Difference between revisions of "United Nations"

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| colspan="2" style="text-align:center; font-size: large;" | '''United Nations
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<small>الأمم المتحدة<br> 联合国<br> Organisation des Nations unies<br> Организация Объединённых Наций<br> Organización de las Naciones Unidas</small>'''
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| colspan="2" style="text-align:center;" | [[Image:UN1.jpg|center|200px]]<br>
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|-
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! Headquarters
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| International Territory, within New York City, New York.<ref> There are some caveats; It is administered by the United Nations, and Subject only to International Law, but is still part of the United States.</ref>
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|-
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! Official Languages
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| [[Arabic]] [[Chinese]] [[English]] [[French]] [[Russian]] [[Spanish]]
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! Membership
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| 193 Member countries, as of Jan. 2012
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! Leaders
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*Secretary General = Ban Ki-Moon
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*General Assembly President = Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser
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*Security Council President = Baso Sangqu
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| colspan="2" style="font-size: smaller;" |
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United Nations Charter signed 26 June 1945
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Entry into force of Charter 24 October 1945
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The '''United Nations''' is a [[globalism|globalist]] organization of countries all over the world, originally created to facilitate cooperation in [[international law]], international security, economic development, and [[human rights]].  It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 51 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919. The UN currently has 192 members, including almost all the countries in the world. Non-members include [[Taiwan]] and [[Vatican City]]. Switzerland finally joined in 2002.<ref> [http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2002/GA10041.doc.htm]</ref> The United Nations typically supports [[liberal]], [[environmental]] and even [[socialist]] ideals.<ref>{{cite web|last=Kincaid|first=Cliff|url=http://www.aim.org/aim-report/the-plan-for-socialist-world-government|title=The Plan For Socialist World Government|accessdate=2010-02-06|publisher=Accuracy in Media}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations|title=United Nations|accessdate=2010-02-06|work=Wikipedia|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.middletownca.com/LIBERAL-EQUALS-SOCIALIST.htm|title=Liberal equals socialist equals communitarian equals fabian society equals Agenda 21|accessdate=2010-02-06|publisher=middletownca.com}}</ref>
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==History==
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The term "United Nations" was widely used during [[World War II]] to denote the allied powers making war against Germany and Japan, but the actual UN was created in 1945. It was designed by the U.S. State Department. President [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] envisaged "four policemen", Britain, United States, Soviet Union, and [[Republic of China]] to be the major forces on what later became the UN Security Council to enforce the peace worldwide.  This was deemed a modern approach to replace the old [[spheres of influence]] as they were called during the age of Imperialism.
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US Secretary of State Cordell Hull said at the time while selling the idea to Congress, "there will no longer be need for spheres of influence, for alliances, for balance of power, or any other of the separate alliances through which in the unhappy past the nations strove to safeguard their security or promote their interest."
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American enthusiasm for the UN soured after the [[Soviet Union]] vetoed most resolutions of the Security Council.  However the Soviets boycotted the UN in 1950, allowing the UN to officially sponsor the [[Korean War]]. In practice, the U.S. made all the decisions for the UN regarding that war. When the Soviets returned in 1951, soo too did stalemate, and the UN played a minor role in the [[Cold War]].
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The western military alliance of [[NATO]] began in 1949 and played a much greater role in US foreign policy commitments and decisions during the [[Cold War]] than the UN ever did. The one exception was the [[Korean War]], which was fought under UN auspices since the Soviet Union was boycotting the UN in 1950.
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==Organization==
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[[Image:Int Atomic Ag.jpg|thumb|Flag of the International Atomic Energy Agency]]
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The main deliberative organ is the '''General Assembly''' which usually meets annually in September with representation by all member states. The General Assembly votes on the annual budget of the United Nations, elects members to other UN organs and committees, and makes non-binding recommendations to member states through resolutions.
