The "Cultural Revolution" was a disastrous attempt to reform the economics, education and politics of Communist China, which led to the deaths of tens of millions of people. The upheaval began in August of 1966 by Chinese Chairman Mao Zedong. His objective was to replace leaders with people who would think like him and be supportive of him as Chairmen, make the Chinese Communist Party function the way he wanted, give the Chinese youth a revolutionary experience, and make changes so that education, health care, and cultural systems would be for the entirety of China and not just for the elite. Mao Zedong wanted the Cultural Revolution to affect everyone in China but it mostly affected those in urban places.
In August 1966 all schools were closed. During this time Mao told the Red Guards to question things that traditionally had great value and importance, and question the activities of government officials by slighting them in a way that was visible to all. This resulted in the harm and even death of many people. In the end, Mao Zedong achieved none of what he wanted.
The end of the Cultural Revolution came about with death of Mao Zedong in 1977.