Lysenkoism adopted Lamarck's idea of "acquired characteristics," which states that the traits an organism's develops during its life are passed on to their descendants.
The theory was given enormous political support in the Soviet Union from the late 1930s until the 1950s. Geneticists and biologists in general who disagreed with Lysenkoism lost their positions, and many were imprisoned or killed during the Stalinist purges of the late 1930s.
Evolution, Atheism, and Communism
Lysenkoism was relied on heavily as proof of the Communist belief in atheism. If evolution could be studied and indeed controlled by man, god was unnecessary in creation.
It was also used as proof of Communist superiority over Capitalism (which was ideologically tied to Darwin's survival of the fittest), as Communist scientists claimed they could improve future generations through controlling and improving the present generation.
Of course, Lysenkoism was disproven. However, it was disproven by genetics, not Darwinian evolution, as evolutionists like to claim.