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The '''[[Security Council]]''' handles matters relating to international peace and stability. It consists of five permanent members (USA, UK, France, Russia and PR China), and ten temporary members, which are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. The Security Council decides by vote. On substantive issues, nine members must support the proposal, including all five permanent members, giving each permanent member an effective veto power. The chair of the Security Council rotates each month among its members, in alphabetic order.
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===International Court of Justice===
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The '''International Court of Justice''', based in [[The Hague]], was founded to settle conflicts and disputes over questions arising from the [[international law|interpretation of treaties]] among member states. It only may entertain <ref> International Court of Justice, [http://www.icj-cij.org/court/index.php?p1=1&p2=6 How the Court works], retrieved 26 April 2007.</ref> cases where all parties to the case in question have agreed to recognize the jurisdiction of the Court. The Court also advices other organs and agencies of the United Nations on questions of the interpretation of treaties.
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===Other Sections===
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The '''United Nations Economic and Social Council''' is a deliberative and advisory organ dedicated to promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. It cooperates with the [[International Monetary Fund]], the World Bank Group and similar international agencies.
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The '''United Nations Secretariat''' is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the UN system. The head of the Secretariat is the [[Secretary-General]], who is nominated by the Security Council and appointed by the [[General Assembly]] for renewable five-year terms. The current Secretary-General is [[Ban Ki-moon]], the former Foreign Minister of the Republic of Korea. It is customary to let the position rotate among the different world regions.
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==Criticism==
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The U.N. has at various times in its history been accused of inefficiency and waste, which some critics have attributed to its cumbersome and excessive bureaucracy. Probably the most controversial issue with the United Nations is the Oil-for-Food scandal.
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As a meeting place for many different nations, the UN can only act as a mechanism for international consensus. The UN has been unable to act in a clear and decisive way when confronted crises in which this consensus is not present. Recent examples include the [[Iran]]ian nuclear program and the genocides in Darfur, Sudan and Rwanda. Because each of the five permanent members of the Security Council have a veto, and because they often disagree, many times no action can be agreed upon. Typically but not always this division includes the [[United States]] on one side with either [[China]], [[Russia]] or both on the other. Other times the Security Council has been able to agree but lacks the will or means to enforce its resolutions. A recent example is the 2006 Israel-Lebanon Crisis, where no action has been taken to enforce the provisions of Resolution 1559 and Resolution 1701 to disarm terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah. There usually are no consequences for violating a Security Council resolution.
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Inclusion on the old United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) of nations such as Sudan and Libya, whose leaderships have dubious records on human rights, and Libya's chairmanship of this Commission, has been a highly controversial issue.
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[[Image:un_building.jpg|thumb|left|250px|The UN headquarters, on the east side of Manhattan, opened its doors on January 10th, 1951.]]
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The U.N. has been accused of hypocritical conduct and double standards. The U.N. condemns Israel for its conduct toward the Palestinians, yet it refuses to condemn China for its conduct toward the Tibetans. <ref>[http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=C0058CAB-F932-4EB8-B2C1-2C8CABB01F53 The U.N.'s Hypocrisy in Tibet], [[Joseph Klein]], ''[[Front Page Magazine]]'', March 28, 2008</ref>
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The United Nations has on many occasions ignored the plight of people across the world, especially in parts of Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Current examples include the UN's inaction toward the Sudanese government in Darfur, the Chinese government's ethnic cleansing in Tibet, and the Israel-Arab conflict. <ref> IBD Editorial, [http://www.ibdeditorials.com/IBDArticles.aspx?id=291423057524689 U.N. Fiddles As China Torches Tibet], retrieved 30 March 2008.</ref>
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During the Rwandan genocide the UN did not authorize UNAMIR to intervene or use force to prevent or halt the killing.
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===Promoting Abortion===
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The Committee for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) pushes countries to promote [[abortion]].
