Difference between revisions of "Heinrich Himmler"
m (→War Years)
m (→Waffen SS in combat)
|Line 29:||Line 29:|
===Waffen SS in combat===
===WaffenSS in combat===
Himmler had dreams of his own army, which were strenuously opposed by the regular army. He managed to field three division of the '''Waffen SS''' on the eastern front in 1941-42; their ferocity impressed Hitler and the SS was allowed to recruit volunteers directly from devoted Nazi youth groups. The Wehrmacht, however, intensely disliked the SS troops, so Himmler had to use his negotiating skills directly with Hitler to remove his SS formations from army control. The compromise was that SS generals took orders from the army, and in turn commanded their SS troops.<ref> Burleigh 438ff </ref> By the end of the war, Himmler's SS supplied 38 Waffen-SS divisions comprising volunteers from the Hitler Youth and from other countries across Europe. The Waffen-SS was noted for its fanaticism, brutality, and war crimes.
Himmler had dreams of his own army, which were strenuously opposed by the regular army. He managed to field three division of the '''WaffenSS''' on the eastern front in 1941-42; their ferocity impressed Hitler and the SS was allowed to recruit volunteers directly from devoted Nazi youth groups. The Wehrmacht, however, intensely disliked the SS troops, so Himmler had to use his negotiating skills directly with Hitler to remove his SS formations from army control. The compromise was that SS generals took orders from the army, and in turn commanded their SS troops.<ref> Burleigh 438ff </ref> By the end of the war, Himmler's SS supplied 38 Waffen-SS divisions comprising volunteers from the Hitler Youthand from other countries across Europe. The Waffen-SS was noted for its fanaticism, brutality, and war crimes.
In July 1944, after the failed army plot against Hitler's life, Himmler reached the apex of his power. With the added position of
In July 1944, after the failed army plot against Hitler's life, Himmler reached the apex of his power. With the added position of in of the German Home Forces, he became on paper, the most powerful man in Germany, rivaling in many aspects the power of Hitler.<ref>Padfield (1990)</ref>
Revision as of 20:46, 29 December 2012
Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945), German Nazi Party leader, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) troops and of the dreaded Gestapo (Secret state police). Starting from a junior position in the SS, by 1941 he was the second most powerful Nazi and designed many of the National Socialist programs. His loyalty to Hitler (until near the end), combined with his organizational skills, ambition, and his sadistic nature, made him one of the most notorious war criminals of World War II. As chief of police for all of Germany, Himmler was responsible for establishing concentration camps and death camps. Himmler oversaw the Holocaust, the mass murder of 6 million Jews. During the war he built up the military strength of his SS, which became a de facto fourth branch of the German military. After Hitler dismissed him from all his offices in April 1945, Himmler was captured at war's end by the British Army. However, he committed suicide before the Allies could put him on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials.
Himmler was born near Munich on October 7, 1900. His father Gebhard Himmler was a teacher and his mother a Roman Catholic. Himmler was the middle child of the family. He had an older brother, Gebhard (born 1898) and a younger brother, Ernst (born 1905).
A leading psychohistorian, UCLA Professor Peter Loewenberg, has attempted a retrospective psychoanalysis of Himmler's childhood and youth, using his diaries, shows him to have been systematic, rigid, controlled, and blocked of affect. His character structure was of the obsessive-compulsive schizoid type, meaning withdrawn emotionally from the external world and existing in a repressed internal psychic world. He used his diary to guard against feelings rather than to express them. The period 1919-22 was marked by acute identity diffusion. His sexual, social, vocational, and religious identities were in flux. The diary shows gender role confusion, a desire to emigrate from Germany, vacillation between animal husbandry and a bourgeois vocation, and strong conflict on the issue of dueling, which contravened his Roman Catholic faith. Himmler, as an adolescent, was a conventional rather than pathological anti-Semite. He acquired virulent anti-Semitism after 1919 because of his identification with nationalistic xenophobic paramilitary groups. He joined the Nazi Party in 1923 and the SS in 1925. Himmler became a professional bureaucrat par excellence. As Reichsführer-SS, he carried out the most sadistic orders without any show of feeling. Thus the flat, cold, emotionally colorless, adolescent Himmler became a writing desk murderer as an adult - a consistency that relates the child to the man.
He attended the Technical College in Munich and enlisted with the reserve battalion of the Eleventh Bavarian Infantry Regiment in late 1917. He served during World War I as a clerk and was disappointed he did not see any combat service before the war ended in November 1918. He joined the ranks of a nationalistic paramilitary group known as the Reichskriegsflagge (Imperial War Flag) in 1919. Its leader was future chief of the Nazi SA storm troopers, Ernst Röhm. This paramilitary group was closely affiliated with the Nazi Party. Himmler also joined the Nazi Party in August 1923. He took part in the Beer Hall Putsch of November 1923. After the failure of the Putsch to seize power, Himmler returned home after losing his job over taking part in the event. Soon after, he became a propaganda assistant in the Nazi Party, serving under Gregor Strasser in Bavaria. He then was promoted to being charge of the party office in the area. In 1925, Himmler joined the SS and by January 1929 he was appointed the fourth leader of the SS. He went on to become its longest and most influential leader. By the time he took over, it was made up of only 280 men and considered an elite bodyguard.
