Difference between revisions of "Polygamy"

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Polygamy is an inclusive term for several variant forms of [[marriage]]. It encompasses [[polygyny]], the practice of having multiple wives, [[polyandry]], the practice of having multiple husbands, and [[group marriage]], the practice of having multiple husbands and wives.  Any marriage of 3 or more people is polygamous.
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'''Polygamy''' is one form of a [[polyamorous]] relationship that usually denotes a [[marriage]] between multiple partners . It encompasses '''polygyny''', the practice of having multiple wives; '''polyandry''', the practice of having multiple husbands; and '''group marriage''', the practice of having multiple husbands and wives.  Any marriage of three or more people is polygamous.
  
Polygamy, historically, has been wide spread.  The most common form of polygamy is polygyny. Polygynous marriages are found in the [[Old Testament]], especially among the Hebrew kings. The book of [[Deuteronomy]] gives an inheritance rule for polygynous families.<ref>Deuteronomy 21:15-17 [http://www.bartleby.com/108/05/21.html#15]</ref>The culmination was [[Solomon]] with 700 wives, a fact that led him down the path of corruption. There was also a practice of giving a maid servant to a husband to sire children in the period of the patriarchs, but this was not polygamy as this was not considered to be an extention of marriage.  There are no examples of polygamy in the [[New Testament]] and it is stated that a deacon is to be the husband of one wife (in some Christian denominations today, that has been taken to mean that divorced men and in some cases even widowed men can not be deacons if they remarry.)  Furthermore, Judaism had largely repudiated the concept of polygamy by the time of [[Jesus]].
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In modern times, opponents of [[same-sex marriage|same-sex "marriage"]] worry that if legalized it would be a step down the slippery slope to polygamy. Recent events to support this claim includes the [[Netherlands]] in 2005 four years after introducing same-sex 'marriage' gave three-people relationships legal recognition through a "[[cohabitation]] agreement". Stanley Kurtz wrote:
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:Among the likeliest effects of gay marriage is to take us down a slippery slope to legalized polygamy and "polyamory" (group marriage). Marriage will be [[marriage privatization|transformed into a variety of relationship contracts]], linking two, three, or more individuals (however weakly and temporarily) in every conceivable combination of male and female.<ref>[http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/002/938xpsxy.asp Beyond Gay Marriage], [[Stanley Kurtz]]</ref>
  
The [[Koran]] approves of polygyny <ref>Koran 4:3-4http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004.qmt.html#004.003]</ref>The practice was also known among European tribes in pre-Christian Europe and in both China and Japan
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Polygamy, in ancient times, was widespread, but has become less common over time.  The most common form of polygamy is polygyny.  Polygynous marriages are found in the [[Old Testament]], especially among the early Hebrew kings.  The first recorded polygamist was [[Lamech]] ([[Genesis]] 4:19), in the seventh generation from [[Adam]].  The book of [[Deuteronomy]] gives an inheritance rule for polygynous families.<ref>[http://www.bartleby.com/108/05/21.html#15 Deuteronomy 21:15-17]</ref> The culmination was [[Solomon]] with 700 wives and 300 [[concubine]]s; however, the fact that they were from the pagan nations led him down the path of corruption.<ref>[http://www.blueletterbible.org/kjv/1Ki/1Ki011.html#top I Kings 11:1-3]</ref>  There was also a practice of giving a maid servant to a husband to sire children in the period of the patriarchs; [[Holy Scripture|Scripture]] refers to such a maid servant variously as a wife<ref>[http://www.blueletterbible.org/kjv/Gen/Gen030.html#4 Genesis 30:4]</ref> and as a concubine.<ref>[http://www.blueletterbible.org/kjv/Gen/Gen035.html#22 Genesis 35:22]</ref> [[God]], speaking through the [[prophet]] [[Nathan]], addressed [[David]]'s polygamy without expressing disapproval:
<ref>Polygyny in Europe and China[http://www.trivia-library.com/b/alternative-forms-of-marriage-polygyny-part-1.htm]</ref>.   
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In the modern world polygyny is practiced to some extent in China<ref>Lang and Smart.  “Migration and the Second Wife in South China: Toward cross-border polygyny” The International migration review  2002, vol. 36, no2, pp. 546-569 [http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=13830800]</ref>, among certain sects of Mormons<ref>News story on Fundamentalist Church of Latter Day Saints[http://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/2006-05-25/news/it-practices-what-they-preach/]</ref> (the mainstream Mormon Church outlawed the practice in 1890<ref>LDS official position[http://www.mormon.org/question/faq/category/answer/0,9777,1601-1-114-1,00.html]</ref>) and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa <ref>Brown, Judith E. “Polygyny and Family Planning in sub-Saharan Africa”  Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 12, No. 8/9 (Aug. - Sep., 1981), pp. 322-326Abstract.  [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0039-3665(198108%2F09)12%3A8%2F9%3C322%3APAFPIS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U]</ref>.
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{{Bible quote|And Nathan said to David, Thou [art] the man. Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, I anointed thee king over Israel, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Saul; And I gave thee thy master's house, and thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and of Judah; and if [that had been] too little, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things.   
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|book=2Samuel|chap=12|verses=7-8|version=KJV}}
  