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<ref>[http://www.lifenews.com/int620.html United Nations Committee Pushes Countries to Promote Abortion in CEDAW Mtg], [[Samantha Singson]], ''[[Life News]]'', February 15, 2008</ref>
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===Arab-Israel dispute===
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[[File:Bnai-brith.jpg|thumb|300px|''B'nai B'rith'' magazine gives a Jewish view of the UN, [http://mydigimag.rrd.com/publication/?i=25994 winter 2009 online]]]  A General Assembly resolution led to the partition of Palestine in 1947, but the UN was useless in preventing armed Arab aggression against the new State of Israel in 1948.  Increasingly the General Assembly became a forum for Arab attacks on [[Israel]].
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The UN has taken a one-sided approach to issues relating to the [[Israel]]-Arab conflict. Israel has consistently been singled out by the UN for uniquely critical treatment. In 1975 the General Assembly passed a resolution declaring that "Zionism is racism" <ref>[http://domino.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/a06f2943c226015c85256c40005d359c/761c1063530766a7052566a2005b74d1!OpenDocument 16/12/1991, A/RES/46/86, Elimination of racism and racial discrimination/Zionism]</ref>, and UN-sponsored meetings supposedly opposing [[racism]] have criticized Israel (which grants equal political and religious rights to Arabs) while suppressing all criticism of those Arab countries (where non-Muslims are second-class citizens and [[anti-Semitism]] enjoys state support).
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Unlike other refugee groups, the Palestinian Arabs have their own agency within the United Nations, and are beneficiaries of special events such as an "International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People."<ref>[http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/palestinian/ UN Web Site for International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People, retried June 29, 2007]</ref> Israel was excluded from membership in any of the UN's regional groups until 2000. In effect, this meant Israel was forbidden from serving on UN bodies such as the Security Council. Israel's recent permission to participate more fully within the UN as a member of the Western European and Others regional group is temporary and subject to renewal. Israel is allowed to participate only in the New York operations of the UN and is excluded from the UN offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Rome and Vienna which handle such issues as human rights and arms control. Censure of Israel has apparently been instituted as a routine agenda item for various UN bodies such as the Human Rights Council. The 1975 Resolution 3379 qualified Zionism as a form of racism (later revoked with Resolution 4686).
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===Defending Islam===
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The United Nations Secretary General [[Ban Ki-moon]] condemned [[Geert Wilders]]'s controversial film "[[Fitna]]", while stating "freedom of expression is not at stake here." <ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSN2844232220080328?feedType=RSS&feedName=topNews&rpc=22&sp=true U.N.'s Ban condemns Dutch film as anti-Islamic], ''[[Reuters]]'', March 28, 2008.</ref>
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The U.N.'s Human Rights Council passed a resolution that directs the body’s expert on free speech to report on “individuals and news media for negative comments on Islam.”  <ref>[http://www.frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=F00A83C1-8D4A-4A7B-9545-9A63091D8294 The United Nations: Islam’s Gestapo], [[Stephen Brown]], ''[[Front Page Magazine]]'', April 11, 2008</ref> This suppression of free speech at an organization purporting to fairly represent the world's nations in a common forum is one of numerous actions in the past decade that has undermined U.N. [[credibility]].
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===Contemporary US Criticism===
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Some American critics view the UN as an agent for eroding the [[Sovereignty]] of the [[United States]] and instead promoting forms of [[One-world government|world government]]. Some claim that President [[Bill Clinton]] rejected and ignored the position of the United Nations when he ordered U.S. military "police actions" in foreign countries. President [[George W. Bush]] also rejected the inaction of the UN when he authorized military action against the regime of [[Saddam Hussein]] in [[Iraq]] for ignoring various UN resolutions.  Some commentators now feel that it has since devolved into a radical debating society which has ironically blocked most of the goals for which it has been formed. <ref>[http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20030501faessay11217/michael-j-glennon/why-the-security-council-failed.html Why the Security Council Failed], Michael J. Glennon, ''Foreign Affairs'', May/June 2003.</ref>
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== U.N. Commissions==
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One of the major reasons the United Nations is considered by some to be useless is the Security Council. Along with other countries elected for a term of years, the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, China and France all have a permanent seat, along with the power to veto any decision made by the Security Council. When combined with the Security Council's role as voting on most major issues, including military intervention, and the tendency for most resolutions introduced to be vetoed by one or more nations, the Security Council and by extension the United Nations has become ineffective. The U.N. at times places member states in commissions or positions of importance which many believe they don't deserve. The following is a sample of some of those nations and the positions of importance they have been placed in (this list does not include members that are on those commissions and deserve their place).
