Difference between revisions of "Laurence Duggan"

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'''Laurence Duggan''' was head of the South American desk at the [[Department of State| United States Department of State]] during [[World War II]], and later head of the Division of American Republics Affairs. He was also a [[USSR|Soviet]] agent.<ref>Rorin M. Platt, "[http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/AD_Issues/amdipl_11/platt_reds.html Red Scare or Red Menace?]" ''American Diplomacy'', Vol. 4, No. 2 (Summer 1999)</ref>
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'''Laurence Duggan''' was head of the South American desk at the [[Department of State|United States Department of State]] during [[World War II]], and later head of the Division of American Republics Affairs. He was also a [[USSR|Soviet]] agent.<ref>Rorin M. Platt, "[http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/AD_Issues/amdipl_11/platt_reds.html Red Scare or Red Menace?]" ''American Diplomacy'', Vol. 4, No. 2 (Summer 1999)</ref>
  
Duggan was a [[Harvard University|Harvard]] friend of [[Alger Hiss]] and [[Noel Field]]. He was identified as a [[USSR|Soviet]] agent by [[Comintern]] courier<ref> John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=dIsmm_ZLHcIC Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America]'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), ISBN 0300077718, pp. 227-228; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=pNwEyL1b6XQC Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials That Shaped American Politics]'' (Cambridge University Press, 2006), ISBN 0521857384, p. 110</ref> [[Whittaker Chambers]],<ref> [http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page100.html Adolf Berle’s Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers] (John Earl Haynes, Historical Writings)</ref> [[OGPU]] recruiter [[Hede Massing]],<ref>John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=dIsmm_ZLHcIC Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America]'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), ISBN 0300077718, pp. 202-203</ref> [[Venona]] [http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/venona/1944/18nov_lawrence_duggan.pdf decrypts] and Soviet archives.<ref>Alexander Vassiliev, ''Yellow Notebook No. 2'', [http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/docs/Yellow_Notebook_No.2_Original.pdf Orig.], p.1 ''et seq. ''; [http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/docs/Yellow_Notebook_No.2_Translated1.pdf Trans.], p. 1 ''et seq. ''</ref>
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Duggan was a [[Harvard University|Harvard]] friend of [[Alger Hiss]] and [[Noel Field]]. He was identified as a [[USSR|Soviet]] agent by [[Comintern]] courier<ref>John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=dIsmm_ZLHcIC Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America]'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), ISBN 0300077718, pp. 227-228; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=pNwEyL1b6XQC Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials That Shaped American Politics]'' (Cambridge University Press, 2006), ISBN 0521857384, p. 110</ref> [[Whittaker Chambers]],<ref>[http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page100.html Adolf Berle’s Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers] (John Earl Haynes, Historical Writings)</ref> [[OGPU]] recruiter [[Hede Massing]],<ref>John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=dIsmm_ZLHcIC Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America]'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), ISBN 0300077718, pp. 202-203</ref> [[Venona]] [http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/venona/1944/18nov_lawrence_duggan.pdf decrypts] and Soviet archives.<ref>Alexander Vassiliev, ''Yellow Notebook No. 2'', [http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/docs/Yellow_Notebook_No.2_Original.pdf Orig.], p.1 ''et seq. ''; [http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/docs/Yellow_Notebook_No.2_Translated1.pdf Trans.], p. 1 ''et seq. ''</ref>
  
 
Duggan provided the [[NKVD]] (Soviet intelligence) with confidential diplomatic cables, including from American Ambassador William Bullitt. According to [[Boris Bazarov]], Duggan told his Soviet handlers: "The only thing which kept him at his hateful job in the State Department where he did not get out of his tuxedo for two weeks, every night attending a reception, was the idea of being useful for our cause."
 
