# Difference between revisions of "Natural number"

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(The grade-school math textbook I'm using specifically excludes zero) |
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− | In [[mathematics]], a '''"natural" number''' is a number from the set {1,2,3,...}.<ref>0 is usually included in the list of natural numbers in modern textbooks (Bourbaki 1968, Halmos 1974). Older books sometimes exclude [[zero]], as there is a long history of people thinking that zero is unnatural or not really a number. [[Bertrand Russell]] remarked on the trend to include zero in his 1919 book.[http://jeff560.tripod.com/n.html] Ribenboim (1996) states "Let P be a set of natural numbers; whenever convenient, it may be assumed that 0 in P." [http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NaturalNumber.html (Wolfram)] </ref> Natural numbers were used initially for [[counting]] ("there are three cows in this field"), but they took on the purpose of ordering as well ("She is the 2nd fastest person alive). These are specific instances of the more general notions of [[cardinality]] and [[ordinality]] which slowly become more complicated as one treats [[infinite]] numbers as well | + | In [[mathematics]], a '''"natural" number''' is a number from the set {0,1,2,3,...}.<ref>0 is usually included in the list of natural numbers in modern textbooks (Bourbaki 1968, Halmos 1974). Older books sometimes exclude [[zero]], as there is a long history of people thinking that zero is unnatural or not really a number. [[Bertrand Russell]] remarked on the trend to include zero in his 1919 book.[http://jeff560.tripod.com/n.html] Ribenboim (1996) states "Let P be a set of natural numbers; whenever convenient, it may be assumed that 0 in P." [http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NaturalNumber.html (Wolfram)]</ref> Natural numbers were used initially for [[counting]] ("there are three cows in this field"), but they took on the purpose of ordering as well ("She is the 2nd fastest person alive). These are specific instances of the more general notions of [[cardinality]] and [[ordinality]] which slowly become more complicated as one treats [[infinite]] numbers as well. |

==Axiomatization== | ==Axiomatization== | ||

In the late 19th century, [[Giuseppe Peano]] (August 27, 1858 – April 20, 1932) elaborated ''the'' axiomatic system for the Natural Numbers, later named [[Peano's Axioms|Peano Axioms]] in his honor. | In the late 19th century, [[Giuseppe Peano]] (August 27, 1858 – April 20, 1932) elaborated ''the'' axiomatic system for the Natural Numbers, later named [[Peano's Axioms|Peano Axioms]] in his honor. | ||

− | == | + | |

+ | ==References== | ||

<references/> | <references/> | ||

[[Category:Mathematics]] | [[Category:Mathematics]] |

## Latest revision as of 11:30, 13 July 2016

In mathematics, a **"natural" number** is a number from the set {0,1,2,3,...}.^{[1]} Natural numbers were used initially for counting ("there are three cows in this field"), but they took on the purpose of ordering as well ("She is the 2nd fastest person alive). These are specific instances of the more general notions of cardinality and ordinality which slowly become more complicated as one treats infinite numbers as well.

## Axiomatization

In the late 19th century, Giuseppe Peano (August 27, 1858 – April 20, 1932) elaborated *the* axiomatic system for the Natural Numbers, later named Peano Axioms in his honor.

## References

- ↑ 0 is usually included in the list of natural numbers in modern textbooks (Bourbaki 1968, Halmos 1974). Older books sometimes exclude zero, as there is a long history of people thinking that zero is unnatural or not really a number. Bertrand Russell remarked on the trend to include zero in his 1919 book.[1] Ribenboim (1996) states "Let P be a set of natural numbers; whenever convenient, it may be assumed that 0 in P." (Wolfram)