Difference between revisions of "Predestination"

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[[Predestination]], also known as divine election, is a theological doctrine that holds that God chooses who He will give saving faith to. Contrary to popular belief, predestination was not first proposed by [[John Calvin]], but can be traced back to St. Augustine (354-430) and other Church Fathers. Proponents say that the doctrine can be traced back to the writings of the Apostles Peter and Paul, as well as passages in the Gospels, such as John 17.
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'''Predestination''', also known as Election, is a theological doctrine that holds that God chooses those to whom He will give saving faith. Contrary to popular belief, predestination was not first proposed by [[John Calvin]] but can be traced back to [[St. Augustine]] (354-430) and other Church Fathers. Proponents say that the doctrine can also be traced back to the writings of the Apostles [[Saint Peter|Peter]] and [[Saint Paul|Paul]]. They refer to the [[Gospels]] and to other of the [[New Testament]] writings, specifically such passages as [[Gospel of John|John]] 17,  [[Epistle to the Romans|Romans]] 8, especially verses 29 and 30:
  
Central to predestination is the belief that God is sovereign over everything that He creates, including the final end of all men. There are two formulations of predestination, predestination proper and "double" predestination. In the former view, God elects who He will give faith to (and subsequently be saved), and leaves the rest to receive justice for their rebellion against God. Double predestination also affirms that God elects who will come to saving faith, but also holds that God also elects those who will be judged for their sins and thereby condemned to Hell. In the first position, God actively chooses who he will save and is passive towards the reprobate, in the second position, God actively chooses who will be counted among the righteous and who will be among the reprobate.
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<blockquote>''For those whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, so that He would be the firstborn among many brethren; <sup>30</sup> and these whom He predestined, He also called; and these whom He called, He also justified; and these whom He justified, He also glorified''</blockquote>
  
Related to the issue of predestination is the role of the human will in salvation. Some critics of predestination believe that it is incomensurable with the belief that man has libertarian free will. Proponents of predestination typically agree that the views do not work together, and propose an alternate description of free will. The human will, because of Original Sin, is corrupted and fallen. Often Ephesians 2:1, which states that men are "dead in their trespasses," is cited in justification of this. The result is that the will is incapable of choosing to love God over things below. This does not remove the ability of human beings to choose between two options, but it does remove one option, the choice to love God or not, from the kinds of choices that humans can make. The will can only choose to love God if it receives the grace of God. According to the doctrine of predestination, God chooses those to whom He will give the grace to believe in, and love, him. Thus, when a person chooses to place his faith in Christ, he has recieved the grace of God and is numbered among God's elect. This understanding of predestination excludes the possibility that someone could put their faith in Christ and not be saved. The fact that one does believe that Christ died for his sins is sufficient evidence for his election.
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as well as Ephesians 2:8-9: <blockquote>''For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast.'' ([[KJV]])</blockquote>
  
Predestination is also called ''unconditional election,'' the U in the ''TULIP'' mnemonic for five of the doctrines affirmed at the Synod of Dort (1619), which have now come to be called the "Five Points of Calvinism."
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Acts 13:48: <blockquote>''When the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and honored the word of the Lord; and all who were appointed for eternal life believed.''</blockquote>
  
People who believe in predestination will sometimes cite Ephesians 2:8-9 in support of their beliefs:
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and Ephesians 1:4-6: <blockquote>''For he chose us in him before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in his sight. In love he predestined us for adoption as His sons through Jesus Christ, in accordance with his pleasure and will, to the praise of his glorious grace, which he has freely given us in the One he loves.''</blockquote>
<blockquote>For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. (KJV)</blockquote> Several verses in Romans 8 are also used to support this view.
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_______________________
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Central to predestination is the belief that God is sovereign over everything that he creates, including the final end of all men. There are two formulations of predestination&#8212;predestination proper (sometimes called "single" predestination) and "double" predestination.<ref>[http://www.ligonier.org/learn/articles/double-predestination/ "Double" Predestination, by R. C. Sproul]</ref> In the former view, God elects whom he will give faith to (and subsequently save) and leaves the rest to receive justice for their rebellion against God. In the other, God elects who will come to saving faith but also chooses those who will be eternally lost. Having not been chosen to receive Faith, they have no means of escaping the consequences of their sins.
  