Duggan provided the [[NKVD]] (Soviet intelligence) with confidential diplomatic cables, including from American Ambassador William Bullitt. According to [[Boris Bazarov]], Duggan told his Soviet handlers: "The only thing which kept him at his hateful job in the State Department where he did not get out of his tuxedo for two weeks, every night attending a reception, was the idea of being useful for our cause."
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To protect Duggan's identity, Ignace Poretsky ([http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Protected/Articles/000/000/006/224euczs.asp?pg=1 alias Ignace Reiss]) was murdered:<ref>Stephen Schwartz, [http://www.nytimes.com/1988/01/24/books/intellectuals-and-assassins-annals-of-stalin-s-killerati.html?pagewanted=all Intellectuals and Assassins: Annals of Stalin's Killerati]," ''The New York Times'', January 24, 1988</ref> A Moscow Center report of Poretsky's "liquidation" notes:
 
To protect Duggan's identity, Ignace Poretsky ([http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Protected/Articles/000/000/006/224euczs.asp?pg=1 alias Ignace Reiss]) was murdered:<ref>Stephen Schwartz, [http://www.nytimes.com/1988/01/24/books/intellectuals-and-assassins-annals-of-stalin-s-killerati.html?pagewanted=all Intellectuals and Assassins: Annals of Stalin's Killerati]," ''The New York Times'', January 24, 1988</ref> A Moscow Center report of Poretsky's "liquidation" notes:
 
{{cquote|For now the danger of 19 [Duggan]<ref>Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=9TWUAQ7Xof8C The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB]'' (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN  0-465-00310-9, p. 105</ref> being exposed through Raymond's [Poretsky's]<ref>John Earl Haynes, [http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/docs/Vassiliev%20Notebooks%20Concordance2.pdf Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology], 2008, p. 129</ref> line is significantly diminished.<ref>John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=qCAVQ_cdomcC Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America]'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), ISBN 0300123906, p. 232</ref>}}
 
{{cquote|For now the danger of 19 [Duggan]<ref>Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=9TWUAQ7Xof8C The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB]'' (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN  0-465-00310-9, p. 105</ref> being exposed through Raymond's [Poretsky's]<ref>John Earl Haynes, [http://www.wilsoncenter.org/topics/docs/Vassiliev%20Notebooks%20Concordance2.pdf Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology], 2008, p. 129</ref> line is significantly diminished.<ref>John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=qCAVQ_cdomcC Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America]'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), ISBN 0300123906, p. 232</ref>}}
Poretsky was killed by OGPU agent Roland Abbiat,<ref>Walter Krivitsky, ''[http://ia331309.us.archive.org/3/items/instalinssecrets008248mbp/instalinssecrets008248mbp.pdf In Stalin's Secret Service: An Exposé of Russia’s Secret Policies by the Former Chief of the Soviet Intelligence in Western Europe]'' (Harper & Brothers, 1939), pp. 261-263 (PDF pp. 285-287); Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=9TWUAQ7Xof8C The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB]'' (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN  0-465-00310-9, pp. 47, 78-79</ref> who would later go under cover as Vladimir Pravdin,<ref> Harvey Klehr, "[http://www.powells.com/review/2004_02_12.html Devils in America]," ''The New Republic'', February 12, 2004</ref> New York bureau chief of the Soviet government news agency TASS, in which capacity he would become a contact of Walter Lippmann<ref> [http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/venona/1944/9sep_lippman_views_churchill_roosevelt.pdf 1289 KGB New York to Moscow, 9 September 1944]</ref> and I.F. Stone,<ref> [http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/venona/1944/23oct_stone_fears_fbi.pdf 1506 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 October 1944]</ref> and be suggested as the contact for [[GRU]] agent "Ales" at the founding conference of the [[UN]].<ref> John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, [http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page70.html “Ales” is Still Hiss: The Wilder Foote Red Herring] (2007 Symposium on Cryptologic History, The Center for Cryptologic History), October 19, 2007</ref> He later served with the [[United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration]] (UNRRA).
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Poretsky was killed by OGPU agent Roland Abbiat,<ref>Walter Krivitsky, ''[http://ia331309.us.archive.org/3/items/instalinssecrets008248mbp/instalinssecrets008248mbp.pdf In Stalin's Secret Service: An Exposé of Russia’s Secret Policies by the Former Chief of the Soviet Intelligence in Western Europe]'' (Harper & Brothers, 1939), pp. 261-263 (PDF pp. 285-287); Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=9TWUAQ7Xof8C The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB]'' (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN  0-465-00310-9, pp. 47, 78-79</ref> who would later go under cover as Vladimir Pravdin,<ref>Harvey Klehr, "[http://www.powells.com/review/2004_02_12.html Devils in America]," ''The New Republic'', February 12, 2004</ref> New York bureau chief of the Soviet government news agency TASS, in which capacity he would become a contact of Walter Lippmann<ref>[http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/venona/1944/9sep_lippman_views_churchill_roosevelt.pdf 1289 KGB New York to Moscow, 9 September 1944]</ref> and I.F. Stone,<ref>[http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/venona/1944/23oct_stone_fears_fbi.pdf 1506 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 October 1944]</ref> and be suggested as the contact for [[GRU]] agent "Ales" at the founding conference of the [[UN]].<ref>John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, [http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page70.html “Ales” is Still Hiss: The Wilder Foote Red Herring] (2007 Symposium on Cryptologic History, The Center for Cryptologic History), October 19, 2007</ref> He later served with the [[United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration]] (UNRRA).
  