Third Reich: 1933-39
Himmler proved the most successful empire-builder in the Nazi movement, enlarging his powers and range of activity every year.
When Hitler came to power in January 1933, Himmler controlled the 50,000-man "Protection Squad" or "Schutzstaffel", called the SS. In March Himmler became the Polizeipräsident in Munich. In late 1933 the political police in Prussia were made the "Preussiche Geheime Staatspolizei" (the Gestapo), under the control of the Prussian Ministry of Interior, Hermann Goering and not yet under Himmler. In 1933-34, Himmler and Heydrich took over the political police departments in each German state until only Prussia was left. On April 20, 1934, Goering handed over the Gestapo to Himmler. He appointed SD chief Reinhard Heydrich, his second in command, the director of the Gestapo. On June 17, 1936, Hitler appointed Himmler chief of German police in the Ministry of Interior; he formed the (Sicherheitspolizei or SiPo) (the security police). The SiPo was made up of two sub-branches, the Kriminalpolizei (national criminal police) and the Gestapo, under Heydrich's overall command. The first official concentration camp was set up by Himmler in March 1933. By 1936 Himmler's SS opened 17 concentration camps for political prisoners (these were different from the death camps opened after 1941).
At first Ernst Röhm's SA ("brownshirts"), with 2.9 million members, was much larger and more powerful part of the Nazi party than Himmler's SS ("blackshirts"). That suddenly changed in June 1934 as a result of a power struggle between the SA, which had a more radical vision than Hitler would tolerate, and a coalition of Himmler, Göring, the army and big business. The army feared the SA would absorb it into its ranks or become a people's army. Himmler and Heydrich prepared the list of Röhm's associates who were executed or imprisoned in the "Night of Long Knives" which took place between June 30 and July 2, 1934. Himmler and his SS gained enormously; the SS was now its own branch and Himmler reported only to Hitler.
Himmler created a powerful "state within a state" as the the SS acquired more than forty businesses with some 150 plants and factories. Together with money and valuables seized from Jews they paid for the Holocaust and financed the training and equipping of 38 SS divisions.
At first Himmler's SS was underfunded because his enemies in the party controlled the money. As late as 1938, only 3,500 of 14,000 SS officers received monthly pay; the rest were volunteers. Himmler turned to the concentration camps--not yet killing camps--to raise money. Prisoners could be ransomed for a large sum; others had to pay for their keep. Factories were set up in the camps as the prisoners became slave laborers for commercial enterprises owned by the SS. For example the Gesellschaft fur Textil- und Lederverwertung GmbH (Society for Textile and Leather Work, Ltd.), in Ravensbruck, the women's concentration camp, produced uniforms. The possessions were salvaged and resold from the Jews who were killed in the gas chambers. SS officials took bribes from Jews and employers of Jews.
In 1943 Himmler was appointed Minister of the Interior and strengthened his grip on the civil service and the courts. The SS grew rapidly as Himmler sought a new human type, men keeping their various professional competences but each becoming a part of the intricate fabric of the SS. To its police activities the SS added protection of the German Volk in Poland and elsewhere, their "blood" and their unity, and also the protection of the Nazi leadership. For Himmler the paradoxical mystical motif of his understanding was the SS's great struggle against what Himmler called the two pillars of evil, the Jews and the Slavs.
On January 20, 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, Himmler's second-in-command, chaired the Wannsee Conference to plan the systematic roundup and execution of all Jews the Nazis could reach. The Conference ensured inter-agency co-operation and set strategy and financing. Among Heydrich's directives, Adolf Eichmann, chief of Gestapo IVB4, the SS's Jewish office, was charged with arranging deportation financing. Eichmann forced Jews into paying for their own deportation. In February 1942 Himmler and another aide Oswald Pohl reorganized SS administrative and economic offices to form the SS Wirtschaft-und Verwaltungshauptamt (Economic and Administrative Head Office, or WVHA). The Inspectorate of Concentration Camp became part of the WVHA, and Himmler promoted Pohl to Obergruppenfuhrer und General der Waffen-SS, making him the third highest-ranking officer in the SS. Eighteen weeks after Wannsee, a Czechoslovak commando team with British support assassinated Heydrich, advancing Pohl to the second slot under Himmler. Meanwhile Himmler had special powers in Poland, where he feuded with the official supposedly in charge Hans Frank.
Waffen-SS in combat
Himmler had dreams of his own army, which were strenuously opposed by the regular army. He managed to field three division of the Waffen-SS on the eastern front in 1941-42; their ferocity impressed Hitler and the SS was allowed to recruit volunteers directly from devoted Nazi youth groups. The Wehrmacht, however, intensely disliked the SS troops, so Himmler had to use his negotiating skills directly with Hitler to remove his SS formations from army control. The compromise was that SS generals took orders from the army, and in turn commanded their own SS troops. By the end of the war, Himmler's SS supplied 38 Waffen-SS divisions comprising volunteers from the Hitler Youth and from other countries across Europe. The Waffen-SS was noted for its fanaticism, brutality, and war crimes.
