Difference between revisions of "Globalism"

From Conservapedia
Jump to: navigation, search
(Spelling, Grammar, and General Cleanup)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[File:United Nations flag.png|thumb|300px|Flag of the [[United Nations]]]]
+
{{distinguish|Globalization}}
[[File:European Union flag.png|thumb|300px|The [[European Union]] is one of the numerous globalist, left-wing organizations in the world.]]
+
{{bad lead|date=October 2016}}
:''For the main and ultimate goal of globalism, see [[One-world government]]''
+
'''Globalism''' is a group of ideologies that advocate the concept of [[globalization]].
{{See also|War on Sovereignty}}
+
'''Globalism''' is the failed [[liberal]] [[authoritarian]] desire for a "one world" view that rejects the important role of nations in protecting values and encouraging productivity.  Globalism is anti-[[America]]n in encouraging Americans to adopt a "world view" rather than an "American view." The ultimate goal of globalism is the eventual unification of humanity under a [[one-world government]].
+
  
Globalists oppose [[nationalism]], [[national sovereignty]], and [[self-governance]]. Instead, they favor [[open borders]], [[free trade]], [[H-1B visas]], interventionism, foreign aid, and changing the [[U.S. Constitution]]. They oppose strong border security and the building of [[border wall]]s. Globalists virulently opposed [[Donald Trump]] in 2016. Instead, globalists preferred [[Jeb Bush]], [[John Kasich]], [[Marco Rubio]] and [[Ted Cruz]] for the nomination, the latter of which have voted in favor of the globalist agenda as senators.  Globalists can come from several political leanings, from the far-left to those considered on the right-of-center.<ref>Leahy, Michael Patrick (October 31, 2017). [http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2017/10/31/paul-singer-and-george-soros-billionaire-bookends-of-globalist-opposition-to-trump-agenda/ Paul Singer and George Soros: Billionaire Bookends of Globalist Opposition to Trump Agenda]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved November 1, 2017.</ref> [[George Soros]] and the [[Koch brothers]] are globalists.
+
== Definitions and interpretations ==
 +
[[Paul James (academic)|Paul James]] defines ''globalism'', "at least in its more specific use, ... as the dominant ideology and [[subjectivity]] associated with different historically-dominant formations of global extension. The definition thus implies that there were pre-modern or traditional forms of globalism and globalization long before the driving force of capitalism sought to colonize every corner of the globe, for example, going back to the [[Roman Empire]] in the second century CE, and perhaps to the [[Ancient Greece|Greeks]] of the fifth-century BCE."<ref>Paul James, ''Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back in'' (SAGE, 2006), p. 22.</ref>
  
Liberals support globalism because it leads to centralized power, thereby providing liberals with an easier way to gain control. Liberals can more easily persuade a handful of people in centralized government to rule in their favor than convince everyone of their agenda in a decentralized form of government. Goals of [[America]]n globalists include:
+
Manfred Steger distinguishes between different globalisms such as justice globalism, jihad globalism, and market globalism.<ref>{{Harvnb|Steger|2008|p={{Page needed|date=October 2014}}}}.</ref> Market globalism includes the ideology of [[neoliberalism]]. In some hands, the reduction of globalism to the single ideology of market globalism and neoliberalism has led to confusion. For example, in his 2005 book ''[[John Ralston Saul#The Collapse of Globalism|The Collapse of Globalism and the Reinvention of the World]]'', Canadian philosopher [[John Ralston Saul]] treated globalism as coterminous with neoliberalism and neoliberal globalization. He argued that, far from being an inevitable force, globalization is already breaking up into contradictory pieces and that citizens are reasserting their [[national interest]]s in both positive and destructive ways.
*"harmonizing" our laws with foreign ones, rather than vice-versa
+
*[[amnesty]] for [[illegal alien]]s, [[open borders]], no [[border wall]]
+
*more visas for guest workers
+
*repealing the [[Second Amendment]]
+
*eliminating the [[abortion]] issue from politics by making ''[[Roe v. Wade]]'' permanent
+
*repealing the [[Electoral College]]
+
*a parliamentary style of government
+
*repealing the [[Treaty Clause]]
+
*supporting many unnecessary treaties, like [[NAFTA]] and the [[Paris climate agreement]], which don't receive Senate approval
+
*removing state sovereignty and, eventually, establishing a [[one-world government]]
+
  
