Difference between revisions of "Desecularization and social conformity"

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== Notes ==
 
== Notes ==

Revision as of 18:17, 19 May 2017

In 3012, a Georgetown University study was published indicating that only about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household in the United States remain atheists as adults.[1]

There is a significant amount of groupthink among secular leftism (see: Atheism and groupthink). In addition, atheist indoctrination is a significant cause of atheism (see also: Causes of atheism). In addition, atheistic cultures have used the persecution of religious people and mockery (often of a caustic nature) in order to increase social conformity to their irreligious ideas (see: Militant atheism and Communism and religious persecution and Atheism and mockery).

Research indicates that people's desire for social conformity due to the effects of peer pressure has a powerful effect on many individuals decision making (a number of well-known studies called the Asch nonformity experiments demonstrates this matter).[2][3]

Desecularization is the process by which religion reasserts its societal influence though religious values, institutions, sectors of society and symbols in reaction to previous and/or co-occurring secularization processes.[4] There are a number of causes of desecularization (see: Causes of desecularization).

in the past, the atheist population saw some significant growth in its number of adherents in various places in geographic areas of the world, but now atheism/irreligion/secularism/non-religion is shrinking in many areas of the world (see: History of atheism and Desecularization).[5] In addition, global atheism is shrinking in its percentage of adherents and may also be decreasing in its actual number of adherents (see: Global atheism statistics).

Research indicates that among the religious in religious countries and even among atheists themselves, there is a high degree of distrust of atheists (see: Distrust of atheists).

In the Western World, during the rise and peak of the New Atheism movement, there was a lot of atheists engaging in mockery of theism/theists. The new atheist Richard Dawkins encouraged his supporters to go beyond humorous ridicule.[6] He wrote, "I lately started to think that we need to go further: go beyond humorous ridicule, sharpen our barbs to a point where they really hurt."[7] But now the table has turned and there is an increase in the mockery of atheism/atheists (see: Mocking of atheism).

Reddit atheism, also known as r/atheism, is one of the largest internet groups of atheists (See also: Internet atheism).[8] A 2016 Reddit post entitled Why is everyone mocking atheism all of a sudden? declared: "Now making fun of religion gets you labeled as a neckbeard or edgy, when like 2 years ago atheism was the main driving force of reddit?"[9]

In the 21st century, given the growth of the religious population and the decline of the irreligious population, the desire for social conformity will have an increasing effect in terms of it being a force of desecularization.

Retention rate of atheists raised in a U.S. atheist households

See also: Atheism and its retention rate in individuals

In June of 2016, American Interest reported:

First of all, religious belief is still very powerful and widespread, and there is nothing inevitable about its decline. In fact, the proportion of people who say they believe in God actually ticked modestly upward, from 86 percent to 89 percent, since Gallup last asked the question in 2014.[10]

In 2012, a Georgetown University study was published indicating that in the United States only about 30 percent of those who grow up in an atheist household remain atheists as adults.[11] According to Dr. Mark Gray, "of those raised as atheists, 30% are now affiliated with a Protestant denomination, 10% are Catholic, 2% are Jewish, 1% are Mormon, and 1% are Pagan."[12]

Theodore Beale wrote about the Pew Research Forum's examination data involving individuals raised as atheists:

...the example of various former atheists such as C.S. Lewis and Anthony Flew indicates that atheism is nothing more than a transitive state for many individuals...

The retention rate is even worse for the full blown atheist population. 60% of those raised atheist abandon atheism; 0.5% of the population was raised atheist and 0.3% of it left atheism. And while 1.4% of the population became atheist, the fact that nearly all of the nation is not atheist means that the non-atheist population has a retention rate of 98.6%, which is nearly 2.5 times better than the atheist retention rate of 40%. Therefore, the perceived rapid growth of atheism is nothing more than an artifact of the atheist population's statistical insignificance. Even the dying Episcopalian church has a better retention rate than atheism...[13]

Global atheism is shrinking in its percentage of adherents

See also: Global atheism

Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020.[14] See: Global atheism statistics

Globally, the percentage of atheists is shrinking in the world (see: Global atheism statistics).

On July 24, 2013, CNS News reported:

Atheism is in decline worldwide, with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020, according to a new report by the Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Mass."[15]

On December 23, 2012, Professor Eric Kaufmann who teaches at Birbeck College, University of London wrote:

I argue that 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious.

On the other hand, the secular West and East Asia has very low fertility and a rapidly aging population... In the coming decades, the developed world's demand for workers to pay its pensions and work in its service sector will soar alongside the booming supply of young people in the third world. Ergo, we can expect significant immigration to the secular West which will import religious revival on the back of ethnic change. In addition, those with religious beliefs tend to have higher birth rates than the secular population, with fundamentalists having far larger families. The epicentre of these trends will be in immigration gateway cities like New York (a third white), Amsterdam (half Dutch), Los Angeles (28% white), and London, 45% white British. [16]

At a conference Kaufmann said of religious demographic projections concerning the 21st century:

Part of the reason I think demography is very important, at least if we are going to speak about the future, is that it is the most predictable of the social sciences.