 
In 1947, Massing told the FBI that she had recruited Duggan as a Soviet spy in the mid 1930s. Duggan told the FBI that [[Henry Collins]] of the [[Ware group]] had also tried to recruit him, as did [[Frederick V. Field|Frederick Field]].
 
In 1947, Massing told the FBI that she had recruited Duggan as a Soviet spy in the mid 1930s. Duggan told the FBI that [[Henry Collins]] of the [[Ware group]] had also tried to recruit him, as did [[Frederick V. Field|Frederick Field]].
  
[[Henry Wallace]] once said that if he became President, he would make Duggan Secretary of State;<ref> Ethan Bronner, "[http://www.nytimes.com/1998/10/18/weekinreview/witching-hour-rethinking-mccarthyism-if-not-mccarthy.html?pagewanted=all Witching Hour: Rethinking McCarthyism, if Not McCarthy]," ''The New York Times'', October 18, 1998</ref> had [[FDR]] died in 1944, rather than 1945, Wallace would indeed have become President.<ref> Glenn Garvin, "[http://www.reason.com/news/show/29095.html Fools for Communism]," ''Reason'', April 2004</ref>
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[[Henry Wallace]] once said that if he became President, he would make Duggan Secretary of State;<ref>Ethan Bronner, "[http://www.nytimes.com/1998/10/18/weekinreview/witching-hour-rethinking-mccarthyism-if-not-mccarthy.html?pagewanted=all Witching Hour: Rethinking McCarthyism, if Not McCarthy]," ''The New York Times'', October 18, 1998</ref> had [[FDR]] died in 1944, rather than 1945, Wallace would indeed have become President.<ref>Glenn Garvin, "[http://www.reason.com/news/show/29095.html Fools for Communism]," ''Reason'', April 2004</ref>
  
Five days after Duggan implicated [[Henry Collins]] and [[Frederick Vanderbilt Field]] to the [[FBI]],<ref> John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=qCAVQ_cdomcC Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America]'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), ISBN 0300123906, pp. 202, 244</ref> [[Alger Hiss|Hiss]] was indicted by a grand jury and the [[NKVD]] again [http://web.archive.org/web/20110521100452/http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=h-hoac&month=0503&week=b&msg=vKFVV7vn/1IWcrIN7aXucg&user=&pw= approached Duggan]; five days<ref>Christopher D. O'Sullivan, "[http://www.gutenberg-e.org/osc01/frames/fosc08.html 8. Resignation]," ''Sumner Welles, Postwar Planning, and the Quest for a New World Order, 1937-1943'' (Columbia University Press, 2007) ISBN 0231142587</ref> later, Duggan would jump or be thrown<ref> Thomas Powers, "[http://www.nybooks.com/articles/118 The Plot Thickens]," ''The New York Review of Books'', Vol. 47, No. 8 (May 11, 2000)</ref> from his New York office window to his death,<ref> "[http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,799590,00.html Investigations: The Man in the Window]," ''Time'', January 3, 1949</ref> leading his friend (and father's [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/06/AR2005100602012.html protégé]) Edward R. Murrow to broadcast a [http://dca.lib.tufts.edu/features/murrow/exhibit/iie2.html scathing] denunciation of Red-hunters in the U.S. government for hounding an allegedly innocent man to his grave.
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Five days after Duggan implicated [[Henry Collins]] and [[Frederick Vanderbilt Field]] to the [[FBI]],<ref>John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=qCAVQ_cdomcC Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America]'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), ISBN 0300123906, pp. 202, 244</ref> [[Alger Hiss|Hiss]] was indicted by a grand jury and the [[NKVD]] again [http://web.archive.org/web/20110521100452/http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=h-hoac&month=0503&week=b&msg=vKFVV7vn/1IWcrIN7aXucg&user=&pw= approached Duggan]; five days<ref>Christopher D. O'Sullivan, "[http://www.gutenberg-e.org/osc01/frames/fosc08.html 8. Resignation]," ''Sumner Welles, Postwar Planning, and the Quest for a New World Order, 1937-1943'' (Columbia University Press, 2007) ISBN 0231142587</ref> later, Duggan would jump or be thrown<ref>Thomas Powers, "[http://www.nybooks.com/articles/118 The Plot Thickens]," ''The New York Review of Books'', Vol. 47, No. 8 (May 11, 2000)</ref> from his New York office window to his death,<ref>"[http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,799590,00.html Investigations: The Man in the Window]," ''Time'', January 3, 1949</ref> leading his friend (and father's [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/06/AR2005100602012.html protégé]) Edward R. Murrow to broadcast a [http://dca.lib.tufts.edu/features/murrow/exhibit/iie2.html scathing] denunciation of Red-hunters in the U.S. government for hounding an allegedly innocent man to his grave.
 