European globalists (also known as [[Europhile]]s) have similar goals, including the removal of national sovereignty and eventually establishing a politically unified Europe and world government,<ref>Newman, Alex (August 20, 2013). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/item/16343-the-eu-regionalization-trumps-sovereignty The EU: Regionalization Trumps Sovereignty]. ''The New American''. Retrieved November 25, 2017.</ref> encouraging mass migration from countries that do not share the values of the European host countries, and the support of [[crony capitalism]].
+
Alternatively, American political scientist [[Joseph Nye]], co-founder of the [[international relations theory]] of [[Neoliberalism in international relations|neoliberalism]], generalized the term to argue that ''globalism'' refers to any description and explanation of a world which is characterized by [[Network theory|networks of connections]] that span multi-continental distances; while [[globalization]] refers to the increase or decline in the degree of globalism.<ref name="Nye 2002">{{Harvnb|Nye|2002}}.</ref> This use of the term originated in, and continues to be used, in academic debates about the economic, social, and cultural developments that is described as globalization.<ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1111/j.1468-2486.2007.00670.x | volume=9 | title=The Third Wave in Globalization Theory | journal=International Studies Review | pages=173–196 | last1 = Martell | first1 = Luke}}</ref> The term is used in a specific and narrow way to describe a position in the debate about the historical character of globalization (i.e. whether globalization is unprecedented or not).
  
Theologically conservative/orthodox Christians believe that the ultimate reason for the push for globalism and one-world government is rebellion against God leading up to the [[Antichrist]] – rather than submit to God and recognize that only He can unite the world and bring world peace, liberal globalists seek to create utopia themselves and glorify humanity rather than God.<ref>Hohmann, Leo (October 16, 2016). [http://www.wnd.com/2016/10/is-globalism-actually-demonic/ Is Globalism Actually Demonic?] ''WND''. Retrieved December 26, 2017.<br>
+
== History of the concept ==
See also:
+
The word itself came into widespread usage, first and foremost in the United States, from the early 1940s.<ref>{{Cite web | title = ''globalism'' in American-English corpus, 1800–2000 | url = https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=globalism&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=17&smoothing=0 | website = [[Google Ngram Viewer]] | accessdate = 24 October 2014 }}<p>Compare this with ''globalism'' in the [https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=globalism&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=18&smoothing=0 British-English corpus], where its appearance is later and much more muted.</ref> This was the period when US global power was at its peak: the country was the greatest economic power the world had ever known, with the greatest military machine in human history.<ref name="Leffler 67">{{Harvnb|Leffler|2010|p=67}}.</ref> Or, as [[George F. Kennan|George Kennan]]'s [[Policy Planning Staff (United States)|Policy Planning Staff]] put it in February 1948: "[W]e have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3% of its population. […] Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity".<ref name="DoS 524">{{Harvnb|DoS|1948|p=[http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&id=FRUS.FRUS1948v01p2&entity=FRUS.FRUS1948v01p2.p0034 524]}}.</ref> America's allies and foes in [[Eurasia]] were, of course, at this time suffering the dreadful effects of World War II.
*[https://www.gotquestions.org/Christian-globalization.html Should a Christian be opposed to globalization?] ''[[GotQuestions]]''. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
+
*[https://www.gotquestions.org/one-world-government.html Does the Bible prophesy a one-world government and a one-world currency in the end times?] ''[[GotQuestions]]''. Retrieved December 26, 2017.</ref>
+
  
