Difference between revisions of "National Public Radio"

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[[File:NPR logo.png|right|200px]]
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'''National Public Radio''' (NPR) is a not-for-profit organization which produces and broadcasts various fair and balanced [[radio]] programs including news, talk shows, and entertainment.  The audience of NPR listeners has grown exponentially since the organization's inception in 1970. Currently, NPR reports that 26 million [[Americans]] tune in each week.<ref>http://www.npr.org/about/growth.html</ref> Not only does NPR boast a large weekly audience, it also produces the two most listened-to radio programs on public radio: ''[[Morning Edition]]'' and ''[[All Things Considered]]''.  A November 2005 Poll showed NPR to be the most trusted radio-broadcast news network in the [[United States]].<ref>http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA6282871.html?display=Breaking+News&referral=SUPP</ref>
{{Infobox broadcasting network
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|name          = NPR
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|logo          = [[File:National Public Radio logo.svg|Logo of NPR]]
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|type          = [[Public broadcasting|Public radio network]]
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|branding      =
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|established    = 1970
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|test card      =
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|test of transmission =
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|airdate        = April 1971
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|country        = United States
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|available      = Global
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|founder        =
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|slogan        = ''"This is NPR"''<ref>http://www.npr.org/about/aboutnpr/</ref>
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|motto          =
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|market_share  =
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|license_area  =
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|headquarters  = Washington, D.C.
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|broadcast_area = Nationwide
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|area          =
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|erp            =
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|owner          = National Public Radio, Inc.
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|parent        =
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|key_people    = [[Gary Knell]], President and Chief Executive Officer<br/>[[Debra Delman]], Senior Vice President, Strategic Operations and Finance
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|foundation    = February 26, 1970
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|launch_date    =
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|dissolved      =
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|endowment      = US$258 million
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|revenue        = US$159 million
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|net_income    = US$18.9 million
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|former_names  = [[Association of Public Radio Stations]]<br>[[National Educational Radio Network]]
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|digital        =
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|analog        =
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|affiliation    = [[WRN Broadcast|World Radio Network]]
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|affiliates    =
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|groups        =
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|former_affiliations =
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|website        = {{URL|npr.org}}
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|footnotes      =
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}}
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'''NPR''', formerly '''National Public Radio''',<ref name="WashPostNPRNameChange">[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/07/07/AR2010070704578.html National Public Radio is changing its name to NPR] – [[Washington Post]], July 8, 2010</ref><ref>[http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/opinionla/la-ed-names-20100712,0,5477523.story National Public Radio is now just NPR. Can nothing stop this move toward abbreviations?] – [[LA Times]], July 12, 2010</ref> is a privately  and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national [[Radio syndication|syndicator]] to a network of 900 [[public radio]] [[List of NPR stations|stations]] in the United States.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.npr.org/about/nprworks.html | title=How NPR Works: NPR's Mission Statement | publisher=NPR | accessdate=June 12, 2007 |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070117145258/http://www.npr.org/about/nprworks.html <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = January 17, 2007}}</ref>
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NPR produces and distributes news and cultural programming. Individual public radio stations are not required to broadcast all NPR programs that are produced. Most public radio stations broadcast a mixture of NPR programs, content from rival providers [[American Public Media]], [[Public Radio International]] and [[Public Radio Exchange]], and locally produced programs. NPR's flagships are two [[drive time]] news broadcasts, ''[[Morning Edition]]'' and the afternoon ''[[All Things Considered]]''; both are carried by most NPR member stations, and are two of the [[List of most-listened-to radio programs|most popular radio programs]] in the country.<ref>{{cite news |title="Mandela: An Audio History" on NPR's All Things Considered Series |url=http://www.npr.org/about/press/040412.mandela.html |quote=All Things Considered, NPR's daily, afternoon newsmagazine was first broadcast in 1971, and according to recent reports is the third most listened radio show in the country, attracting a weekly audience of 11.5 million people on 605 public radio stations nationwide. |work= National Public Radio |date=April 9, 2004}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last= Mitchell |first= Jack W. |title=Listener supported: the culture and history of public radio|year=2005 |publisher= Greenwood Publishing Group|quote=Conceived as "alternatives," ''Morning Edition'' and ''All Things Considered'' are the second and third most listened-to radio programs in the ... | page=175| url= http://books.google.com/?id=KIwTKWj04wEC&pg=PA175 |isbn=0-275-98352-8}}</ref>
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NPR, along with [[PBS]], has been acclaimed for high level journalism that seeks to speak to everybody regardless of education and location on the political spectrum. According to NPR, "NPR supports its operations through a combination of membership dues and programming fees from over 860 independent radio stations, sponsorship from private foundations and corporations, and revenue from the sales  of transcripts, books, CDs, and merchandise. A very small percentage -- between one percent to two percent of NPR's annual budget -- comes from competitive grants sought by NPR from federally funded organizations, such as the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, National Science Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts."<ref>NPR.org, ''Annual Reports, Audited Financial Statements, and Form 990s'', retrieved 28 March, 2009 [http://www.npr.org/about/privatesupport.html]</ref>  
  
NPR manages the [[Public Radio Satellite System]], which distributes NPR programs and other programming from independent producers and networks such as [[American Public Media]] and [[Public Radio International]]. Its content is also available on-demand via the web, mobile, and podcasts.
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==All Things Considered==
 
