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Reasoning is the human effort to organize concrete facts and abstract logical principles in an effort to arrive at reliable conclusions. Reasoning can either be good or poor.

Types of reasoning include:

  • Deductive reasoning: Reasoning by which an individual seeks to test or demonstrate the truth of a proposition by establishing premises, and organizing them into a syllogism;
  • Inductive reasoning: Reasoning by which an individual observes facts about the physical universe, and infers that because something is always observed to be true, it is always true;
  • Abductive reasoning: Reasoning by which a person collects facts, seeks to develop the most reasonable explanation for the facts, and concludes that the explanation is likely true;
  • Circular reasoning: Faulty reasoning by which a person makes an argument for the truth of a proposition which depends on the truth of the proposition it attempts to prove;
  • Logical fallacy: Other types of faulty reasoning;