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The following programs expose the U.N.'s incompetence by placing unworthy member states in positions of importance; <ref>[http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2011/03/04/hypocrisy-display/ U.N. Hypocrisy On Full Display, Fox News, March 4, 2011]</ref>
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===U.N. Human Rights Council===
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Mission: "…responsible for promoting universal respect for the protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all….”<br>
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Members: Saudi Arabia, China, Vice-Presidents: Cuba, Angola. Libya was kicked off in February.
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===U.N. Commission on the Status of Women===
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Mission: “…set global standards and formulate concrete policies to promote gender equality and advancement of women worldwide."<br>
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Members: The Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran
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===U.N. Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice===
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Mission: “…set…out global strategy to prevent crime and promote stable criminal justice systems...and improving the efficiency and fairness of criminal justice administration systems."<br>
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Members: Libya, Russia, Sudan, Iran, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Pakistan
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===U.N. Women===
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Mission: “…support, address and contribute to gender equality and the empowerment and the advancement of women…”<br>
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Members: Executive Board: Libya, Saudi Arabia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, China
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===U.N. Economic and Social Council===
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Mission: “…responsible for: promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social progress…encouraging universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms…"<br>
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Members: Saudi Arabia
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===U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development===
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Mission: "...to promote dialogue and build partnerships for sustainable development with major groups include[ing] women, youth, indigenous peoples, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, the scientific community, and farmers…"<br>
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Members: Angola, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia
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===U.N. Commission on Social Development===
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Mission: “….promoting full employment and decent work for all...Improving public sector effectiveness....National and international cooperation for social development..."<br>
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Members: Cuba, Egypt, Zimbabwe
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===U.N. Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations===
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Mission: “…The consideration of applications for consultative status [with the UN]…submitted by NGOs…”<br>
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Members: Sudan, Cuba, Pakistan, China
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===U.N. Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)===
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Mission: “…promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all…security of tenure and equal access to economic resources for all, with a specific focus on gender equality.”<br>
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Members: Governing Council: Iran
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===U.N. Committee on Information===
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Mission: “To promote the establishment of a new, more just and more effective world information and communication order…based on the free circulation and wider and better-balanced dissemination of information…”<br>
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Members: China, Libya, Kazakhstan, Iran
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===U.N. Children's Fund (UNICEF)===
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Mission: “….advocate for the protection of children's rights, to help meet their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential…”<br>
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Members: Executive Board: Sudan, China
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===U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees===
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Mission: “…safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees.”<br>
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Members: Executive Committee: Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan
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===U.N. World Food Programme===
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Mission: “advocate policies, strategies and operations that directly benefit the poor and hungry."<br>
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Members: Executive Board: Sudan
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==UN Peacekeepers Child Sexual Abuse==
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The United Nations since its founding has been enmeshed in various scandals.