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Robert Siegel chats about [[Conservapedia]] with Andrew Schlafly March 13, 2007. <ref>NPR, All Things Considered, ''Conservapedia: Data for Birds of a Political Feather?'', by Robert Siegel, March 13, 2007 [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=8286084]</ref>
==History==
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===1970s===
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National Public Radio replaced the [[National Educational Radio Network]] on February 26, 1970, following congressional passage of the [[Public Broadcasting Act of 1967]].<ref name="JARVIK">Jarvik, Laurence Ariel, ''PBS, behind the screen'', Rocklin, CA : Forum, 1997. ISBN 0761506683</ref>  This act was signed into law by [[President of the United States|President]] [[Lyndon B. Johnson]], and established the [[Corporation for Public Broadcasting]], which also created the [[Public Broadcasting Service]] in addition to NPR. A CPB organizing committee under John Witherspoon first created a Board of Directors chaired by [[Bernard Mayes]].
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[[File:NPR 1970s logo.jpg|130px|left|thumb|1970s logo.]]
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The board then hired [[Don Quayle|Donald Quayle]] to be the first president of NPR with 30 employees and 90 charter member stations, and studios in Washington, D.C.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.npr.org/about/aboutnpr/history.html#history |title= History |publisher=NPR |accessdate= 2011-02-24}}</ref>
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NPR aired its first broadcast in April 1971, covering [[United States Senate]] hearings on the [[Vietnam War]]. A month later, the afternoon drive-time newscast ''[[All Things Considered]]'' began, on May 3, 1971, first hosted by [[Robert Conley (reporter)|Robert Conley]]. NPR was primarily a production and distribution organization until 1977, when it merged with the [[Association of Public Radio Stations]]. As a membership organization, NPR was then charged with providing stations with training, program promotion, and management, and with representing the interests of public radio before Congress and providing content delivery mechanisms, such as satellite transmission.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}
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===1980s===
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NPR suffered an almost fatal setback in 1983 when efforts to expand services created a deficit of nearly US$7 million. After a Congressional investigation and the resignation of NPR's president, [[Frank Mankiewicz]], the [[Corporation for Public Broadcasting]] agreed to lend the network money in order to stave off bankruptcy.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.current.org/pbpb/documents/GAOonNPR84.html | title=GAO statement on NPR financial crisis, 1984 | publisher=Public Broadcasting PolicyBase at [[Current.org]] | year=1984 | accessdate=June 12, 2007}}</ref> In exchange, NPR agreed to a new arrangement whereby the annual CPB stipend that it had previously received directly would be divided among local stations instead; in turn, those stations would support NPR productions on a subscription basis. NPR also agreed to turn its satellite service into a cooperative venture (the [[Public Radio Satellite System]]), making it possible for non-NPR shows to get national distribution. It took NPR approximately three years to pay off the debt.<ref>{{cite web | url= http://www.current.org/history/timeline/timeline-1980s.shtml#1986 | title= History of public broadcasting in the United States | publisher=[[Current.org]] | accessdate=June 12, 2007}}</ref>
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[[File:NPRLogoOld.png|150px|right|thumb|Logo used during 1990s.]]
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===1990s===
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[[Delano Lewis]], the president of [[C&P Telephone]], left that position to become NPR's CEO and president in January 1994.<ref name="lewis1994">{{cite web|url=http://www.npr.org/about/press/980403.del.html |title=Delano Lewis Resigns |date= April 3, 1998|publisher=NPR |accessdate=2012-02-16}}</ref> Lewis resigned in August 1998.<ref name="lewis1994"/><ref name="klose1998"/>  In November 1998, NPR's board of directors hired [[Kevin Klose]], the director of the [[International Broadcasting Bureau]], as its president and chief executive officer.<ref name="klose1998">{{cite web|url=http://www.npr.org/about/press/981111.klose.html |title=NPR Announces New President and CEO |publisher=NPR |date=November 11, 1998 |accessdate=2012-02-16}}</ref>
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===2000s===
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{{rquote|right|[[September 11 attacks|September 11th]] made it apparent in a very urgent way that we need another facility that could keep NPR going if something devastating happens in Washington.|Jay Kernis, NPR's senior VP for programming<ref name="nprwest2002"/>}}
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In November 2002, NPR spent nearly $13 million to acquire and equip a West Coast {{convert|25000|sqft|adj=on}} production facility, dubbed "NPR West", which opened in [[Culver City, California]]; it had room to for up to 90 employees, and was established to expand its production capabilities, improve its coverage of the western United States, and create a backup production facility capable of keeping NPR on the air in the event of a catastrophe in Washington.<ref name="nprwest2002">{{cite web|url=http://www.npr.org/about/press/021016.nprwest.html |title=NPR Establishes Major Production Center in California NPR West Opens November 2, Expanding Network's Presence and Reach |publisher=NPR |date=November 2, 2002 |accessdate=2012-02-16}}</ref>
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On November 6, 2003, NPR was given US$235 million<ref name="washpost2008"/>  from the estate of the late [[Joan B. Kroc]], the widow of [[Ray Kroc]], founder of [[McDonald's Corporation]]. This was the largest monetary gift ever to a cultural institution.<ref name=nyt>{{cite news |title=Billions and Billions Served, Hundreds of Millions Donated  |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E04EFD81439F934A35752C1A9659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all |quote= National Public Radio announced yesterday that it had received a bequest worth at least $200 million from the widow of the longtime chairman of the McDonald's restaurant chain. The gift is the largest in the 33-year history of NPR, the nonprofit broadcasting corporation – and about twice the size of NPR's annual operating budget. It is believed to be among the largest ever pledged to an American cultural institution.  |work=New York Times |date=November 7, 2003 |accessdate=July 28, 2008 | first1=Jacques | last1=Steinberg}}</ref><ref>{{cite press release | url= http://www.npr.org/about/press/031106.kroc.html | title=NPR Receives a Record Bequest of More Than $200 Million | publisher=National Public Radio | date=November 6, 2003 | accessdate=October 2, 2006}}</ref>
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In 2004 NPR's budget increased by over 50% to US$153 million due to the Kroc gift. US$34 million of the money was deposited in its [[Financial endowment|endowment]].<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.current.org/npr/npr0409krocgift.shtml | title=Kroc gift lets NPR expand news, lower fees | date=May 24, 2004 | accessdate=October 2, 2006 | last=Janssen | first=Mike | work=[[Current.org]] }}</ref> The [[Financial endowment|endowment fund]] before the gift totaled $35 million.  NPR will use the interest from the bequest to expand its news staff and reduce some member stations' fees.<ref name=nyt/> The 2005 budget was about US$120 million.
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[[Ken Stern]] became chief executive in September 2006, reportedly as the "hand-picked successor" of CEO Kevin Klose, who gave up the job but remained as NPR's president; Stern had worked with Klose at [[Radio Free Europe]].<ref name="washpost2008"/>
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On December 10, 2008, NPR announced that it would reduce its workforce by 7% and cancel the news programs ''[[Day to Day]]'' and ''[[News & Notes]]''.<ref name="NPRTCSPla">
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{{Cite news
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  | last      = Carney | first= Steve
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  | title      = National Public Radio to cut shows, personnel
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  | newspaper  = [[Los Angeles Times]]
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  | date      = December 10, 2008
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  | accessdate = December 11, 2008
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  | url = http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/entertainmentnewsbuzz/2008/12/national-public.html }}
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</ref>  The organization indicated this was in response to a rapid drop in corporate [[underwriting]] in the wake of the [[economic crisis of 2008]].<ref name="NPRTCSPla" />
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In the fall of 2008, NPR programming reached a record 27.5 million people weekly, according to Arbitron ratings figures. NPR stations reach 32.7 million listeners overall.<ref name=audiencefigures>{{cite web |url= http://www.npr.org/about/press/2009/032409.AudienceRecord.html |title=NPR reaches new audience high | work= Press release |publisher=NPR |date=March 24, 2009  |accessdate=August 24, 2010}}</ref>