According to the Oxford American Dictionary, '''globalism''' is the advocacy of "the interpretation or planning of economic and foreign policy in relation to events and developments throughout the world."  In its most extreme forms, it is sometimes expressed using terms such as "one world," support for a single world government, and/or terms such as "world citizen" or "global citizen."  Some globalist groups such as the World Federalist Movement, and some non-Christian religions such as [[Bahai]], actively campaign for world government.  "Global" is a currently fashionable term in [[business]], where the term "international" would be more appropriate usage; the term "international" implies business operations between a few countries, while "global" implies worldwide business, making it an adequate term for some forms of business that do operate across the world. Many aspects of globalism fall under the umbrella of [[globalization]], which refers to how local phenomena can become global phenomena.
+
In their position of unprecedented power, US planners formulated policies to shape the kind of postwar world they wanted, which, in economic terms, meant a globe-spanning capitalist order centered exclusively upon the United States.<ref>{{Harvnb|Kolko|Kolko|1972|p=}}.<p>One American historian has gone as far as to describe this particular American version of globalism as ''visionary'', in order to highlight its potently ideological nature—indeed, "Washington's most impressive Cold War ideological achievement". Visionary globalism was a far-reaching conception of "American-centric state globalism using capitalism as a key to its global reach, integrating everything that it can into such an undertaking". And "integrating everything" crucially meant global ''economic'' integration, which had collapsed under the blows of World War I and the Great Depression. ({{Harvnb|Peck|2006|p=[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=AA-jbmyfl54C&pg=PA19 19], [https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=AA-jbmyfl54C&pg=PA21 21]}})</ref>
  
The term "global" looks at the world as a single cohesive unit while the term "international" better recognizes the world's different countries, different cultures, different languages, different ethnicities, and national borders. Thus the two terms are not the same thing and using them interchangeably is often incorrect; however, it should be noted that the two are not mutually exclusive.
+
The first person in the United States to use the term ''[[economic integration]]'' in its modern sense (i.e. combining separate economies into larger economic regions) did so at this time: one John S. de Beers, an economist in the US Treasury Department, towards the end of 1941.<ref name="Machlup 8">{{Harvnb|Machlup|1977|p=8}}.</ref> By 1948, ''economic integration'' was appearing in an increasing number of American documents and speeches.<ref name="Machlup 11">{{Harvnb|Machlup|1977|p=11}}.</ref> [[Paul G. Hoffman|Paul Hoffman]], then head of the [[Economic Cooperation Administration]], made the most marked use of the term in a 1949 speech to the [[Organisation for European Economic Co-operation]].<ref name="Machlup 11" /> As ''[[The New York Times]]'' put it,
  
Globalism also involves the theory of a "global economy" in which the economic achievements of most if not all nations are interdependent with those of other nations around the world because of international trade. This is possible because of recent technological inventions such as the internet. For example, a farmer in [[Ghana]] can now be insured that he is paid the standard market price for a particular crop because of the standards set in Chicago which he can check with a telephone or internet connection.
+
{{Quote| Mr Hoffmann used the word 'integration' fifteen times or almost once to every hundred words of his speech. It is a word that rarely if ever has been used by European statesmen having to do with the Marshall Plan to describe what should happen to Europe's economies. It was remarked that no such term or goal was included in the commitments the European nations gave in agreeing to the Marshall Plan. Consequently it appeared to the Europeans that "integration" was an American doctrine that had been superimposed upon the mutual engagements made when the Marshall Plan began&nbsp;…<ref>{{Harvnb|Machlup|1977|p=11}}; {{Harvnb|Veseth|2002|pp=[https://books.google.com/books?id=8u99zWdAElUC&pg=PA170 170–1]}}, where the ''Times'' article is reprinted.</ref> }}
  