*[http://tcrnews2.com/predestination.html Ruminating on Laughter and Predestination]
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Related to the issue of predestination is the role of the human will in [[salvation]]. Some critics of predestination believe that it is incommensurable with the belief that man has libertarian free will. Proponents of predestination typically propose an alternate description of free will.
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Because of [[Original Sin]], the human will is corrupted and fallen. Often it is [[Ephesians]] 2:1 which is cited in justification of this view. It states that men are "dead in their trespasses." The result is that the will is incapable of choosing to love God over things below. This does not remove the ability of human beings to make choices among all the options presented to them in the course of their lives, but it does remove one option, i.e. the choice whether to love God or not. The will can only choose to love God if it receives the grace of God.
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According to the doctrine of predestination, God chooses those to whom He will give the grace necessary to believe in him and love him. Thus, when a person chooses to place his faith in [[Christ]], he has received the grace of God. He is numbered among God's elect. This understanding of predestination excludes the possibility that someone could put their faith in Christ and not be saved. The fact that one does believe that [[Christ]] died for his sins is sufficient evidence of his election.
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 +
Predestination is also called ''unconditional election,'' the U in the ''TULIP'' mnemonic for five of the doctrines affirmed at the Synod of Dort (1619), which have now come to be called the "Five Points of [[Calvinism]]."
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==Other Views==
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Many Christians have responded to the Biblical evidences presented by predestinarians by contending that those who are termed, in Scripture, God's "Elect," are those who have been chosen for the fulfillment of some particular task in life, as opposed to having been chosen to receive Faith and be saved. [[Catholic Church|Catholic]]s, [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox]] and others in support of this view point to verses in scripture such as 2 Peter 3:9 "''The Lord is...'''not''' willing that any should perish''" (KJV) and Acts 17:30 "''but now commandeth '''all''' men everywhere to repent''" (KJV) emphasis added. They claim that the call to "'''all'''" excludes none, so that "'''all'''" have been given the gift of the grace to be able to repent if they so choose, and therefore none is absolutely and irresistibly already predestined for hell from the moment of conception, or from all eternity.<ref>[https://fireandrose.blogspot.com/2006/09/predestination-and-grace-in-catholic.html Predestination and Grace in Catholic Theology]</ref> This is the view of [[Arminianism]].
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In the [[Unification Church]], predestination is limited to the idea that God chooses someone for a great role or mission. According to that church, being chosen for the role is not up to the individual, but the decision to fulfill God's will is.
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A number of Christians, however, hold that no one is predestined for either heaven or hell, but that a person's eternal destiny is determined by his character as it has been shaped by the choices made in life (see [[spiritual growth]]). The Swedish mystic [https://www.britannica.com/biography/Emanuel-Swedenborg Emanuel Swedenborg] is identified with such a belief.
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==See also==
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*[[Revelation, Book of (historical exegesis)]]
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*[[Born to do something]]
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*[[Limbo]]
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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==External links==
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*[http://www.orlutheran.com/html/trelect.html Predestination: The Great Doctrine of Comfort], from Our Redeemer Lutheran Church, Lexington, KY
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*[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.toc.html ''Institutes of the Christian Religion''], John Calvin
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[[Category:Christian Theology]]

Latest revision as of 11:35, 12 January 2018

Predestination, also known as Election, is a theological doctrine that holds that God chooses those to whom He will give saving faith. Contrary to popular belief, predestination was not first proposed by John Calvin but can be traced back to St. Augustine (354-430) and other Church Fathers. Proponents say that the doctrine can also be traced back to the writings of the Apostles Peter and Paul. They refer to the Gospels and to other of the New Testament writings, specifically such passages as John 17, Romans 8, especially verses 29 and 30:

For those whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, so that He would be the firstborn among many brethren; 30 and these whom He predestined, He also called; and these whom He called, He also justified; and these whom He justified, He also glorified
as well as Ephesians 2:8-9:
For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. (KJV)
Acts 13:48:
When the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and honored the word of the Lord; and all who were appointed for eternal life believed.
and Ephesians 1:4-6:
For he chose us in him before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in his sight. In love he predestined us for adoption as His sons through Jesus Christ, in accordance with his pleasure and will, to the praise of his glorious grace, which he has freely given us in the One he loves.

Central to predestination is the belief that God is sovereign over everything that he creates, including the final end of all men. There are two formulations of predestination—predestination proper (sometimes called "single" predestination) and "double" predestination.[1] In the former view, God elects whom he will give faith to (and subsequently save) and leaves the rest to receive justice for their rebellion against God. In the other, God elects who will come to saving faith but also chooses those who will be eternally lost. Having not been chosen to receive Faith, they have no means of escaping the consequences of their sins.

Related to the issue of predestination is the role of the human will in salvation. Some critics of predestination believe that it is incommensurable with the belief that man has libertarian free will. Proponents of predestination typically propose an alternate description of free will.

Because of Original Sin, the human will is corrupted and fallen. Often it is Ephesians 2:1 which is cited in justification of this view. It states that men are "dead in their trespasses." The result is that the will is incapable of choosing to love God over things below. This does not remove the ability of human beings to make choices among all the options presented to them in the course of their lives, but it does remove one option, i.e. the choice whether to love God or not. The will can only choose to love God if it receives the grace of God.

According to the doctrine of predestination, God chooses those to whom He will give the grace necessary to believe in him and love him. Thus, when a person chooses to place his faith in Christ, he has received the grace of God. He is numbered among God's elect. This understanding of predestination excludes the possibility that someone could put their faith in Christ and not be saved. The fact that one does believe that Christ died for his sins is sufficient evidence of his election.

Predestination is also called unconditional election, the U in the TULIP mnemonic for five of the doctrines affirmed at the Synod of Dort (1619), which have now come to be called the "Five Points of Calvinism."

Other Views

Many Christians have responded to the Biblical evidences presented by predestinarians by contending that those who are termed, in Scripture, God's "Elect," are those who have been chosen for the fulfillment of some particular task in life, as opposed to having been chosen to receive Faith and be saved. Catholics, Orthodox and others in support of this view point to verses in scripture such as 2 Peter 3:9 "The Lord is...not willing that any should perish" (KJV) and Acts 17:30 "but now commandeth all men everywhere to repent" (KJV) emphasis added. They claim that the call to "all" excludes none, so that "all" have been given the gift of the grace to be able to repent if they so choose, and therefore none is absolutely and irresistibly already predestined for hell from the moment of conception, or from all eternity.[2] This is the view of Arminianism.

In the Unification Church, predestination is limited to the idea that God chooses someone for a great role or mission. According to that church, being chosen for the role is not up to the individual, but the decision to fulfill God's will is.

A number of Christians, however, hold that no one is predestined for either heaven or hell, but that a person's eternal destiny is determined by his character as it has been shaped by the choices made in life (see spiritual growth). The Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg is identified with such a belief.

See also

References

External links