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In March 2008, the NPR Board announced that Stern would be stepping down from his role as Chief Executive Officer, following conflict with NPR's Board of Directors "over the direction of the organization", including issues NPR's member station managers had had with NPR's expansion into [[new media]] "at the expense of serving" the stations that financially support NPR.<ref name="washpost2008">[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/06/AR2008030603473.html NPR Leader out After Board Clash], ''[[Washington Post]]'', March 6, 2008.</ref>
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As of 2009, corporate sponsorship made up 26% of the NPR budget.<ref name="npr" />
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===2010s===
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In July 2010, the former National Public Radio renamed itself NPR.  Affiliated stations and staff were instructed to use the initials NPR.<ref name="WashPostNPRNameChange" /><ref>https://secure.nprlabs.org/powercalc/</ref>
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In October 2010, NPR accepted a $1.8 million grant from the [[Open Society Institute]]. The grant is meant to begin a project called Impact of Government that is intended to add at least 100 journalists at NPR member radio stations in all 50 states over the next three years.<ref name=NYTSoros>{{cite news
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| title = The Situation Room
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| network = [[CNN]]
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| airdate = October 22, 2010
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| url = http://archives.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/1010/22/sitroom.02.html
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}}</ref>  The OSI has made previous donations, but does not take on air credit for its gifts.<ref name="Chiu">Lisa Chiu, [http://philanthropy.com/article/Secret-Tape-Explores/126802/], "
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Secret Recording Explores Relationship Between Billionaire Soros and NPR,"  The Chronicle of Philanthropy, March 17, 2011</ref>
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==Governance==
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[[File:National Public Radio headquarters.jpg|thumb|right|NPR headquarters at 635 [[Massachusetts Avenue (Washington, D.C.)|Massachusetts Avenue]] NW in Washington, D.C.]]
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NPR is a membership corporation. Member stations are required to be [[non-commercial]] or [[non-commercial educational]] radio stations, have at least five full-time professional employees, operate for at least 18 hours per day, and not be designed solely to further a [[Religious broadcasting]] philosophy or be used for classroom [[Distance learning]] programming. Each member station receives one vote at the annual NPR board meetings—exercised by its designated Authorized Station Representative ("A-Rep").
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To oversee the day-to-day operations and prepare its budget, members elect a Board of Directors. This board is composed of ten A-Reps, five members of the general public, and the chair of the NPR Foundation.  Terms are for three years and rotate such that some stand for election every year.<ref>[http://www.current.org/pbpb/documents/NPRbylaws99.html NPR Bylaws]; Public Broadcasting Policy Base; January 20, 1999</ref>
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The original purposes of NPR, as ratified by the Board of Directors, are the following:
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*Provide an identifiable daily product which is consistent and reflects the highest standards of broadcast journalism.
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*Provide extended coverage of public events, issues and ideas, and to acquire and produce special public affairs programs.
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*Acquire and produce cultural programs which can be scheduled individually by stations.
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*Provide access to the intellectual and cultural resources of cities, universities and rural districts through a system of cooperative program development with member public radio stations.
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*Develop and distribute programs for specific groups ([[Adult education]], instruction, modular units for local productions) which may meet needs of individual regions or groups, but may not have general national relevance.
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*Establish liaison with foreign broadcasters for a program exchange service.
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*Produce materials specifically intended to develop the art and technical potential of radio.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.current.org/pbpb/documents/NPRpurposes.html|title=National Public Radio Purposes|work=Public Broadcasting PolicyBase at [[Current.org]] |last=Siemering|first=William|date=November 29, 1999|accessdate=October 2, 2006}}</ref>
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{{As of|2012|05}}, the Board of Directors of NPR included the following members:
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;NPR Member Station Managers
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*Dave Edwards; Director/General Manager, [[WUWM]], [[Milwaukee, Wisconsin]] – (Chair of the Board, NPR)
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*Bill Davis; President and CEO, [[Southern California Public Radio]]
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*Jose Fajardo; President and CEO, [[WMFE-FM|WMFE]], [[Orlando, Florida]]
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*Betsy Gardella; President and CEO, [[New Hampshire Public Radio]]
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*Kit Jensen; Chief Operating Officer [[WVIZ|WVIZ/PBS]] & 90.3 [[WCPN|WCPN Ideastream]], [[Cleveland, Ohio]]
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*Caryn Mathes; General Manager, [[WAMU]], Washington, DC
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*Greg Petrowich; Executive Director, [[WSIU (FM)|WSIU Public Broadcasting]], [[Carbondale, Illinois]]
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*Florence Rogers; President and General Manager, [[Nevada Public Radio]]
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*Marita Rivero; Vice President and General Manager for Radio and Television, [[WGBH (FM)|WGBH]], [[Boston, Massachusetts]]
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*Roger Sarow; President, [[WFAE]], [[Charlotte, North Carolina]]
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*Bruce Bergethon; General Manager, [[WGLT]], [[Normal, Illinois]]
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;President of NPR
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*[[Gary Knell]], President and CEO (December 1, 2011– )
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;Chair of the NPR Foundation
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*Antoine W. van Agtmael; Chair, NPR Foundation; Chairman and Chief Investment Officer, Emerging Markets Management, LLP
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;Public Members of the Board
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*[[Carol A. Cartwright]]; Former President, [[Bowling Green State University]]
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*Patricia Diaz Dennis; Senior Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, Retired, [[AT&T]]
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*Paul Haaga; Chairman of the Board, Capital Research and Management Company
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*Eduardo A. Hauser; Chief Executive Officer, DailyMe, Inc.
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*John A. Herrmann, Jr.; Vice Chairman, Lincoln International
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==Funding==
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In 2010, NPR revenues totaled $180 million, with the bulk of revenues coming from programming fees, [[Grant (money)|grants]] from [[foundation (charity)|foundation]]s or business entities, contributions and [[Sponsor (commercial)|sponsorships]].<ref name="npr" /> According to the 2009 financial statement, about 50% of NPR revenues come from the fees it charges member stations for programming and distribution charges.<ref name="npr" /> Typically, NPR member stations receive funds through on-air [[pledge drive]]s, corporate underwriting, state and local governments, educational institutions, and the federally funded [[Corporation for Public Broadcasting|Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB)]].  In 2009, member stations derived 6% of their revenue from federal, state and local government funding, 10% of their revenue from [[Corporation for Public Broadcasting|CPB]] grants, and 14% of their revenue from universities.<ref name = "npr">{{cite web| url= http://www.npr.org/about/aboutnpr/publicradiofinances.html |title=Public Radio Finances |publisher=NPR |accessdate=October 22, 2010}}</ref><ref name="NPR Responds">{{cite web|url=http://www.weeklystandard.com/weblogs/TWSFP/2009/02/npr_responds.asp|title=NPR Responds|accessdate = January 14, 2010}}</ref> While NPR does not receive any direct federal funding, it does receive a small number of competitive grants from CPB and federal agencies like the Department of Education and the Department of Commerce. This funding amounts to approximately 2% of NPR’s overall revenues.<ref name="npr" />