Bhagwati (2004) explains how globalization has delivered a better standard of living in less developed countries, and how experiments with protectionist "import substitution" policies have systematically failed.  he demonstrates that anti-globalism comprises a discontented brew of anti-capitalism, anti-corporatism, and anti-Americanism. His case that globalization has benefited the poor uses a two-step argument: trade enhances economic growth, and growth reduces poverty. He contrasts the failure of protectionism to deliver prosperity in post-colonial India and other countries with the progress and development in East Asia and other more outward-oriented countries. The growth spurred by globalization has not only expanded the pie but has done so in a way that is "socially benign" and possesses "a human face," says Bhagwati.  Bhagwati refutes the liberal argument — heard frequently in the Democrat primary debates — that the U.S. must impose labor and environmental standards on poor countries in any future trade agreements.  On the contrary, he shows that U.S. multinationals do not seek out less developed countries with low standards; instead they locate most of their affiliates in other high-wage, high-standard countries, and when they do invest in poor countries, they invariably pay wages and maintain standards far above those prevailing in the local economy. The result is not a "race to the bottom," but a race to the top. An inescapable implication is that if the Democrats succeed in withholding U.S. trade and investment from poor countries because they are poor, it will mean slower growth in those countries: fewer girls studying in school, and more working in farms, factories, and brothels.<ref>See the [http://www.nationalreview.com/books/griswold200406010921.asp review by Daniel T. Griswold, "The Road to Wealth," ''National Review'' April 19, 2004]</ref>
+
While ideologies of the global have a long history, globalism emerged as a dominant set of associated ideologies across the course of the late twentieth century. As these ideologies settled, and as various processes of [[globalization]] intensified, they contributed to the consolidation of a connecting global imaginary.<ref>{{Harvnb|Steger|2008}}.</ref> In their recent writings, [[Manfred Steger]] and [[Paul James (academic)|Paul James]] have theorized this process in terms of four levels of change: changing ideas, ideologies, imaginaries and ontologies.<ref>{{Harvnb|James|Steger|2010}}.</ref>
  
==Developments towards a one world government==
+
== See also ==
:''Main article: [[One-world government]]''
+
{{div col|3}}
 +
*[[Anti-globalization movement]]
 +
*[[Antisemitism]]
 +
*[[Cosmopolitanism]]
 +
*[[Cultural globalization]]
 +
*[[Dimensions of globalization]]
 +
*[[Global capitalism]]
 +
*[[Global warming]]
 +
*[[Information Age]]
 +
*[[Internationalism (politics)|Internationalism]]
 +
*[[Isolationism]]
 +
*[[Neoconservatism]]
 +
*[[New World Order (conspiracy theory)]]
 +
*[[New world order (politics)]]
 +
*[[Post-industrial society]]
 +
*[[Power elite]]
 +
*[[Ruling class]]
 +
*[[United Nations]]
 +
{{div col end}}
  
==Quotations==
+
== References ==
*There are four distinct dimensions of globalism: [[economic]], [[military]], [[environmental]] — and [[social]]. [http://www.theglobalist.com/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=2392]
+
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
*Globalization implies neither equity — nor homogenization. In fact, it is equally likely to amplify differences — or at least make people more aware of them. [ibid]
+
*On the United Nations: Large majorities approve of strengthening the United Nations by giving it the power to have its own standing peacekeeping force, regulate the international arms trade and investigate [[human rights]] abuses. [http://www.infowars.net/articles/june2007/250607study.htm]
+
  