...if you look at a population and its age structure now. You can tell a lot about the future. ...So by looking at the relative age structure of different populations you can already say a lot about the future...

...Religious fundamentalism is going to be on the increase in the future and not just out there in the developing world..., but in the developed world as well.[17]

Desecularization as a powerful trends in the 21st century

Secularism/secularization/atheism is shrinking in irreligious areas

Growth of evangelical Christianity in irreligious regions

Europe and 21st century desecularization

Austria's census data permits demographers to perform analysis which indicates the secular population plateauing by 2050, or as early as 2021.[18]

See also: European desecularization in the 21st century

In April 2010, Kaufmann, who is an agnostic, declared "the rate of secularisation has flattened to zero in most of Protestant Europe and France."[19]

Conatus News reported in 2017:

Church of England worshippers increase 0.8 per cent since 2009. The number of non-religious people falls from 50.65% to 48.6%

Rise in Church of England worshippers likely due to resurgence in patriotism and pride in Christianity, a report has found

According to a new report, for every person brought up in a non-religious household who becomes a churchgoer, 26 people raised as Christians now identify as non-believers.

The study, which is based on an analysis of the British Social Attitudes Survey and the European Social Survey, reported that the proportion of non-religious in the UK hit a high of 50.6 per cent in 2009. However, it has been decreasing ever since and hit 48.6 per cent in 2015.

However, the proportion of those who identify as Church of England worshippers has seen a slight increased from 16.3 per cent in 2009 to 17.1 per cent in 2015.[20]

Concerning the future of religion/secularism in Europe, Eric Kaufmann also wrote:

We have performed these unprecedented analyses on several cases. Austria offers us a window into what the future holds. Its census question on religious affiliation permits us to perform cohort component projections, which show the secular population plateauing by 2050, or as early as 2021 if secularism fails to attract lapsed Christians and new Muslim immigrants at the same rate as it has in the past. (Goujon, Skirbekk et al. 2006).

This task will arguably become far more difficult as the supply of nominal Christians dries up while more secularisation-resistant Muslims and committed rump Christians comprise an increasing share of the population.[21]

Religious immigrants to Europe resistant to secularization

Conservative Protestants have relatively high fertility rates.[22] (Picture: Protestant church pulpit in Europe)

In 2011, a paper was published entitled The End of Secularization in Europe?: A Socio-Demographic Perspective. The authors of the paper were: Eric Kaufmann - Birkbeck College, University of London; Anne Goujon - World Population Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA); Vegard Skirbekk World Population Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).[23]

An excerpt from the paper by Kaufmann, Goujon and Skirbekk:

Conservative Protestants, a much larger group than the Mormons, also benefit from relatively high fertility. Hout et al. (2001) find that three-quarters of the growth of conservative Protestant denominations against their liberal counterparts is due to fertility advantage rather than conversion.

In Europe, there has been less attention paid to fertility differences between denominations. However, several studies have discovered that immigrants to Europe tend to be more religious than the host population and — especially if Muslim—tend to retain their religiosity (Van Tubergen 2006). Though some indicators point to modest religious decline toward the host society mean, other trends suggest that immigrants become more, rather than less, religious the longer they reside in the host society (Van Tubergen 2007). All of which indicates that religious decline may fail at the aggregate level even if it is occurring at the individual level (Kaufmann 2006, 2010). This article thereby investigates the hypothesis that a combination of higher religious fertility, immigration, and slowing rates of religious apostasy will eventually produce a reversal in the decline of the religious population of Western Europe.[24]

Research indicates that among ethnic minority immigrants religion is a source of group ethnic identification which makes them more resistant to secularization.[25] In most countries, with the exception of France, Muslim immigrants have nearly 100% retention rates for the second generation.[26]

Creationism and desecularization

See also: Global creationism

Since World War II a majority of the most prominent and vocal defenders of the evolutionary position which employs methodological naturalism have been atheists and agnostics.[27]

Johns Hopkins University Press reported in 2014: "Over the past forty years, creationism has spread swiftly among European Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Hindus, and Muslims, even as anti-creationists sought to smother its flames."[28] See also: Evolutionary indoctrination

Creationism is seeing rapid growth in the world (see: Global creationism).

Islamic laws against atheism and attacks by religious vigilantes

See also: Atheism vs. Islam

The growth of religious fundamentalism in Islamic countries due to religious fundamentalists having more children will likely result in anti-atheism laws being maintained and attacks by religious vigilantes against atheists increasing. For example, there have been a number of Islamic vigilante attacks against atheist Bangladesh bloggers (see: Attacks on Atheist Bloggers in Bangladesh). See also: History, violence, atheism and Islam

Islamic countries, atheism and the death penalty

See also: Atheism and the death penalty and Persecution of atheists and Capital punishment

In several Islamic countries or where Islam has significant influence, atheism is punishable by the death penalty.