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In July 1997 the UN announced an investigation into [[United Nations Peacekeeping Force]]s in [[Cote d'Ivoire]] on charges of widespread sexual abuse with a large number of underage girls. <ref>[http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/africa/07/21/un.ivory.coast.reut/ U.N. suspends peacekeepers amid sex abuse charges], CNN, July 21, 2007.</ref>  More than 300 members of UN peacekeeping missions around the world have been investigated for sexual exploitation and abuse since 2004, including some stationed in [[Congo]], [[Cambodia]] and [[Haiti]]. <ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6909664.stm UN probes 'abuse' in Ivory Coast], BBC, July 23, 2007.</ref>
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=== Incidents ===
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*1998 - Bosnia <ref>[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;jsessionid=YVWZRGS4V2AGJQFIQMGSFGGAVCBQWIV0?xml=/news/2002/04/25/wbos25.xml Teenagers 'used for sex by UN in Bosnia'], By Stewart Payne, London Telegraph, 25/04/2002.</ref>
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*2003 - Nepalese troops accused of sexual abuse while serving in DR Congo. Six are later jailed
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*2004 - Two UN peacekeepers repatriated after being accused of abuse in Burundi
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*2005 - UN troops accused of rape and sexual abuse in Sudan <ref>[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/01/03/wsudan03.xml UN staff accused of raping children in Sudan], By Kate Holt in Juba and Sarah Hughes, London Telegraph, 04/01/2007.</ref>
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*2006 - UN personnel accused of rape and exploitation on missions is Haiti and Liberia
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*2007 - UN launches probe into sexual abuse claims in Ivory Coast
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==Notable roles of U.S. Ambassadors to the U.N.==
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* 1981-1985, Jeane Kirkpatrick - Denunciated the Soviet Union for the Sept. 1, 1983 shootdown of [[Korean Airlines Flight 007]] in international airspace just west of [[Sakhalin]] Island.
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==Further reading==
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* Pubantz, Jerry, ed. ''Encyclopedia of the United Nations'' (2nd ed. 2008), useful basic guide to all activities
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* Weiss, Thomas G., and Sam Daws, eds. ''The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations'' (2009), 848pp; articles by scholars [http://www.amazon.com/Oxford-Handbook-United-Nations-Handbooks/dp/0199560102/ref=pd_sim_b_1 excerpt and text search]
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* Weiss, Thomas G. ''The United Nations and Changing World Politics'' (6th ed. 2009), 504pp; solid college textbook [http://www.amazon.com/United-Nations-Changing-World-Politics/dp/0813344352/ref=pd_sim_b_3cerpt and text search]
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==External links==
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*[http://www.nysun.com/article/56061 UNDP Officials Said To Hamper Probe Into Counterfeit Cash], By Benny Avni, ''The New York Sun'', June 7, 2007.
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*[http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:HR00972:@@@D&summ2=m& H.R. 972 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005] - Title I: Combatting International Trafficking in Persons - (Sec. 101); Directs the U.S. Secretary of State, prior to voting for a peacekeeping mission, to notify the appropriate Congressional committees respecting measures taken to prevent Peacekeeping personnel from involvement in human trafficking or sexual exploitation.
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==See Also==
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*[[Previous Breaking News/United Nations|Articles about the '''United Nations''' from previous "In the news" ]]
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==External links==
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*[http://www.un.org/ United Nations] - Official site
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*[http://www.unausa.org/site/pp.asp?c=fvKRI8MPJpF&b=1813833 All about the United Nations Budget] June 2006
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*[http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?xfile=data/theuae/2007/May/theuae_May569.xml&section=theuae&col UN General Assembly President Shaikha Haya Rashed Al Khalifa calls for Islamic texts re-interpretation,]Khaleej Times Online, 19 May 2007.
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*[http://www.rescue007.org/ International Committee for the Rescue of KAL 007 Survivors]
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===Sites critical of the U.N.===
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*[http://www.unwatch.org UN Watch]
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*[http://www.unisevil.com/temp213.htm UN is Evil]
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*[http://www.aim.org/wls/category/united-nations/ What Liberals Say - Category: United Nations], [[Accuracy In Media]]
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[[category:United Nations]]
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[[Category:Nobel laureates in Peace]]
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[[category:diplomacy]]
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[[category:Cold War]]
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[[category:Human Rights]]
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==See Also==
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*[[Jeane Kirkpatrick]]
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==References==
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<references/>
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Revision as of 17:51, 26 November 2012

Page taken down by --Globalistsoldier 16:51, 26 November 2012 (EST) .You shall remember your sins ☠.