Following Duggan’s  death, [[Archibald MacLeish]] dedicated a poem to the late Soviet agent, denouncing "informers" (apparently [[Hede Massing]] and [[Whittaker Chambers]], each of whom had identified Duggan) for their "slanders" and "lies."<ref>Archibald MacLeish, "The Black Day," ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=KI0ESFOvi5QC Collected Poems, 1917-1982]'' [Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1985] ISBN 0395395690, p. 403</ref>
 
Following Duggan’s  death, [[Archibald MacLeish]] dedicated a poem to the late Soviet agent, denouncing "informers" (apparently [[Hede Massing]] and [[Whittaker Chambers]], each of whom had identified Duggan) for their "slanders" and "lies."<ref>Archibald MacLeish, "The Black Day," ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=KI0ESFOvi5QC Collected Poems, 1917-1982]'' [Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1985] ISBN 0395395690, p. 403</ref>
  

Latest revision as of 23:50, 26 June 2016

This article is part of the
Venona
series.

CPUSA
Ware group
Advisory Committee of Postwar Foreign Policy
UNRRA

Laurence Duggan was head of the South American desk at the United States Department of State during World War II, and later head of the Division of American Republics Affairs. He was also a Soviet agent.[1]

Duggan was a Harvard friend of Alger Hiss and Noel Field. He was identified as a Soviet agent by Comintern courier[2] Whittaker Chambers,[3] OGPU recruiter Hede Massing,[4] Venona decrypts and Soviet archives.[5]

Duggan provided the NKVD (Soviet intelligence) with confidential diplomatic cables, including from American Ambassador William Bullitt. According to Boris Bazarov, Duggan told his Soviet handlers: "The only thing which kept him at his hateful job in the State Department where he did not get out of his tuxedo for two weeks, every night attending a reception, was the idea of being useful for our cause."

To protect Duggan's identity, Ignace Poretsky (alias Ignace Reiss) was murdered:[6] A Moscow Center report of Poretsky's "liquidation" notes:

For now the danger of 19 [Duggan][7] being exposed through Raymond's [Poretsky's][8] line is significantly diminished.[9]

Poretsky was killed by OGPU agent Roland Abbiat,[10] who would later go under cover as Vladimir Pravdin,[11] New York bureau chief of the Soviet government news agency TASS, in which capacity he would become a contact of Walter Lippmann[12] and I.F. Stone,[13] and be suggested as the contact for GRU agent "Ales" at the founding conference of the UN.[14] He later served with the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA).

In 1947, Massing told the FBI that she had recruited Duggan as a Soviet spy in the mid 1930s. Duggan told the FBI that Henry Collins of the Ware group had also tried to recruit him, as did Frederick Field.