==See also==
+
== Further reading ==
* [[Nationalism vs. globalism]]
+
*{{Ankerl Guy; Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations.}} INUPRESS; Geneva , 2000,
* [[Globalization]]
+
{{ISBN|2-88155-004-5}}
* [[Nationalism]]
+
{{Refbegin|30em}}
* [[Euroskepticism]]
+
* {{Cite book | last = James | first = Paul |authorlink= Paul James (academic) | year = 2006 | title= Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In | url = http://www.academia.edu/1642214/Globalism_Nationalism_Tribalism_Bringing_Theory_Back_In_author_Sage_Publications_London_2006 | location = London | publisher = Sage Publications | ref = harv }}
* [[Cultural Marxism]]
+
* {{Cite book | last1 = James | first1 = Paul | last2 = Steger | first2 = Manfred B. | year = 2010 | title = Globalization and Culture, Volume IV: Ideologies of Globalism | url = http://www.academia.edu/4510893/Globalization_and_Culture_Vol._4_Ideologies_of_Globalism_2010_ | location = London | publisher = Sage Publications | ref = harv }}
* [[United Nations]]
+
* {{Cite book | last1 = Kolko | first1 = Joyce | last2 = Kolko | first2 = Gabriel | author2-link = Gabriel Kolko | year = 1972 | title = The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945–1954 | location = New York, NY | publisher = [[Harper & Row]] | isbn = 978-0-06-012447-2 | ref = harv }}
* [[Previous Breaking News/United Nations|Articles about the '''United Nations''' from previous "In the news"]]
+
* {{Cite book | last = Leffler | first = Melvyn P. | authorlink = Melvyn P. Leffler | year = 2010 | chapter = The emergence of an American grand strategy, 1945–1952 | title = ''In Melvyn P. Leffler and [[Odd Arne Westad]], eds.,'' The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1: Origins ''(pp.&nbsp;67–89)'' | location = Cambridge | publisher = Cambridge University Press | isbn = 978-0-521-83719-4  | ref = harv }}
* [[League of Nations]]
+
* {{Cite book | last = Machlup | first = Fritz | authorlink = Fritz Machlup | year = 1977 | title = A History of Thought on Economic Integration | location = New York, NY | publisher = Columbia University Press | isbn = 0-231-04298-1 | ref = harv }}
 +
* {{Cite web | last = Nye | first = Joseph | authorlink = Joseph Nye | date = 15 April 2002 | title = Globalism Versus Globalization | url = http://www.theglobalist.com/globalism-versus-globalization/ | website = The Globalist | accessdate = 27 October 2014 | ref = harv }}
 +
* {{Cite book | last = Peck | first = James | year = 2006 | title = Washington's China: The National Security World, the Cold War, and the Origins of Globalism | location = Amherst, MA | publisher = University of Massachusetts Press | isbn = 978-1-55849-536-4 | ref = harv }}
 +
* {{Cite book | last = Steger | first = Manfred B. | year = 2008 | title = The Rise of the Global Imaginary: Political Ideologies from the French Revolution to the Global War on Terror | location = Oxford | publisher = Oxford University Press | ref = harv | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=0EL9cBiHdMsC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=globalism&f=false}}
 +
* {{Cite book | last = Steger | first = Manfred B. | year = 2009 | title = Globalism: The New Market Ideology | edition = 3rd | location = Lanham, MD | publisher = Rowman & Littlefield | ref = harv }}
 +
* {{Cite book | author = United States Department of State | authorlink = United States Department of State | year = 1948 | title = Foreign Relations, 1948: Volume I, Part 2 | url = http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=header&id=FRUS.FRUS1948v01p2&isize=M | location = Washington, DC | publisher = US Government | ref = {{Harvid|DoS|1948}} }}
 +
* {{Cite book | editor-last = Veseth |editor-first = Michael | year = 2002 | title = The Rise of the Global Economy | series = ''The New York Times'' 20th Century in Review | location = Chicago, IL | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers | isbn = 978-1-57958-369-9 | ref = harv }}
 +
{{Refend}}
  
==External links==
+
== External links ==
*[http://www.un.org/ United Nations] - Official site
+
{{Refbegin}}
 +
*[http://www.polyarchy.org/essays/english/globalism.html Globalism/Antiglobalism: a survey and a view]
 +
{{Refend}}
  
