Values are meta-qualities or beliefs referred to in describing a particular action, in determining whether an action is "good," or "bad." A subject of debate in the culture wars in America is whether values are subjective or objective - that is, whether they can change from person to person, or whether values are absolute qualities created and referenced by some non-human source like God.
Modern Christians and other religious people believe that values are absolute, as commanded by God in the Ten Commandments. In this document, God created certain values which man must abide by, and by which human actions are judged. For example, one absolute value referenced in this document is the sanctity of life, embodied in, "thou shalt not kill." Conservatives tend to adhere to a very value-based creed. Conservative discourse - such as, reference to "value voters" - reflects this alignment.