Henry Wallace once said that if he became President, he would make Duggan Secretary of State;[15] had FDR died in 1944, rather than 1945, Wallace would indeed have become President.[16]

Five days after Duggan implicated Henry Collins and Frederick Vanderbilt Field to the FBI,[17] Hiss was indicted by a grand jury and the NKVD again approached Duggan; five days[18] later, Duggan would jump or be thrown[19] from his New York office window to his death,[20] leading his friend (and father's protégé) Edward R. Murrow to broadcast a scathing denunciation of Red-hunters in the U.S. government for hounding an allegedly innocent man to his grave. Following Duggan’s death, Archibald MacLeish dedicated a poem to the late Soviet agent, denouncing "informers" (apparently Hede Massing and Whittaker Chambers, each of whom had identified Duggan) for their "slanders" and "lies."[21]

In 1995, former Kennedy administration official Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. defended Duggan as "an able public servant." Duggan's code name in Soviet intelligence and in the Venona files is "Frank".

Venona

Laurence Duggan is referenced in the following Venona project decryptions:

  • 1025, 1035–1936, KGB New York to Moscow, 30 June 1943
  • 380 KGB New York to Moscow, 20 March 1944
  • 744, 746 KGB New York to Moscow, 24 May 1944
  • 916 KGB New York to Moscow, 17 June 1944
  • 1015 KGB New York to Moscow, to Victor [Fitin], 22 July 1944
  • 1114 KGB New York to Moscow, 4 August 1944
  • 1251 KGB New York to Moscow, 2 September 1944
  • 1613 KGB New York to Moscow, 18 November 1944
  • 1636 KGB New York to Moscow, 21 November 1944

References

  1. Rorin M. Platt, "Red Scare or Red Menace?" American Diplomacy, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Summer 1999)
  2. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), ISBN 0300077718, pp. 227-228; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials That Shaped American Politics (Cambridge University Press, 2006), ISBN 0521857384, p. 110
  3. Adolf Berle’s Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers (John Earl Haynes, Historical Writings)
  4. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), ISBN 0300077718, pp. 202-203
  5. Alexander Vassiliev, Yellow Notebook No. 2, Orig., p.1 et seq. ; Trans., p. 1 et seq.
  6. Stephen Schwartz, Intellectuals and Assassins: Annals of Stalin's Killerati," The New York Times, January 24, 1988
  7. Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 0-465-00310-9, p. 105
  8. John Earl Haynes, Vassiliev Notebooks Concordance: Cover Names, Real Names, Abbreviations, Acronyms, Organizational Titles, Tradecraft Terminology, 2008, p. 129
  9. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), ISBN 0300123906, p. 232
  10. Walter Krivitsky, In Stalin's Secret Service: An Exposé of Russia’s Secret Policies by the Former Chief of the Soviet Intelligence in Western Europe (Harper & Brothers, 1939), pp. 261-263 (PDF pp. 285-287); Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB (New York: Basic Books, 2000), ISBN 0-465-00310-9, pp. 47, 78-79
  11. Harvey Klehr, "Devils in America," The New Republic, February 12, 2004
  12. 1289 KGB New York to Moscow, 9 September 1944
  13. 1506 KGB New York to Moscow, 23 October 1944
  14. John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, “Ales” is Still Hiss: The Wilder Foote Red Herring (2007 Symposium on Cryptologic History, The Center for Cryptologic History), October 19, 2007
  15. Ethan Bronner, "Witching Hour: Rethinking McCarthyism, if Not McCarthy," The New York Times, October 18, 1998
  16. Glenn Garvin, "Fools for Communism," Reason, April 2004
  17. John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), ISBN 0300123906, pp. 202, 244
  18. Christopher D. O'Sullivan, "8. Resignation," Sumner Welles, Postwar Planning, and the Quest for a New World Order, 1937-1943 (Columbia University Press, 2007) ISBN 0231142587
  19. Thomas Powers, "The Plot Thickens," The New York Review of Books, Vol. 47, No. 8 (May 11, 2000)
  20. "Investigations: The Man in the Window," Time, January 3, 1949
  21. Archibald MacLeish, "The Black Day," Collected Poems, 1917-1982 [Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1985] ISBN 0395395690, p. 403