Female genital mutilation
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), sometimes referred to euphemistically as "female circumcision", refers to various forms of permanent and harmful operations performed on girls or women in some parts of the non-Christian world.
Female genital mutilation is extremely rare in the West, but is widely practised in parts of Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa, especially where traditionalist and fundamentalist Islam predominates.
- ... practitioners look on it as an integral part of their cultural and ethnic identity, and some perceive it as a religious obligation Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage Or Violation of Rights? - Guttmacher Institute
The mutilation is usually carried out when the girl is prepubescent, often forcibly and against her wishes. It can cause many potential genito-urinary complications, including infection, urinary incontinence, and increased risk of problems during future childbirth.
- World Health Organisation on Female Genital Mutilation