In July 1944, after the failed army plot against Hitler's life, Himmler reached the apex of his power. With the added position of Commander in Chief of the German Home Forces, he became on paper, the most powerful man in Germany, rivaling in many aspects the power of Hitler.
As the Allied forces penetrated into Germany from east and west, Himmler opened negotiations for a separate peace with the U.S. and Britain. This move failed, however, and Himmler fled in disguise as Hitler disowned him. On May 21, 1945, Himmler, disguised as an injured German soldier, was captured by the British. Two days later, Himmler went to the British commander, removed his eyepatch, and told them who he was. He then commited suicide using a concealed vial of poison; a sensible course of action, as he would certainly have been executed after the Nuremburg trials for his actions.
There are no monuments, and indeed everything he built was systematically eradicated.
Himmler was one of the most sinister of all the Nazi leaders. Millions were killed by men under his command.
- [He was] meticulous, calculating and efficient, [with an] astonishing capacity for work and irrepressible power-lust. 
Hitler depended upon Himmler's loyalty up to nearly the end when it was discovered Himmler was negotiating with the Western Powers.  Friedrich Hayek, an Austrian economist, in a chapter entitled "Why the worst get on top" of his contemporaneous Road to Serfdom observed "Advancement within a totalitarian group or party depends largely on a willingness to do immoral things. The principle that the end justifies the means, which in individualist ethics is regarded as the denial of all morals, in collectivist ethics becomes necessarily the supreme rule. There is literally nothing which the consistent collectivist must not be prepared to do if it serves ‘the good of the whole’, because that is to him the only criterion of what ought to be done."  Himmler displayed the brutal nature of this collectivist mentality taken to its logical extreme wherein he explained,
|“||Whether 10,000 Russian females fall down from exhaustion while digging an anti-tank ditch or not interests me only in so far as the anti-tank ditch for Germany is finished. ||”|
- Breitman, Richard. The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution (1992) excerpt and text search
- Burleigh, Michael. The Third Reich: A New History (2000), stresses central role of antisemitism.
- Dederichs, Mario. Heydrich: The Face of Evil (2006)
- Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power: 1933-1939 (2005)
- Friedlander, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews: Volume 1: The Years of Persecution 1933-1939 (1998)
- Friedlander, Saul. The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 (2007), the standard history excerpt and text search
- Gerwarth, Robert. Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich (2011)
- Goldin, Milton. "Financing the SS", History Today, (Jun 1998), Vol. 48, Issue 6 full text in Academic Search Premier
- Gutman, Israel, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 4 vol (1989)
- Kershaw, Ian. Hitler (2 vol, 1998, 2000), the standard biography.
- Loewenberg, Peter J. "The Unsuccessful Adolescence of Heinrich Himmler", American Historical Review 1971 76(3): 612-641. Issn: 0002-8762 in Jstor
- Manvell, Roger, and Heinrich Fraenkel. Heinrich Himmler: The SS, Gestapo, His Life and Career (2007)
- McNab, Chris. The SS: 1923–1945 (2009)
- Padfield, Peter. Himmler: Reichsführer-SS (1990)
- Smith, Bradley F. Heinrich Himmler: A Nazi in the Making, 1900-1926 (1971)
- Wachsmann, Nikolaus. "Looking into the Abyss: Historians and the Nazi Concentration Camps" European History Quarterly 2006; v 36; pp247+ online
- Weale, Adrian. The SS: A New History (2010)
- Angress, Werner T., and Bradley F. Smith, "Diaries of Heinrich Himmler's Early Years." Journal of Modern History 1959 31(3): 206-224. Issn: 0022-2801 Jstor
- Peter J. Loewenberg, "The Unsuccessful Adolescence of Heinrich Himmler." American Historical Review 1971 76(3): 612-641. Issn: 0002-8762 Fulltext: in Jstor and Werner T. Angress and Bradley F. Smith, "Diaries of Heinrich Himmler's Early Years." Journal of Modern History 1959 31(3): 206-224. Issn: 0022-2801 Fulltext: in Jstor
- Weale, (2010)
- Weale, (2010); Gerwarth (2011)
- Evans (2005), pp. 50-55, 84; Burleigh (2000), pp. 178-97
- McNab (2009)
- The SA lost most of its members and all of its power. Evans (2005), pp. 31-41; Kershaw (1998) 1: pp. 499-522
- Weale, (2010); Gerwarth (2011)
- Goldin (1998)
- Burleigh (2000), pp. 454, 646-51
- Burleigh 438ff
- Padfield (1990)
- Reichsführer Himmler Pitches Washington Sweden, John H. Waller, Studies in Intelligence, CSI Publications, Unclassified Studies Volume 46, Number 1, 2002.
- Friedrich A. Hayek, Road to Serfdom, Why the worst get on top, pg. 43 - 49, Reader's Digest Condensed Version, April 1945.
- Reichsführer-SS Himmler speaking to SS Major-Generals, Poznan, October 4, 1943, Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression- Washington, U.S Govt. Print. Off., 1946, Vol. IV, p. 559. Retrieved from the jewishvirtuallibrary.org 06/16/07.