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During the 1970s and early 1980s, the majority of NPR funding came from the federal government. Steps were taken during the 1980s to completely wean NPR from government support, but [[#History|the 1983 funding crisis]] forced the network to make immediate changes. Now more money to fund the NPR network is raised from listeners, charitable [[foundation (charity)|foundations]] and corporations instead.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}} According to [[Corporation for Public Broadcasting|CPB]], in 2009 11.3% of the aggregate revenues of all public radio broadcasting stations were funded from federal sources, principally through CPB.<ref name="CPB2009">{{cite web |url= http://www.cpb.org/stations/reports/revenue/2009PublicBroadcastingRevenue.pdf |title=Table 2 Public Broadcasting Revenue by Public Television and Radio System and Source of Revenue, Fiscal Year 2008–2009 |work= Public Broadcasting Revenue Fiscal Year 2009 |publisher=Corporation for Public Broadcasting |accessdate=August 5, 2011}}</ref>
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===Underwriting spots vs. commercials===
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In contrast with [[commercial broadcasting]], NPR does not carry traditional radio commercials, but has advertising in the form of brief statements from major donors. These statements are called [[underwriting spot]]s and, unlike commercials, are governed by specific FCC restrictions in addition to [[truth in advertising]] laws; they cannot advocate a product or "promote the goods and services" of for-profit entities.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Public and Broadcasting|url=http://www.fcc.gov/guides/public-and-broadcasting-july-2008#UNDERWRITING|publisher=Federal Communications Commission|accessdate=3 March 2013|year=2008}}</ref>
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==Listenership==
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According to a 2009 Washington Post article,<ref>{{cite news|last=Farhi|first=Paul|title=Good News for NPR: Its Most Listeners Ever|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/03/23/AR2009032302972.html|accessdate=7 March 2013|newspaper=Washington Post|date=24 March 2009}}</ref> about 20.9 million listeners tune in to NPR each week. The average listener is 49 years old,<ref>{{cite web|title=Audience|url=http://www.npr.org/about/aboutnpr/audience.html|publisher=NPR|accessdate=7 March 2013}}</ref>and earns an annual household income (HHI) of US$93,000. As of 2006, NPR's listenership is 80% [[white people|white]] and 20% non-white.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.onthemedia.org/transcripts/2006/09/01/08 |title=The Listeners of National Public Radio |publisher=Onthemedia.org |date=September 1, 2006 |accessdate=August 24, 2010}}</ref> While [[Arbitron]] tracks public radio listenership, they do not include public radio in their published rankings of radio stations.
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NPR stations generally do not subscribe to the [[Arbitron|Arbitron rating service]], and are not included in published ratings and rankings such as ''[[Radio & Records]]''.  However, NPR station listenership is measured by Arbitron in both Diary and PPM (people meter) markets.  NPR stations are frequently not included in "summary level" diary data used by most advertising agencies for media planning.  Data on NPR listening can be accessed using "respondent level" diary data.  Additionally, all radio stations (public and commercial) are treated equally within the PPM data sets making NPR station listenership data much more widely available to the media planning community.  According to Artitron's National Broadcast Audience Estimate report for September 29, 2011,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.npr.org/templates/archives/archive.php?thingId=125885971 |title=Audience Estimates |publisher=NPR |accessdate=2012-02-16}}</ref> NPR's signature morning news program, "[[Morning Edition]]", is the network's most popular program, drawing 12.9 million listeners a week, with its afternoon newsmagazine, "[[All Things Considered]]", a close second, with 12.2 million listeners a week. Arbitron data is also provided by [[Radio Research Consortium]], a non-profit corporation which subscribes to the Aribtron service and distributes the data to NPR and other non-commercial stations and on its website.<ref name=sfcron>{{cite news | first=Ben | last=Fong-Torres | title=Radio Waves | date=March 12, 2006 | url =http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/03/12/PKGU9GINB71.DTL | work =San Francisco Chronicle | accessdate = April 26, 2008 }}</ref> In a Harris telephone survey conducted in 2005, NPR was the most trusted news source in the U.S.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA6282871.html?display=Breaking+News&referral=SUPP|title=Survey Says: Noncom News Most Trusted | work=Broadcasting & Cable | date=November 10, 2005 | accessdate=October 2, 2006 | last=Eggerton | first=John}}</ref>
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== Digital media ==
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NPR's history in [[digital media]] includes the work of an independent, for-profit company called Public Interactive, which was founded in 1999<ref name="PRINPR2008"/> and acquired by [[Public Radio International|PRI]] in June 2004, when it became a non-profit company.<ref name="nprDS2004">{{cite web|url=http://info.ds.npr.org/060204release.html |title=Public Interactive Press Area |publisher=NPR |date=June 2, 2004 |accessdate= 2012-02-16}}</ref> By July 2008, Public Interactive had "170 subscribers who collectively operate 325 public radio and television stations" and clients such as ''[[Car Talk]]'', ''[[The World (radio program)|The World]]'', and ''[[The Tavis Smiley Show]]''; by the end of that month, NPR acquired Public Interactive from PRI<ref name="PRINPR2008">{{cite web|url=http://www.npr.org/about/press/2008/073108.PublicInteractive.html |title=PRI And NPR Announce Deal To Grow Public Interactive, Public Media's Leading Web Services Company |publisher=NPR |date= July 31, 2008 |accessdate= 2012-02-16}}</ref>  In March 2011, NPR revealed a restructuring proposal in which Boston-based Public Interactive would become NPR Digital Services, separate from the Washington D.C.-based NPR Digital Media, which focuses on NPR-branded services.<ref name="NPRDigital2011">{{cite web|first=Karen|last= Everhart |url=http://www.current.org/web/web1105pi.html |title=Web infrastructure for pubmedia, 2011 |publisher= Current.org |date=March 7, 2011 |accessdate=2012-02-16}}</ref> NPR Digital Services would continue offering its services to public TV stations.<ref name="NPRDigital2011"/>
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The technical backbone of its digital news publishing system is Core Publisher, which was built on [[Drupal]], the open-source [[content management system]].<ref name="NPRDigital2011"/>
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NPR has been dubbed as "leveraging the Twitter generation", because of its adaptation of the popular microblogging service as one of its primary vehicles of information. Of NPR’s Twitter followers, the majority (67%) still do listen to NPR on the radio. According to Mashable.com, in a survey of more than 10,000 respondents, NPR found that its Twitter (Twitter) followers are younger, more connected to the social web, and more likely to access content through digital platforms such as [http://www.npr.org/ NPR’s website], [http://www.npr.org/rss/podcast/podcast_directory.php podcasts], [http://www.npr.org/services/mobile/ mobile apps] and more. [http://twitter.com/npr NPR has more than one Twitter account]; its survey found that most respondents followed between two and five NPR accounts, including topical account, show-specific accounts and on-air staff accounts.<ref>{{cite web| last = Spiegel| first = Rachel| title = Research: Thalido…| url=http://science-educat…| accessdate = April 30, 2006 }}</ref>
+
In addition, [https://www.facebook.com/NPR NPR's Facebook Page] has been at the forefront of the company foray into social media. Started by college student and fan Geoff Campbell<ref>{{cite web| last = Campbell| first = Geoff| title =Mount Allison student gets Facebook ball rolling for American media organization, NPR| url=http://www.mta.ca/news/index.php?id=3518#3518| accessdate = March 2, 2011 }}</ref> in 2008, the page was quickly taken over by the organization,<ref>{{cite web| last = Campbell| first = Geoff| title =How Andy Carvin took over NPR's Facebook Page from Student/Creator Geoff Campbell | url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wwHvlZmr9KI| accessdate = March 2, 2011 }}</ref> and over the last two years has grown to over 2.2 million fans and is a popular example of the company's new focus on a younger audience.<ref>{{cite web| last =Tenore| first = Mallary Jean | title =Carvin: Facebook Lets NPR Empower Those Who Love Us, Listen to Those Who Don’t| url=http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/top-stories/104499/carvin-facebook-lets-npr-empower-those-who-love-us-listen-to-those-who-dont/| accessdate = March 2, 2011 }}</ref>
+
 
