Difference between revisions of "Hydromorphone"

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'''Hydromorphone''', a more common synonym for '''dihydromorphinone''', commonly a hydrochloride (brand names '''Palladone''', '''Dilaudid''', and numerous others) is a very potent centrally acting [[analgesic]] [[medication|drug]] of the [[opioid]] class. It is a derivative of [[morphine]], to be specific, a [[hydrogenated]] [[ketone]] thereof, and it can be said that hydromorphone is to morphine as [[hydrocodone]] is to [[codeine]] and, therefore, a semi-synthetic drug. It is, in medical terms, an [[opioid]] analgesic and, in legal terms, a [[narcotic]]. Hydromorphone is commonly used in the hospital setting, mostly intravenously (IV) because its bioavailability orally, rectally, and intranasally is very low.
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Very small quantities of hydromorphone are detected in assays of opium on rare occasions; it appears to be produced by the plant under circumstances and by processes which are not understood at this time and may include the action of bacteria.  A similar process and/or other metabolic processes in the plant may very well be responsible for the very low quantities of hydrocodone also found on rare occasions in opium and alkaloid mixtures derived therefrom; [[dihydrocodeine]], [[oxymorphol]], [[oxycodone]], [[oxymorphone]], [[metopon]] and possibly other derivatives of morphine and/or hydromorphone also are found in trace amounts in opium.
Hydromorphone is used to relieve moderate to severe [[pain]] and severe, painful dry [[cough]]ing. Hydromorphone is becoming more popular in the treatment of chronic pain in many countries, including the United States.

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