Polyandry is and has been less common around the world, but it has been practiced. Polyandry is part of traditional Tibetan culture<ref>List of references [http://www.case.edu/affil/tibet/tibetanSociety/marriage.htm]</ref> and is practiced by some [[Native American]] tribes<ref>Polyandry among the Inuit[http://www.snowwowl.com/peopleinuit5.html]</ref>.
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There are examples of polygamy in the [[New Testament]] and it is stated that a deacon is to be the husband of one wife.  That the church leaders saw fit to suspend the practice for such a small group, but allow it for everyone else speaks volumes.<ref>[http://www.blueletterbible.org/cgi-bin/popup.pl?book=1Ti&chapter=3&verse=2&version=kjv#2 I Timothy 3:2]</ref><ref>[http://www.blueletterbible.org/kjv/Tts/Tts001.html#6 Titus 1:6]</ref> (in some Christian denominations today, that has been taken to mean that divorced men and in some cases even widowed men can not be deacons if they remarry.)
  
Group marriage is likely the least common form of polygamy, but it is practicedIn fact a number of Americans purport to practice just this sort of living arrangement, even though it is not legal to do so.<ref>Kurtz, Stanley, “Rick Santorum Was Right Meet the future of marriage in America.” New Republic Online 3/23/05 [http://www.nationalreview.com/kurtz/kurtz200503230746.asp]</ref>.
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[[Ashkenazi]] Jews banned polygyny around A.D. 1000[[Sephardi]] Jews continued to practice it in [[Islam]]ic lands for some time after that.  [[Yemen]]i and [[Ethiopia]]n Jews practice it to this day.  [[Israel]] forbids polygyny, with the exception that a man with multiple wives who moves to Israel may remain married to his existing wives but not marry additional ones.<ref>[http://www.jewfaq.org/marriage.htm#Relationship Judaism 101: Marriage]</ref> However, this is due at least in part to an Israeli Supreme Court ruling that requires recognition of all marriages performed abroad, whether they would be legal in Israel or not. (This also applies to same-sex "marriage").
  
==Reference==
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The [[Qur'an]] permitted polygyny.<ref>[http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004.qmt.html#004.003 "... Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four ..." Koran 4:3-4]</ref>  The practice was also known among European tribes in pre-Christian Europe and in both China and Japan
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.<ref>[http://www.trivia-library.com/b/alternative-forms-of-marriage-polygyny-part-1.htm Polygyny in Europe and China]</ref> 
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In the modern world polygyny is practiced to some extent in China,<ref>Lang and Smart.  “Migration and the Second Wife in South China: Toward cross-border polygyny” The International migration review  2002, vol. 36, no2, pp. 546-569 [http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=13830800]</ref> among [[Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints|certain sects of Mormons]]<ref>[http://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/2006-05-25/news/it-practices-what-they-preach/ News story on Fundamentalist Church of Latter Day Saints]</ref> (the mainstream [[Mormon]] Church outlawed the practice in 1890<ref>[http://www.mormon.org/question/faq/category/answer/0,9777,1601-1-114-1,00.html LDS official position]</ref>) and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa.<ref>Brown, Judith E. “Polygyny and Family Planning in sub-Saharan Africa”  Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 12, No. 8/9 (Aug. - Sep., 1981), pp. 322-326.  Abstract.  [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0039-3665(198108%2F09)12%3A8%2F9%3C322%3APAFPIS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U]</ref>
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Polyandry is and has been less common around the world, but it has been practiced.  Polyandry is part of traditional Tibetan culture<ref>[http://www.case.edu/affil/tibet/tibetanSociety/marriage.htm List of references]</ref> and is practiced by some [[Native American]] tribes.<ref>Polyandry among the [[Inuit]] [http://www.snowwowl.com/peopleinuit5.html]</ref>  The Bible prohibits polyandry.<ref>[http://www.atruechurch.info/polygamy.html "Polygamy," from A True Church]</ref>
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"[[Group marriage]]" is likely the least common form of polygamy, but it is practiced.  In fact a number of Americans purport to practice just this sort of living arrangement, even though it is not legally recognized as marriage by the state.<ref>Kurtz, Stanley, “Rick Santorum Was Right Meet the future of marriage in America.” New Republic Online 3/23/05 [http://www.nationalreview.com/kurtz/kurtz200503230746.asp]</ref>
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==See also==
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*[[Polygamist]]
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==References==
  
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
[[category:religion]][[category:culture]]
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[[Category:Marriage]]
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[[Category:Religion]]
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[[Category:Culture]]
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[[Category:Sociology]]

Latest revision as of 07:19, 19 June 2017

Polygamy is one form of a polyamorous relationship that usually denotes a marriage between multiple partners . It encompasses polygyny, the practice of having multiple wives; polyandry, the practice of having multiple husbands; and group marriage, the practice of having multiple husbands and wives. Any marriage of three or more people is polygamous.