+
==Programming==
+
 
+
===Programs produced by NPR===
+
 
+
====News and public affairs programs====
+
[[File:NPR News logo.png|thumb|NPR News logo]]
+
NPR produces a morning and an afternoon news program, both of which also have weekend editions with different hosts. It also produces hourly news briefs around the clock. NPR formerly distributed the [[WRN Broadcast|World Radio Network]], a daily compilation of news reports from international radio news, but no longer does so.
+
 
+
* ''[[All Things Considered]]'', hosted by [[Robert Siegel]], [[Audie Cornish]] and [[Melissa Block]]
+
** ''[[Weekend All Things Considered]]'', hosted by [[Guy Raz]]
+
* ''[[Morning Edition]]'', hosted by [[Steve Inskeep]] and [[Renée Montagne]]
+
** ''[[Radio Expeditions]]'' (with the [[National Geographic Society]])
+
** ''[[Weekend Edition|Weekend Edition Saturday]]'', hosted by [[Scott Simon]]
+
** ''[[Weekend Edition|Weekend Edition Sunday]]'', hosted by [[Linda Wertheimer]]
+
* ''[[Talk of the Nation]]'': public affairs call-in (host [[Neal Conan]])
+
** ''[[Science Friday]]'': science issues call-in (host [[Ira Flatow]])
+
* ''[[Tell Me More]]'': public affairs/interviews (host [[Michel Martin]])
+
 
+
====Cultural programming====
+
* ''[[All Songs Considered]]'', hosted by [[Bob Boilen]]
+
* In 2000, NPR co-produced and distributed ''[[2000X]]'', a [[Hollywood Theater of the Ear]] production of science fiction radio plays, presented as part of ''[[NPR Playhouse]]''
+
* ''[[Earplay]]'', a radio drama anthology (1971–1981)
+
* ''[[Jazz Profiles]]'', hosted by [[Nancy Wilson (singer)|Nancy Wilson]], NPR Jazz
+
* ''NPR World of Opera'', hosted by [[Lisa Simeone]]
+
* ''[[The Thistle & Shamrock]]'', Celtic music hosted by [[Fiona Ritchie]]
+
* ''[[Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me!]]'', a humorous news quiz co-produced with [[Chicago Public Radio]] and hosted by [[Peter Sagal]]
+
* ''[[A Way With Words]]'', a show that answers language questions produced by Wayword LLC and hosted by [[Martha Barnette]] and [[Grant Barrett]]
+
 
