Difference between revisions of "Persian empire"

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A succession of empires which ruled the Iranian plateau.  Persia was the “Land of the Aryans,and in 1935 the name Persia was changed simply to Iran.  
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The '''Persian Empire''', in antiquity, was the largest geographical empire in its time, at its height stretching from [[India]] (at the [[Ganges]] and [[Mula]], respectively) all the way into southern Europe and down to Egypt, primarily under [[Cyrus the Great]]. It had not known defeat until it was turned back in its efforts to conquer [[Ancient Greece]].  It had two capitals: [[Susa]] and [[Persepolis]].
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[[File:Darius.jpg|thumb|220px]]
  
The Aryans were nomadic people who migrated into India through the Kyber Pass around 1500 B.C. The language in ancient Persia was Avestan and in Northern India it was Sanskrit. All major European and Indian languages are considered related to it. Hebrew and Arabic are not.  
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Many dynasties have ruled Iran, starting with the Achaemenid (559-330 B.C.) founded by Cyrus the Great. After the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic period (300-250 B.C.) came the Parthian (250 B.C.-224 A.D.) and the Sassanian (224-651) dynasties.
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==Darius and Xerxes==
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The sixth millennium B.C. saw a fairly sophisticated agricultural society and proto-urban population centers.  The Persian Empire came into being in 539 B.C. with the defeat of the [[Babylonian Empire]] and continued under other famous rulers such as [[Darius]] and [[Xerxes]] until it was conquered and largely absorbed by [[Alexander the Great]] in 330 B.C.
  
After Darwin’s theory of evolution became popular in England and Germany, racists began to emerge who claimed that Aryans were superior. The worst of these were Houston Stewart Chamberlain, who insisted that Aryans were responsible for all of human progress, and that Jewish people were inferior because they did not descend from the Aryans (Hebrew did not descend from the Aryan language).
 
  
Persia’s glory days were from 550 to 331 B.C. It is during this time period that Persia is seen often in the Old Testament. When the Persians took over Babylon, Daniel served under Cyrus and Darius (who threw him into the lion’s den). The Persians are also seen in the Bible in the story of Esther, when King Xerxes I held what might be called a “Miss Persia” beauty contest. Esther, a beautiful Jewish girl, won the contest and would go on to save her people because of her remarkable courage.  
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==Bible==
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The Persian Empire and several of its rulers are discussed in the [[Bible]] in the books of [[Book of Daniel|Daniel]] and [[Book of Ester|Esther]].  Roughly sixty years after the death of Alexander the Pontics, Medes, and Ionian Gallatians revolted and separated themselves from the Seleucid state.  These peoples later amalgamated to form part of the Parthian Empire.
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==Later empire==
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[[File:Map of Persia - Bahrein.jpg|thumb|240px|Map of the Persian Gulf, 1747.]]
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The later Persian (Sasanian) Empire was founded by Ardashir I in 224 A.D., when he defeated the last Parthian king.<ref>Maria Brosius. ''The Persians; an Introduction''; Routledge; Oxon. 139, (2006)</ref> The Sasanian Empire was, like its Parthian predecessor, involved in a number of wars with the [[Roman Empire]], and in 260 even captured the Roman Emperor; Valerian.<ref>ibid. 145</ref>  The Sasanian empire outlived the Western [[Roman Empire]], but in 651 it fell to the Arabs.
  
The Persians controlled a vast amount of territory, including most of the Middle East, Turkey and a portion of Northern Africa--primarily under Cyrus the Great. Accordingly, the Persian empire was one of the first great empires of the world. They were unstoppable and greatly feared until Alexander the Great conquered them and far more.
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For recent history see: [[History of Iran]]
  
After Alexander the Great died, Parthians (based in modern-day Iran) tried unsuccessfully to reestablish the Persian empire. But their past greatness was not achieved again. They could not withstand the Roman army, which conquered it in A.D. 226.  
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==Further reading==
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* Allen, Lindsay. ''The Persian Empire'' (2005)
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* Holland, Tom. ''Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West'' (2007) [http://www.amazon.com/Persian-Fire-First-Empire-Battle/dp/0307279480/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1259416793&sr=1-1 excerpt and text search]
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* Katouzian, Homa. ''The Persians: Ancient, Mediaeval and Modern Iran'' (2009), scholarly survey
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*  Stierlin, Henri. ''Splendors of The Persian Empire'' (2006), art abd architecture
  
Afterwards, a Persian noble named Ardashir seized power by killing the Parthian king, and established the Sassanid empire along with the official state religion of Zoroastrianism, a polytheistic religion that had a creator (Ahuramazda) and a sun-god (Mithra). This religion was essentially limited to Persians. It made no attempt to convert others and it tolerated other religions in the region like Judaism. Its greatest king was Shapure II (A.D. 309-379), who beat back the weakening Romans and also extended Persian power towards China. This empire remained in control of Persia until Muslims took control of the region in A.D. 651.
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==References==
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<references/>
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[[Category:Ancient History]]
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[[Category:Iran]]

Latest revision as of 15:53, 12 July 2016

The Persian Empire, in antiquity, was the largest geographical empire in its time, at its height stretching from India (at the Ganges and Mula, respectively) all the way into southern Europe and down to Egypt, primarily under Cyrus the Great. It had not known defeat until it was turned back in its efforts to conquer Ancient Greece. It had two capitals: Susa and Persepolis.

Darius.jpg

Many dynasties have ruled Iran, starting with the Achaemenid (559-330 B.C.) founded by Cyrus the Great. After the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic period (300-250 B.C.) came the Parthian (250 B.C.-224 A.D.) and the Sassanian (224-651) dynasties.

Darius and Xerxes

The sixth millennium B.C. saw a fairly sophisticated agricultural society and proto-urban population centers. The Persian Empire came into being in 539 B.C. with the defeat of the Babylonian Empire and continued under other famous rulers such as Darius and Xerxes until it was conquered and largely absorbed by Alexander the Great in 330 B.C.


Bible

The Persian Empire and several of its rulers are discussed in the Bible in the books of Daniel and Esther. Roughly sixty years after the death of Alexander the Pontics, Medes, and Ionian Gallatians revolted and separated themselves from the Seleucid state. These peoples later amalgamated to form part of the Parthian Empire.

Later empire

Map of the Persian Gulf, 1747.

The later Persian (Sasanian) Empire was founded by Ardashir I in 224 A.D., when he defeated the last Parthian king.[1] The Sasanian Empire was, like its Parthian predecessor, involved in a number of wars with the Roman Empire, and in 260 even captured the Roman Emperor; Valerian.[2] The Sasanian empire outlived the Western Roman Empire, but in 651 it fell to the Arabs.

For recent history see: History of Iran

Further reading

  • Allen, Lindsay. The Persian Empire (2005)
  • Holland, Tom. Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Katouzian, Homa. The Persians: Ancient, Mediaeval and Modern Iran (2009), scholarly survey
  • Stierlin, Henri. Splendors of The Persian Empire (2006), art abd architecture

References

  1. Maria Brosius. The Persians; an Introduction; Routledge; Oxon. 139, (2006)
  2. ibid. 145