A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.
 
:(A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.
 
:(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
 
:(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
:(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychologicaldependence.
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:(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
  
Anabolic steroids, ketamine, and certain pain and stimulant medications are listed on Schedule III.
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Anabolic [[steroids]], [[ketamine]], [[gamma-hydroxybutyric acid]], and certain opioid medications (buprenorphine, tramadol, many codeine mixtures) and stimulant medications (modafinil, benzphetamine) are listed on Schedule III.
  
 
===Schedule IV.===
 
===Schedule IV.===
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:(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.
 
:(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.
  
Examples of Schedule IV substances include many [[psychotropic medication]]s (e.g., Xanax, Ativan, Provigil), diet drugs (e.g., Redux), rohypnol, and Ambien.
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Examples of Schedule IV substances include many [[benzodiazepines]] (e.g., diazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam), benzodiazepine like sleep drugs (e.g., zolpidem), and diet drugs (e.g., phentermine).
  
 
===Schedule V.===
 
===Schedule V.===
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:(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.
 
:(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.
  
Substances on Schedule V primarily include medications containing smaller doses of opiates (e.g., cough syrups).
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Substances on Schedule V primarily include medications containing smaller doses of opioids (e.g., cough syrups).
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==Controlled substances==
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Drugs and other materials regulated by the Controlled Substances Act are called '''controlled substances'''. Some controlled substances are not drugs but are used to make other controlled substances which are. For example, thebaine is used to make hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and other opioid medications. Drugs which are controlled substances use abbreviated markings, such as schedule II controlled substances marked C-II.
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Because a CSA schedule includes legal use does not mean that each substance (drug) listed in that schedule is approved and legal in the United States. ''Rohypnol'' (flunitrazepam) is a schedule IV drug that is unapproved and illegal in the US; however, it is a benzodiazepine and other members of this drug class are approved and legal, such as diazepam (''Valium'') and alprozolam (''Xanax'').  An uncontrolled drug may later become a controlled substance, such as tramadol (''Ultram'') and modafinil (''Provigil'') being placed in schedule IV. Similarly controlled drugs may be rescheduled, such as hydrocodone (''Lortab'', ''Vicodin'') moved from schedule III to schedule II, or dronabinol (''Marinol'') moved from schedule II to schedule III. Some controlled substance may be approved for veterinary but not human use, such as the potent opioid etorphin, used to tranquilize large mammals like elephants.
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Some states place controlled drugs into more restricted schedules, that is, reschedule them.
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 +
Aside from the United States, many other countries have adopted a similar system regulating drugs by abuse potential.
  
 
==Constitutionality==
 
==Constitutionality==
  
 
The constitutionality of the Controlled Substance Act has been disputed. In 1972, the [[National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse]], commissioned by President [[Richard Nixon]], reported questioned whether the Act has violated various constitutional limitation on federal power. Nixon and the Congress ignored the committee's findings and the Act was implemented anyways. In 2005, the Supreme Court decided in case ''[[Gonzales v. Raich]]'', in a 6-3 decision that the Controlled Substance Act did not violate the [[Commerce Clause]] in [[United States Constitution]]. The decision cited ''[[Wickard v. Filburn]]'', an FDR-era case that significantly expanded federal power over intrastate commerce.
 
The constitutionality of the Controlled Substance Act has been disputed. In 1972, the [[National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse]], commissioned by President [[Richard Nixon]], reported questioned whether the Act has violated various constitutional limitation on federal power. Nixon and the Congress ignored the committee's findings and the Act was implemented anyways. In 2005, the Supreme Court decided in case ''[[Gonzales v. Raich]]'', in a 6-3 decision that the Controlled Substance Act did not violate the [[Commerce Clause]] in [[United States Constitution]]. The decision cited ''[[Wickard v. Filburn]]'', an FDR-era case that significantly expanded federal power over intrastate commerce.
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== See also ==
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* [[Alcoholism]]-[[Alcohol abuse]]: Addiction to [[Alcoholic beverages]]-[[Alcohol consumption]]
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* [[Cigarette]]-[[Tobacco]]-[[Nicotine]] addiction
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* [[Caffeine]] addiction ([[Coffee]]-[[Tea]]-[[Cocoa]]-[[Chocolate]]-[[Soft drink]])
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* [[Drug]] addiction: [[Methamphetamine]]-[[Amphetamine]]-[[Cocaine]] addiction, [[Narcotic]]-[[Marijuana]]-[[Morphine]]-[[OxyContin]]-[[Oxycodone]]-[[Heroin]]-[[Ecstasy]]-[[MDMA]]-[[Benzodiazepine]]
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* [[Food]] addiction: [[Gluttony]]-[[Atheism and gluttony]], [[Obesity]], [[Homosexuality and obesity]], [[Atheism and the fat acceptance movement]], [[Chuck Norris on the topic of obesity]], [[Anorexia nervosa]] and [[Bulimia nervosa]], [[Homosexuality and eating disorders]]
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* [[Pornography]] and [[Sex addiction]]: [[Lust]], [[Atheism and hedonism]], [[Sexually Transmitted Disease]], [[Social effects of pornography]], [[Teen pregnancy]]
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* [[Gambling]] addiction: [[Mafia]]
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----
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* [[War on Drugs]] and the [[Police state]]
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* [[Drug trafficking]]
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* [[Vice]] and [[Liberal values]]-[[Liberalism]]: [[Similarities between Communism, Nazism and liberalism]]
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* [[Hollywood values]], [[San Francisco values]] and the [[Homosexual agenda]]: [[Homosexuality and Illegal Drug Use]] and [[Homosexuality and smoking]]
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* [[Self-control]], [[Temperance]], [[Teetotalism]], [[Abstinence]], [[Sexual continence]], [[Virginity]], [[Conservative morality]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<references/>
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{{reflist|2}}
[http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/csa.html Controlled Substances Act from U.S. DEA website]
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* [http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/csa.html Controlled Substances Act from U.S. DEA website]
  