+
===Programs distributed by NPR===
+
 
+
====News and public affairs====
+
* ''[[America Abroad]]'', international affairs program hosted by [[Ray Suarez]] (PRI and NPR Worldwide)
+
* ''[[American RadioWorks]]'', provider of documentaries on [[Morning Edition]] and [[All Things Considered]] hosted by [[Ray Suarez]] ([[American Public Media]])
+
* ''[[The Diane Rehm Show]]'', public affairs call-in program hosted by [[Diane Rehm]] ([[WAMU]])
+
* ''[[Fresh Air]]'', interviews with cultural news-makers hosted by [[Terry Gross]] ([[WHYY-FM|WHYY]])
+
* ''[[Justice Talking]]'', legal issues hosted by [[Margot Adler]] ([[Annenberg Public Policy Center|University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg Public Policy Center]])
+
* ''[[Latino USA]]'', Latino issues hosted by [[Maria Hinojosa]] ([[KUT-FM|KUT]])
+
* ''[[On Point]]'', public affairs call-in program hosted by [[Tom Ashbrook]] ([[WBUR]])
+
* ''[[On the Media]]'', media issues hosted by [[Brooke Gladstone]] and [[Bob Garfield]] ([[WNYC]])
+
* ''[[Tech Nation]]'' with regular segment ''[[BioTech Nation]]'', impact of technology and science on modern life hosted by [[Moira Gunn]]  ([[Tech Nation Media]] at [[KQED]])
+
 
+
====Cultural programs====
+
* ''[[The Business (radio)|The Business]]'', [[film industry]] news hosted by [[Claude Brodesser]] [[KCRW]]
+
* ''[[Car Talk]]'', humorous automotive advice hosted by [[Tom Magliozzi]] and [[Ray Magliozzi]] ([[WBUR]])
+
* [http://www.uh.edu/engines/ ''Engines of Our Ingenuity''], hosted by John Lienhard, ([[KUHF]])
+
* ''[[From the Top]]'', A program showcasing young Classical Musicians between the ages of 8–18
+
* ''JazzSet'', hosted by [[Dee Dee Bridgewater]] ([[WBGO]])
+
* [[Only A Game]], sports issues hosted by Bill Littlefield ([[WBUR]])
+
* ''[[Piano Jazz]]'', hosted by [[Marian McPartland]] ([[South Carolina Educational Television|South Carolina ETV Radio]])
+
* ''[[Says You!]]'', word game show ([[WGBH (FM)|WGBH]])
+
*''Snap Judgment'', hosted by [[Glynn Washington]]
+
*''[[State of the Re:Union]]'', hosted by [[Al Letson]]
+
*''[[World Cafe]]'', a 2-hour music program featuring both recorded music and interviews and live in-studio performances, hosted by David Dye, ([[WXPN]])
+
 
+
===Public radio programs not affiliated with NPR===
+
Individual NPR stations can broadcast programming from sources that have no formal affiliation with NPR. If these programs are distributed by another distributor, a public radio station must also affiliate with that network to take that network's programming.
+
 
+
* ''[[Ask Dr. Science]]'', nonsequitur science humor
+
* ''[[BBC World Service]]'', world news produced by the [[BBC]] in the [[United Kingdom]], distributed by [[Public Radio International]]
+
* ''[[Earth & Sky]]'', a clear voice for science, nature and people in a complex world, hosted by Deborah Byrd and Joel Block
+
* ''[[Echoes (radio program)|Echoes]]'', a daily program of ambient, new age, and electronic music hosted by [[John Diliberto]]
+
* ''[[Forum (KQED)|Forum]]'', call-in panel discussion program, wide-ranging national and local topics hosted by [[Michael Krasny (talk show host)|Michael Krasny]] ([[KQED-FM]]).
+
* ''[[Hearts of Space]]'', a weekly program of [[Ambient Music|Ambient]], [[Space music|Space]], and contemplative music hosted by [[Stephen Hill (broadcaster)|Stephen Hill]], San Rafael, Calif.
+
* ''[[Here and Now (Boston)|Here and Now]]'', news, current affairs and culture hosted by [[Robin Young]] ([[WBUR]]), distributed by [[Public Radio International]]
+
* ''[[Jazz from Lincoln Center]]'', [[Wynton Marsalis]], hosted by [[Ed Bradley]], [[Murray Street Productions]]
+
* ''[[The Merrow Report]]'', education issues hosted by [[John Merrow]], [[Learning Matters Inc.]]
+
* ''[[The People's Pharmacy]]'', a call-in and interview program on personal health from [[WUNC (FM)|WUNC]] in Chapel Hill, N.C.
+
* ''[[Philosophy Talk]]'', everyday topics examined through a philosophical lens, hosted by Stanford philosophy professors [[John Perry (philosopher)|John Perry]] and [[Kenneth Allen Taylor|Ken Taylor]], produced by [[Ben Manilla]] Productions.
+
* ''[[Planetary Radio]]'', [[space exploration]] radio program hosted by [[Mat Kaplan]], The [[Planetary Society]], Pasadena, Calif.
+
* ''[[Pulse of the Planet]]'', a daily 2-minute sound portrait of Planet Earth, hosted by Jim Metzner.
+
* ''[[The Radio Reader]]'', readings of recently released books
+
* ''[[Selected Shorts]]'', dramatic readings hosted by [[Isaiah Sheffer]], [[Symphony Space]], ([[WNYC]]) and distributed by [[Public Radio International]]
+
* ''[[The Takeaway]]'', a daily news program hosted by John Hockenberry and distributed by [[Public Radio International]]
+
* ''[[StarDate (radio)|StarDate]]'', short segments relating to science and astronomy from the [[University of Texas at Austin]]'s [[McDonald Observatory]] hosted by Sandy Wood.
+
* ''[[Sunday Baroque]]'', baroque and early music hosted by Suzanne Bona ([[WSHU-FM]])
+
* ''[[This American Life]]'', stories of real life hosted by [[Ira Glass]], distributed by [[Public Radio International]]
+
* ''[[WireTap (radio program)|WireTap]]'', comedy radio program hosted by [[Jonathan Goldstein (author)|Jonathan Goldstein]] of [[CBC Radio One]] and distributed by [[Public Radio International]] in the United States.
+
 
+
Many shows produced or distributed by [[Public Radio International]]—such as ''[[This American Life]]'', ''[[Living on Earth]]'' and ''[[Michael Feldman's Whad'Ya Know?|Whad'Ya Know?]]''—are broadcast on public radio stations, but are not affiliated with NPR. PRI and NPR are separate production and distribution organizations with distinct missions, and each competes with the other for programming slots on public radio stations.
+
 
+
[[Public Radio Exchange]] also offers a national distribution network where a significant number of public radio stations go to acquire programs from independent producers. PRX provides a catalog of thousands of radio pieces available on-demand as broadcast quality audio files and available for streaming on the PRX.org website.
+
 