===Sites critical of the U.N. and globalism===
+
{{World government}}
*[http://www.unwatch.org UN Watch]
+
{{Globalization|state=autocollapse}}
*[http://www.unisevil.com/temp213.htm UN is Evil]
+
*[http://www.aim.org/wls/category/united-nations/ What Liberals Say - Category: United Nations], [[Accuracy In Media]]
+
* [http://www.americanthinker.com/2009/10/un_agenda_21_coming_to_a_neigh.html American Thinker explanation]
+
  
===Further reading on the topic matter===
+
[[Category:Ideologies]]
*[https://www.gotquestions.org/one-world-government.html Does the Bible prophesy a one-world government and a one-world currency in the end times?] ''[[GotQuestions]]''. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
+
[[Category:International relations theory]]
*[https://www.gotquestions.org/new-world-order.html What is the New World Order?] ''[[GotQuestions]]''. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
+
[[Category:Globalism| ]]
*[https://www.gotquestions.org/Christian-globalization.html Should a Christian be opposed to globalization?] ''[[GotQuestions]]''. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
+
[[Category:Globalization]]
*[https://www.gotquestions.org/United-Nations-end-times.html Does the Bible say the United Nations will have a role in the end times?] ''[[GotQuestions]]''. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
+
[[Category:Postmodernism]]
 
+
[[Category:Social theories]]
==Further reading==
+
[[Category:World government]]
* Jagdish Bhagwati, ''In Defense of Globalization'' (2004)
+
 
+
==References==
+
{{reflist}}
+
 
+
{{Liberalism}}
+
 
+
[[Category:Globalism]]
+

Revision as of 23:04, 19 January 2018

Template:Distinguish Template:Bad lead Globalism is a group of ideologies that advocate the concept of globalization.

Definitions and interpretations

Paul James defines globalism, "at least in its more specific use, ... as the dominant ideology and subjectivity associated with different historically-dominant formations of global extension. The definition thus implies that there were pre-modern or traditional forms of globalism and globalization long before the driving force of capitalism sought to colonize every corner of the globe, for example, going back to the Roman Empire in the second century CE, and perhaps to the Greeks of the fifth-century BCE."[1]

Manfred Steger distinguishes between different globalisms such as justice globalism, jihad globalism, and market globalism.[2] Market globalism includes the ideology of neoliberalism. In some hands, the reduction of globalism to the single ideology of market globalism and neoliberalism has led to confusion. For example, in his 2005 book The Collapse of Globalism and the Reinvention of the World, Canadian philosopher John Ralston Saul treated globalism as coterminous with neoliberalism and neoliberal globalization. He argued that, far from being an inevitable force, globalization is already breaking up into contradictory pieces and that citizens are reasserting their national interests in both positive and destructive ways.

Alternatively, American political scientist Joseph Nye, co-founder of the international relations theory of neoliberalism, generalized the term to argue that globalism refers to any description and explanation of a world which is characterized by networks of connections that span multi-continental distances; while globalization refers to the increase or decline in the degree of globalism.[3] This use of the term originated in, and continues to be used, in academic debates about the economic, social, and cultural developments that is described as globalization.[4] The term is used in a specific and narrow way to describe a position in the debate about the historical character of globalization (i.e. whether globalization is unprecedented or not).

History of the concept

The word itself came into widespread usage, first and foremost in the United States, from the early 1940s.[5] This was the period when US global power was at its peak: the country was the greatest economic power the world had ever known, with the greatest military machine in human history.[6] Or, as George Kennan's Policy Planning Staff put it in February 1948: "[W]e have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3% of its population. […] Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity".[7] America's allies and foes in Eurasia were, of course, at this time suffering the dreadful effects of World War II.

