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A neuron or nerve cell is the functional cellular unit of the nervous system; along with the neuroglial cell it makes up all nervous tissue. The cell is divided into three major parts: the dendrites, soma or cell body, and the axon. The archetypal neuron receives input at the tips of the dendrites, integrates that information at the cell body and outputs an electrical impulse along the axon. However, there is significant variation in cellular architecture and function across the animal kingdom.


  • Martin, JH (2003). Neuroanatomy text and atlas 3rd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Kandel, ER; Schwartz JH, Jessell TM (2000). Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-7701-6.