+
Most public radio stations are NPR member stations and affiliate stations of PRI, APM, and PRX ''at the same time''. The organizations have different governance structures and missions and relationships with stations. Other popular shows, like ''[[A Prairie Home Companion]]'' and ''[[Marketplace (radio program)|Marketplace]]'', are produced by [[American Public Media]], the national programming unit of [[Minnesota Public Radio]]. These programs were distributed by Public Radio International prior to APM's founding. ''[[Democracy Now!]]'', the flagship news program of the [[Pacifica Radio]] network, provides a feed to NPR stations, and other Pacifica programs can occasionally be heard on these stations as well.
+
 
+
Additionally, NPR member stations distribute a series of [[podcast]]-only programs, such as ''[[Planet Money]]'', ''On Gambling with Mike Pesca'', ''Groove Salad'', and ''Youthcast'', which are designed for younger audiences.
+
  
 
==Controversies==
 
==Controversies==
{{Main|NPR controversies}}
 
  
Over the course of NPR's history, controversies have arisen over several incidents and topics.
+
[[NPR]]'s [[Nina Totenberg]] said on air of Sen. [[Jesse Helms]]' claim that the government may be spending too much on AIDS research,  
 +
:''I think he ought to be worried about what's going on in the Good Lord's mind, because if there is retributive justice, he'll get AIDS from a transfusion, or one of his grandchildren will get it."''<ref>Nina Totenberg of National Public Radio, July 8, 1995, Inside Washington. [http://reason.com/blog/2010/10/21/what-wont-get-you-fired-from-n]</ref>
  
===Allegations of ideological bias===
+
New Orleans-based National Public Radio commentator Andrei Codrescu said of [[Christian]]s,  
NPR has been accused of displaying both liberal bias, as alleged in work such as a [[UCLA]] and [[University of Missouri]] study of ''Morning Edition'', and conservative bias, including criticism of alleged reliance on conservative [[think-tank]]s.<ref name=OTM_Bias>{{cite web|title=Does Public Radio Have A Liberal Bias? The Finale!|url=http://www.onthemedia.org/2011/mar/18/does-npr-have-a-liberal-bias/transcript/|work=On The Media|publisher=WNYC|accessdate=September 4, 2011|format=Radio Transcript|date=25|month=March|year=2011}}</ref>  NPR has also been accused of bias related to specific topics, including support of the [[2003 Invasion of Iraq]], and coverage of [[Israel]]. The NPR ombudsman has described how NPR's coverage of the Israel-Palestinian conflict has been simultaneously criticized as biased by both sides.<ref>[http://www.npr.org/blogs/ombudsman/2010/06/17/127895293/listeners-hear-same-israeli-palestinian-coverage-differently Listeners Hear Same Israeli-Palestinian Coverage Differently]; NPR Ombudsman; June 18, 2010</ref> University of Texas journalism professor and author, [[Robert Jensen]], has criticized NPR for its pro-war stance during coverage of Iraq war protests.<ref>[http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~rjensen/freelance/attack52.htm Published Articles – 2003]; University of Texas, Robert Jensen</ref>
+
  
Surveys and follow-up focus groups conducted by the Tarrance Group and Lake Snell Perry & Associates have indicated that, "The majority of the U.S. adult population does not believe that the news and information programming on public broadcasting is biased. The plurality of Americans indicate that there is no apparent bias one way or the other, while approximately two-in-ten detect a liberal bias and approximately one-in-ten detect a conservative bias."<ref>[http://www.cpb.org/aboutcpb/goals/objectivity/pollsummary.html Public Perceptions of Public Broadcasting]; Corporation for Public Broadcasting; December 2003</ref>
+
:''The [[Rapture]], and I quote, 'is the immediate departure from this Earth of over four million people in less than a fifth of a second,' unquote. This happily-volatilized mass of the saved were born again in [[Jesus Christ]]....The evaporation of four million people who believe this crap would leave the world an instantly better place.''<ref>Andrei Codrescu, ''All Things Considered'', December 19, 1995.</ref>
  
===''Live from Death Row'' commentaries===
+
Michel Martin, host of NPR’s ''Tell Me More'', on [[CNN]] had this exchange with Margeret Carlson:
In 1994, NPR arranged to air on ''All Things Considered'', a series of three minute commentaries by [[Mumia Abu-Jamal]], a journalist convicted in a controversial trial, of murdering a police officer. They cancelled airing them after the [[Fraternal Order of Police]] and members of the U.S. Congress objected.<ref name=WaPoAbul-Jamal>{{Cite news
+
  | title = Judge Dismisses Inmate's Suit Against NPR
+
  |work=The Washington Post
+
  | date = August 22, 1997}}</ref>
+
  
===Juan Williams comments===
+
:MARGARET CARLSON: ''And wouldn’t it be a great thing if they moved it a few blocks? And Muslims and Americans who still worry would be talking to each other. Let’s compromise.''
On October 20, 2010, NPR terminated Senior News Analyst [[Juan Williams]]'s independent contract<ref name=WilliamsIndep>{{cite news
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:MICHEL MARTIN (NPR): ''Why should they move it?''
| url =http://content.usatoday.com/communities/ondeadline/post/2010/10/npr-news-dumps-analyst-juan-williams-over-comments-about-muslims-/1?csp=34news
+
:CARLSON: ''Well, why don’t we compromise?''
| title = Update: NPR exec says Juan Williams crossed the line before
+
:MARTIN (NPR): ''Did anybody move a Catholic church? Did anybody move a Christian church after [[Timothy McVeigh]] – who adhered to a cultic, white supremacist cultic version of Christianity – [[Oklahoma City bombing|bombed the Murrah building in Oklahoma]]?''<ref>CNN's ''Reliable Sources'', August 22, 2010.</ref>
| last = Stanglin
+
| first = Doug
+
| date = October 21, 2010
+
| accessdate = October 21, 2010
+
|work=USA Today}}</ref> over a series of incidents culminating in remarks he made on the [[Fox News Channel]] regarding Muslims.
+
  