In 2016, Siobhan Fenton wrote in the Independent:

In thirteen countries, you can be sentenced to death for not having a faith:
Mecca is a city in the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia, the capital of its Makkah Region.

1. Afghanistan

2. Iran

3. Malaysia

4. Maldives

5. Mauritania

6. Nigeria

7. Pakistan

8. Qatar

9. Saudi Arabia

10. Somalia

11. Sudan

12. United Arab Emirates

13. Yemen[29]

Atheism, news media and desecularization

See also: Atheism and the media

In the past, the news media provided a significant effect on the cultures in terms of promoting/defending atheism, but widespread distrust of the media is now very prevalent (see: Atheism and the media).

With declining newspaper profits of newspapers and an increase in religiosity in many cultures, the news media will have a smaller role in preventing desecularization.

Social media and the social ostracism of atheists in religious societies

See also: Social media and social ostracism of atheists

Psychology Today reports about social media:

...social media has caused us to shift away from expressing our self-identities and toward constructing facades based on the answers to these questions, "How will others look at me?" and "How can I ensure that others view me positively?" The goal for many now in their use of social media becomes how they can curry acceptance, popularity, status, and, by extension, self-esteem through their profiles and postings. Self-awareness and self-expression give way to impression management and self-promotion.[30]

Buzzfeed reported about social media and the social ostracism of atheists in Bengladesh:

In 2013, after the murder of atheist blogger Rajib Haidar Shovon [one of several such murders in Bangladesh in recent years], I, along with other activists, bloggers, and campaigners, was targeted by the Islamists. They declared us atheists and wanted us dead. Old friends unfriended and blocked me on Facebook, very close relatives stopped contacting me, and some even threatened me to make me stop.[31]

Karen Garst wrote in her book Women Beyond Belief: Discovering Life Without Religion: "...people stopped talking to me, and some even unfriended me on social media."[32]

Past secularization in geographic regions through communism

According to the University of Cambridge, historically, the "most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power."[33]

Communist countries have extensively used atheist indoctrination and persecution of religious people in order to increase social pressure on religious individuals (see: Communism and religious persecution).

Communism has had a significant effect on the growth/sustaining of atheism, but now that influence is greatly waning as can be seen by the articles below:

See also

Notes

  1. http://www.christianpost.com/news/study-atheists-have-lowest-retention-rate-compared-to-religious-groups-78029/ Study: Atheists Have Lowest 'Retention Rate' Compared to Religious Groups
  2. Asch Conformity Experiment
  3. Introduction to Psychology: Asch conformity studies (Asch line studies)
  4. Religion and the State in Russia and China: Suppression, Survival and Revival by Christopher Marsh, 2011, page 11 (Christopher Marsh cites the definitions of desecularization given by Peter L. Berger and Vyacheslav Karpov)
  5. Dawkins: Mock them. Ridicule them! In public
  6. Dawkins: Mock them. Ridicule them! In public
  7. Reddit Atheists Have New Leadership After Turbulent Coup
  8. Why is everyone mocking atheism all of a sudden?, Reddit post
  9. Atheism is Rising, But…, American Interest
  10. Study: Atheists Have Lowest 'Retention Rate' Compared to Religious Groups
  11. Study: Atheists Have Lowest 'Retention Rate' Compared to Religious Groups
  12. Another atheist myth
  13. Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020
  14. Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020
  15. 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious, Tuesday, April 30, 2013
  16. Eric Kaufmann - Religion, Demography and Politics in the 21st Century
  17. Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann
  18. [http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2013/03/british-academic-eric-kaufmann-says.html British academic Eric Kaufmann says "the rate of secularisation has flattened to zero in most of Protestant Europe and France".
  19. British Patriotism Sees Number of Anglicans Rise and the Non-Religious Fall, Conatus News , 2017
  20. Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann
  21. Religious immigrants will alter the religious landscape of Europe
  22. Religious immigrants will alter the religious landscape of Europe
  23. Religious immigrants will alter the religious landscape of Europe
  24. Eric Kaufmann - Religion, Demography and Politics in the 21st Century
  25. Eric Kaufmann - Religion, Demography and Politics in the 21st Century
  26. Creationism spreading in Europe
  27. The 13 countries where being an atheist is punishable by death by Siobhan Fenton, Indepednent
  28. Technology: Is Technology Stealing Our (Self) Identities?, Psychology Today, 2011
  29. How It Feels To Be An Atheist In A Highly Religious Society, Buzzfeed
  30. Women Beyond Belief: Discovering Life Without Religion by Karen Garst, 2016
  31. Investigating atheism: Marxism. University of Cambridge (2008). Retrieved on July 17, 2014. “The most notable spread of atheism was achieved through the success of the 1917 Russian Revolution, which brought the Marxist-Leninists to power. For the first time in history, atheism thus became the official ideology of a state.”