 
[[Category:United States Law]]
 
[[Category:United States Law]]
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[[Category:Health]]
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[[Category:Police State]]
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[[Category:Social Problems]]
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[[Category:Crime]]
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[[Category:Drugs]]
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[[Category:Illegal Substances‏‎]]
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[[Category:Illegal Drugs]]

Latest revision as of 08:25, 9 May 2017

In the United States, the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) regulates drugs with abuse potential. It divides drugs into classes called schedules, and establishes rules for the process and enforcement of the schedules. Originally focused on psychoactive drugs with abuse potential, the Act now also controls anabolic steroids.

Drug Schedules

Required findings as followed:

Schedule I.

(A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
(B) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
(C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.

Examples of Schedule I drugs include heroin, MDMA (ecstasy), LSD, marijuana, psilocybin and mescaline.

Schedule II.

(A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.
(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions.
(C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

Schedule II drugs include opium, certain opioids (pain medications such as morphine, oxycodone, fentanyl), cocaine (approved as a topical surgical anesthetic), methamphetamine (Desoxyn), amphetamine (Adderall), methylphenidate (Ritalin) and many barbiturates.

Schedule III.

(A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.
(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

Anabolic steroids, ketamine, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and certain opioid medications (buprenorphine, tramadol, many codeine mixtures) and stimulant medications (modafinil, benzphetamine) are listed on Schedule III.

Schedule IV.

(A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.
(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.

Examples of Schedule IV substances include many benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam), benzodiazepine like sleep drugs (e.g., zolpidem), and diet drugs (e.g., phentermine).

Schedule V.

(A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.
(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.
(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.

Substances on Schedule V primarily include medications containing smaller doses of opioids (e.g., cough syrups).

Controlled substances

Drugs and other materials regulated by the Controlled Substances Act are called controlled substances. Some controlled substances are not drugs but are used to make other controlled substances which are. For example, thebaine is used to make hydrocodone, oxymorphone, and other opioid medications. Drugs which are controlled substances use abbreviated markings, such as schedule II controlled substances marked C-II.

Because a CSA schedule includes legal use does not mean that each substance (drug) listed in that schedule is approved and legal in the United States. Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) is a schedule IV drug that is unapproved and illegal in the US; however, it is a benzodiazepine and other members of this drug class are approved and legal, such as diazepam (Valium) and alprozolam (Xanax). An uncontrolled drug may later become a controlled substance, such as tramadol (Ultram) and modafinil (Provigil) being placed in schedule IV. Similarly controlled drugs may be rescheduled, such as hydrocodone (Lortab, Vicodin) moved from schedule III to schedule II, or dronabinol (Marinol) moved from schedule II to schedule III. Some controlled substance may be approved for veterinary but not human use, such as the potent opioid etorphin, used to tranquilize large mammals like elephants.

Some states place controlled drugs into more restricted schedules, that is, reschedule them.

Aside from the United States, many other countries have adopted a similar system regulating drugs by abuse potential.

Constitutionality

The constitutionality of the Controlled Substance Act has been disputed. In 1972, the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse, commissioned by President Richard Nixon, reported questioned whether the Act has violated various constitutional limitation on federal power. Nixon and the Congress ignored the committee's findings and the Act was implemented anyways. In 2005, the Supreme Court decided in case Gonzales v. Raich, in a 6-3 decision that the Controlled Substance Act did not violate the Commerce Clause in United States Constitution. The decision cited Wickard v. Filburn, an FDR-era case that significantly expanded federal power over intrastate commerce.

See also


References