===Ronald Schiller comments===
+
==See also==
In March 2011 conservative political provocateur [[James O'Keefe]] sent partners Simon Templar (a [[nom de plume]]) and Shaughn Adeleye<ref name = nprexec>{{cite news|publisher = [[Politico (newspaper)|Politico]]|url = http://www.politico.com/blogs/onmedia/0311/NPR_exec_tea_party_is_scary_racist.html?showall|date = March 8, 2011|title = NPR exec: tea party is ‘scary,’ ‘racist’|first = Keach|last = Hagey}}</ref> to secretly record their discussion with [[Ronald Schiller]], NPR's outgoing senior vice president for [[fundraising]], and an associate, in which Schiller made remarks viewed as disparaging of the Tea Party and conservatives, and controversial comments regarding Palestine and funding for NPR. Schiller immediately resigned, and NPR disavowed Schiller's comments. CEO [[Vivian Schiller]], who is not related to Ronald, later resigned over the fallout from the comments and the previous firing of Juan Williams.<ref>{{cite news | author = Mark Memmott | title = NPR CEO Vivian Schiller resigns | publisher = NPR | date=March 9, 2011 | accessdate = March 9, 2011 | url = http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/03/09/134388981/npr-ceo-vivian-schiller-resigns}}</ref>
+
*[[Juan Williams]]
  
==See also==
+
==Further reading==
*[[American Public Media]]
+
* McCauley, Michael. ''NPR: The Trials and Triumphs of National Public Radio'' (2005) [http://www.amazon.com/NPR-Trials-Triumphs-National-Public/dp/0231121601/ref=sr_11_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1239155049&sr=11-1 excerpt and text search]
*[[Australian Broadcasting Corporation]]
+
*[[BBC Radio]]
+
*[[Canadian Broadcasting Corporation]]
+
*[[List of NPR personnel]]
+
*[[List of NPR stations]]
+
*[[Pacifica Radio]]
+
*[[Public Broadcasting Service]]
+
*[[Public Radio International]]
+
*[[Public Radio Satellite System]]
+
  
==References==
+
== References ==
{{Reflist|2}}
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{{reflist|2}}
  
==External links==
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==See Also==
*[http://www.wuot.org/h/underwriting/demographics.html NPR demographics]
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[[Previous Breaking News/National Public Radio|Articles about '''National Public Radio''' from previous "Breaking News"]]
* {{Facebook|NPR|NPR}}
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* {{Google+|+NPR}}
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* {{twitter|NPR|@NPR}}
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{{White House James S. Brady Press Briefing Room Seating Chart}}<small><references/></small>
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==External Links==
{{World Radio Network}}
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*http://www.npr.org/ Official Website
{{NPR}}
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*[http://newsbusters.org/media-topics/radio/npr ''NewsBusters section on NPR'']
{{NPR Radio stations}}
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{{American broadcast radio}}
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{{SiriusChannels (talk)}}
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{{XMChannels (talk)}}
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{{Telecommunications}}
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[[Category:Companies established in 1970]]
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[[Category:Podcasting companies]]
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[[Category:Publicly funded broadcasters]]
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[[Category:Sirius Satellite Radio channels]]
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[[Category:XM Satellite Radio channels]]
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[[Category:United States National Medal of Arts recipients]]
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[[Category:American radio networks]]
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[[Category:Corporation for Public Broadcasting]]
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[[Category:Radio broadcasting companies of the United States]]
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Revision as of 16:46, 20 March 2013

NPR logo.png

National Public Radio (NPR) is a not-for-profit organization which produces and broadcasts various fair and balanced radio programs including news, talk shows, and entertainment. The audience of NPR listeners has grown exponentially since the organization's inception in 1970. Currently, NPR reports that 26 million Americans tune in each week.[1] Not only does NPR boast a large weekly audience, it also produces the two most listened-to radio programs on public radio: Morning Edition and All Things Considered. A November 2005 Poll showed NPR to be the most trusted radio-broadcast news network in the United States.[2]

NPR, along with PBS, has been acclaimed for high level journalism that seeks to speak to everybody regardless of education and location on the political spectrum. According to NPR, "NPR supports its operations through a combination of membership dues and programming fees from over 860 independent radio stations, sponsorship from private foundations and corporations, and revenue from the sales of transcripts, books, CDs, and merchandise. A very small percentage -- between one percent to two percent of NPR's annual budget -- comes from competitive grants sought by NPR from federally funded organizations, such as the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, National Science Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts."[3]

All Things Considered

Robert Siegel chats about Conservapedia with Andrew Schlafly March 13, 2007. [4]

Controversies

NPR's Nina Totenberg said on air of Sen. Jesse Helms' claim that the government may be spending too much on AIDS research,

I think he ought to be worried about what's going on in the Good Lord's mind, because if there is retributive justice, he'll get AIDS from a transfusion, or one of his grandchildren will get it."[5]

New Orleans-based National Public Radio commentator Andrei Codrescu said of Christians,

The Rapture, and I quote, 'is the immediate departure from this Earth of over four million people in less than a fifth of a second,' unquote. This happily-volatilized mass of the saved were born again in Jesus Christ....The evaporation of four million people who believe this crap would leave the world an instantly better place.[6]

Michel Martin, host of NPR’s Tell Me More, on CNN had this exchange with Margeret Carlson:

MARGARET CARLSON: And wouldn’t it be a great thing if they moved it a few blocks? And Muslims and Americans who still worry would be talking to each other. Let’s compromise.
MICHEL MARTIN (NPR): Why should they move it?
CARLSON: Well, why don’t we compromise?
MARTIN (NPR): Did anybody move a Catholic church? Did anybody move a Christian church after Timothy McVeigh – who adhered to a cultic, white supremacist cultic version of Christianity – bombed the Murrah building in Oklahoma?[7]

See also

Further reading

References

  1. http://www.npr.org/about/growth.html
  2. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA6282871.html?display=Breaking+News&referral=SUPP
  3. NPR.org, Annual Reports, Audited Financial Statements, and Form 990s, retrieved 28 March, 2009 [1]
  4. NPR, All Things Considered, Conservapedia: Data for Birds of a Political Feather?, by Robert Siegel, March 13, 2007 [2]
  5. Nina Totenberg of National Public Radio, July 8, 1995, Inside Washington. [3]
  6. Andrei Codrescu, All Things Considered, December 19, 1995.
  7. CNN's Reliable Sources, August 22, 2010.

See Also

Articles about National Public Radio from previous "Breaking News"

External Links