Difference between revisions of "Molecule"

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A '''molecule''' is a group of two or more atoms linked together to form one unit. They are linked together by chemical bonds. The four types of chemical bonds are covalent, ionic, hydrogen or van der Waals'.
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A '''molecule''' is a group of two or more [[atom]]s which form one unit
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linked together by [[covalent bond]]s.  
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Molecules can have as many as several thousand atoms, as in a [[polymer]] (see also [[DNA]]).
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A molecule typically does not have electrical [[charge]] (see also [[polyatomic ion]]).
  
A molecule can consist of a single element only, or more than one.
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Most molecules are composed of two or more elements, but they can also be composed of multiple atoms from the same element. Single element, bimolecular molecules which are more commonly known as homonuclear diatomic molecules <ref>http://xbeams.chem.yale.edu/~batista/vvv/node33.html</ref><ref>http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/gloss/homodiatomic.html</ref> include many elementary [[gas]]es, such as [[oxygen]] (O<sub>2</sub>), [[hydrogen]] (H<sub>2</sub>) and [[fluorine]] (F<sub>2</sub>). Single element compounds also include man-made compounds such as [[buckminsterfullerene]]s, which are "balls" of 60 carbon atoms, as well as natural carbon compounds like [[graphite]] and [[diamond]]s, and most [[metal]]s.
  
The list of single-element compounds is relatively short, mostly represented by gases which usually form stable compounds of two atoms, although there are some interesting [[man-made]] examples such as "Bucky balls", which are pure [[carbon]], with the atoms arranged in a geodesic pattern.
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Molecules are typically specified by indicating what atoms they are made of and how many of each they possess. If there is more than one of an atom, its count is given by a subscript. Water has two [[hydrogen]] atoms and one [[oxygen]] atom, so it is H<sub>2</sub>O.
  
Molecules are described in many ways, depending on the information that needs to be conveyed.  The simplest is simply a list of the elements with subscripts representing the number of that element's atoms that are present.  Often part of the molecule is listed separately in order to show some of its properties.  There are more complex, but still text based, ways of "describing" the molecule's entire structure.  We also use three dimensional "ball and stick" or "space filling" diagrams to show the complete physical arrangement of the atoms in the molecule.
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Often part of the molecule is listed separately in order to show some of its properties.  There are more complex, but still text based, ways of "describing" the molecule's entire structure.  We also use three dimensional "ball and stick" or "space filling" diagrams to show the complete physical arrangement of the atoms in the molecule.
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==See also==
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*[[Chemical formula]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<references/>
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{{Reflist}}
[[category:physics]]
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[[Category:Physics]]
 
[[Category:Chemistry]]
 
[[Category:Chemistry]]

Latest revision as of 21:19, 22 October 2016

A molecule is a group of two or more atoms which form one unit linked together by covalent bonds. Molecules can have as many as several thousand atoms, as in a polymer (see also DNA). A molecule typically does not have electrical charge (see also polyatomic ion).

Most molecules are composed of two or more elements, but they can also be composed of multiple atoms from the same element. Single element, bimolecular molecules which are more commonly known as homonuclear diatomic molecules [1][2] include many elementary gases, such as oxygen (O2), hydrogen (H2) and fluorine (F2). Single element compounds also include man-made compounds such as buckminsterfullerenes, which are "balls" of 60 carbon atoms, as well as natural carbon compounds like graphite and diamonds, and most metals.

Molecules are typically specified by indicating what atoms they are made of and how many of each they possess. If there is more than one of an atom, its count is given by a subscript. Water has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, so it is H2O.

Often part of the molecule is listed separately in order to show some of its properties. There are more complex, but still text based, ways of "describing" the molecule's entire structure. We also use three dimensional "ball and stick" or "space filling" diagrams to show the complete physical arrangement of the atoms in the molecule.

See also

References