In modern times, opponents of same-sex "marriage" worry that if legalized it would be a step down the slippery slope to polygamy. Recent events to support this claim includes the Netherlands in 2005 four years after introducing same-sex 'marriage' gave three-people relationships legal recognition through a "cohabitation agreement". Stanley Kurtz wrote:

Among the likeliest effects of gay marriage is to take us down a slippery slope to legalized polygamy and "polyamory" (group marriage). Marriage will be transformed into a variety of relationship contracts, linking two, three, or more individuals (however weakly and temporarily) in every conceivable combination of male and female.[1]

Polygamy, in ancient times, was widespread, but has become less common over time. The most common form of polygamy is polygyny. Polygynous marriages are found in the Old Testament, especially among the early Hebrew kings. The first recorded polygamist was Lamech (Genesis 4:19), in the seventh generation from Adam. The book of Deuteronomy gives an inheritance rule for polygynous families.[2] The culmination was Solomon with 700 wives and 300 concubines; however, the fact that they were from the pagan nations led him down the path of corruption.[3] There was also a practice of giving a maid servant to a husband to sire children in the period of the patriarchs; Scripture refers to such a maid servant variously as a wife[4] and as a concubine.[5] God, speaking through the prophet Nathan, addressed David's polygamy without expressing disapproval:

And Nathan said to David, Thou [art] the man. Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, I anointed thee king over Israel, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Saul; And I gave thee thy master's house, and thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and of Judah; and if [that had been] too little, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things. 2Samuel 12:7-8 (KJV)

There are examples of polygamy in the New Testament and it is stated that a deacon is to be the husband of one wife. That the church leaders saw fit to suspend the practice for such a small group, but allow it for everyone else speaks volumes.[6][7] (in some Christian denominations today, that has been taken to mean that divorced men and in some cases even widowed men can not be deacons if they remarry.)

Ashkenazi Jews banned polygyny around A.D. 1000. Sephardi Jews continued to practice it in Islamic lands for some time after that. Yemeni and Ethiopian Jews practice it to this day. Israel forbids polygyny, with the exception that a man with multiple wives who moves to Israel may remain married to his existing wives but not marry additional ones.[8] However, this is due at least in part to an Israeli Supreme Court ruling that requires recognition of all marriages performed abroad, whether they would be legal in Israel or not. (This also applies to same-sex "marriage").

The Qur'an permitted polygyny.[9] The practice was also known among European tribes in pre-Christian Europe and in both China and Japan .[10]

In the modern world polygyny is practiced to some extent in China,[11] among certain sects of Mormons[12] (the mainstream Mormon Church outlawed the practice in 1890[13]) and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa.[14]

Polyandry is and has been less common around the world, but it has been practiced. Polyandry is part of traditional Tibetan culture[15] and is practiced by some Native American tribes.[16] The Bible prohibits polyandry.[17]

"Group marriage" is likely the least common form of polygamy, but it is practiced. In fact a number of Americans purport to practice just this sort of living arrangement, even though it is not legally recognized as marriage by the state.[18]

See also

References

  1. Beyond Gay Marriage, Stanley Kurtz
  2. Deuteronomy 21:15-17
  3. I Kings 11:1-3
  4. Genesis 30:4
  5. Genesis 35:22
  6. I Timothy 3:2
  7. Titus 1:6
  8. Judaism 101: Marriage
  9. "... Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four ..." Koran 4:3-4
  10. Polygyny in Europe and China
  11. Lang and Smart. “Migration and the Second Wife in South China: Toward cross-border polygyny” The International migration review 2002, vol. 36, no2, pp. 546-569 [1]
  12. News story on Fundamentalist Church of Latter Day Saints
  13. LDS official position
  14. Brown, Judith E. “Polygyny and Family Planning in sub-Saharan Africa” Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 12, No. 8/9 (Aug. - Sep., 1981), pp. 322-326. Abstract. [2]
  15. List of references
  16. Polyandry among the Inuit [3]
  17. "Polygamy," from A True Church
  18. Kurtz, Stanley, “Rick Santorum Was Right Meet the future of marriage in America.” New Republic Online 3/23/05 [4]