In their position of unprecedented power, US planners formulated policies to shape the kind of postwar world they wanted, which, in economic terms, meant a globe-spanning capitalist order centered exclusively upon the United States.[8]

The first person in the United States to use the term economic integration in its modern sense (i.e. combining separate economies into larger economic regions) did so at this time: one John S. de Beers, an economist in the US Treasury Department, towards the end of 1941.[9] By 1948, economic integration was appearing in an increasing number of American documents and speeches.[10] Paul Hoffman, then head of the Economic Cooperation Administration, made the most marked use of the term in a 1949 speech to the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation.[10] As The New York Times put it,

Mr Hoffmann used the word 'integration' fifteen times or almost once to every hundred words of his speech. It is a word that rarely if ever has been used by European statesmen having to do with the Marshall Plan to describe what should happen to Europe's economies. It was remarked that no such term or goal was included in the commitments the European nations gave in agreeing to the Marshall Plan. Consequently it appeared to the Europeans that "integration" was an American doctrine that had been superimposed upon the mutual engagements made when the Marshall Plan began …[11]

~ {{{2}}}

While ideologies of the global have a long history, globalism emerged as a dominant set of associated ideologies across the course of the late twentieth century. As these ideologies settled, and as various processes of globalization intensified, they contributed to the consolidation of a connecting global imaginary.[12] In their recent writings, Manfred Steger and Paul James have theorized this process in terms of four levels of change: changing ideas, ideologies, imaginaries and ontologies.[13]

See also

Template:Div col

Template:Div col end

References

  1. Paul James, Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back in (SAGE, 2006), p. 22.
  2. Steger 2008, p. Template:Page needed.
  3. Nye 2002.
  4. Martell, Luke. "The Third Wave in Globalization Theory". International Studies Review 9: 173–196. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2486.2007.00670.x. 
  5. globalism in American-English corpus, 1800–2000. Retrieved on 24 October 2014.

    Compare this with globalism in the British-English corpus, where its appearance is later and much more muted.</span> </li>

  6. Leffler 2010, p. 67.
  7. DoS 1948, p. 524.
  8. Kolko & Kolko 1972.<p>One American historian has gone as far as to describe this particular American version of globalism as visionary, in order to highlight its potently ideological nature—indeed, "Washington's most impressive Cold War ideological achievement". Visionary globalism was a far-reaching conception of "American-centric state globalism using capitalism as a key to its global reach, integrating everything that it can into such an undertaking". And "integrating everything" crucially meant global economic integration, which had collapsed under the blows of World War I and the Great Depression. (Peck 2006, p. 19, 21)
  9. Machlup 1977, p. 8.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Machlup 1977, p. 11.
  11. Machlup 1977, p. 11; Veseth 2002, pp. 170–1, where the Times article is reprinted.
  12. Steger 2008.
  13. James & Steger 2010.
  14. </ol>

Further reading

Template:ISBN Template:Refbegin

James, Paul (2006). Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In. London: Sage Publications. 

(2010) Globalization and Culture, Volume IV: Ideologies of Globalism. London: Sage Publications. 

(1972) The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945–1954. New York, NY: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-012447-2. 

Leffler, Melvyn P. (2010). "The emergence of an American grand strategy, 1945–1952", In Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, eds., The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1: Origins (pp. 67–89). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83719-4. 

Machlup, Fritz (1977). A History of Thought on Economic Integration. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04298-1. 

Peck, James (2006). Washington's China: The National Security World, the Cold War, and the Origins of Globalism. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-536-4. 

Steger, Manfred B. (2008). The Rise of the Global Imaginary: Political Ideologies from the French Revolution to the Global War on Terror. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Steger, Manfred B. (2009). Globalism: The New Market Ideology, 3rd, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 

United States Department of State (1948). Foreign Relations, 1948: Volume I, Part 2. Washington, DC: US Government. 

(2002) The Rise of the Global Economy, The New York Times 20th Century in Review. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57958-369-9.  Template:Refend

External links

Template:Refbegin

Template:Refend

Template:World government Template:Globalization