Russian language

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Russian (Русский язык; Russkiy yazyk) is a Slavic language spoken in Russia and the former Soviet republics. It is spoken by over 200 million people worldwide.

It is written in the Cyrillic alphabet.

Under most usages, Russian does not use the "to be" copula. Though a word "to be" does exist, it is used for more subtle contexts as in "Understanding existence has always been a problem for philosophers". Russian has no articles ("an" or "the") and the understanding of a noun as a determinant or indeterminate noun is based on context or the location of the word in the sentence.

Every noun and adjective can be declined in 6 cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, prepositional (locative) and instrumental; both in the singular and plural. Because of this freedom, word order is not very important to the speaker, and he or she is able to use word order to make subtle distinctions in tone, in importance, or in relevance.

Verbs are conjugated in the present, past and future tenses, in the indicative, subjunctive and imperative moods. All verbs have two forms (one in the imperfective aspect and another in the perfective) to reflect the perceived completion of the action.

Examples:

  • Здравствуйте! -zdrastvwiche = formal, pleasure to meet you
  • Привет! (Privet)= Hello, Hi (between friends).
  • Как поживаете? (kak paživayete) - How are you?
  • Как вас зовут? (Kak vas zavut - literally "how do they call you" = What's your name?
  • Меня зовут Иван. = My name is Ivan. (literally - they call me, Ivan)