Puppet state

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A puppet state is a notionally independent or sovereign state which is in reality totally controlled by another state. Examples include Manchukuo, carved out of north-east China by Japan in the period 1932-1945, the states of Slovakia and Croatia created by Nazi Germany in 1939 and 1941, the 'Bantustan' republics created by South Africa in the 1970s (Transkei, Bophutatswana, Venda), and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus created in that area o Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces in 1974.

The Soviet bloc nations during the Cold War show strong evidence of having been puppet states in that external force was used to suppress any nation which deviated too far from the Soviet 'line' in internal or external policies; this was demonstrated particularly by the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 and its repression of the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia in 1968. In such cases, however, it could be argued that it is the governments that were 'puppet' rather than the states themselves, which in some cases had long independent histories.

The creation of puppet states can be a precursor to outright annexation: for example, the Soviet Union in 1921 carved an area from Mongolia to form the puppet state of Tannu Tuva; this was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944.