Voter fraud is the crime of a voter submitting a ballot he or she is not entitled to cast. Although it is hard to quantify the amount of voter fraud, it has been estimated at 2000 cases in the 2000, 2004, and 2008 elections combined. However, it is difficult to gauge the exact number, and many cases may go undiscovered or unreported  It can change the outcome of a close election.
Even areas not known for voter fraud have unexplained discrepancies between voter registration lists and estimates of the number of eligible voters. In Indiana, for example, one expert estimated that there were 1.3 million more names on the registration rolls than there were eligible voters in the state.[Citation Needed]
One of the causes of the rise in voter fraud was pinpointed to have occurred around “Democratic National Committee v Republican National Committee," overseen by Carter-appointed district activist judge Dickinson R. Debevoise, in 1981 during the gubernational elections in New Jersey, due to a lawsuit filed against the RNC and Republican-controlled senate at the time for apparently driving away minorities from the polls, allegedly being against the 1965 Civil Rights Act. The resulting provision barred the GOP from enforcing voter integrity or enforcing voter fraud. The resulting provision, called the Consent Decree, was ratified in 1982, and was later modified in 1987 to define "ballot security policies" as "ballot integrity, ballot security, or other efforts to prevent or remedy voter fraud."
Voter fraud may have been a major factor in Barack Hussein Obama's victory in the 2008 campaign for the Democratic nomination for president, and is also alleged to have helped his successful 2012 presidential campaign.
Types of voter fraud
Types of voter fraud include (in order of commonness)
|Type of fraud||Description||Number of cases since 2000 (source:)|
|Absentee ballot fraud||A voter fraudulently obtains and submits absentee ballots (in some cases those belonging to other voters).||491|
|Registration fraud||Fake names are submitted to be added to voter registration rolls.||400|
|Ineligibility fraud||An ineligible person (such as one under 18 or, in some states, a convicted felon) casts a ballot.||263|
|Double voting||One voter casts a ballot in two or more jurisdictions.||150|
|Impersonation fraud||One voter votes in the name of another voter.||10|
Voter ID legislation
Voter ID laws are usually designed to only prevent impersonation fraud, although in some cases they may make it more difficult to commit ineligibility fraud or double voting.
A James Madison University student is pleading guilty to falsifying 18 voter registration forms. He was employed by Harrisonburg Votes and wanted to help a friend meet a monthly quota of obtaining new voter registrations. So, he “fabricated” registration forms by using data from the Democratic Party of Virginia’s voter files, using names and addresses from neighborhood “walk sheets” and adding fictitious birthdays and Social Security numbers. There is no indication that any fraudulent votes were cast as a result.
In Indiana, the Indiana Voter Registration Project and twelve of its employees face criminal charges for falsifying voter registration forms in response to a 10 registrations per shift quota that had been imposed on the workers.
A woman in Hampton, Virginia was convicted of "communicating false information to registered voters" and sentenced to a $1,000 fine and 100 hours of community service. She had intentionally listed a false election date that was one week after the real election on a fictitious campaign website. A jury later reduced the fine to $300.
The Government Accountability Institute (GAI), an advocacy group founded by two Breitbart editors, found that 8,471 instances of "likely" double voting occurred in 21 states during the 2016 elections. This study was based on matching names and birth dates of voters in different states. Some estimates found that many non-citizens may have voted in the 2016 election, as much as 5.7 million non-citizens. These studies were based on 2009 public opinion survey results as a percentage of responders extrapolated across the total number of 2016 voters.
- ACORN—organization involved in a controversy where false voter registration forms created by workers were forwarded by the organization to state election authorities in accordance with federal law
- "Voter Fraud: Hard to Identify", The Wall Street Journal
- "JMU student who worked for Democratic groups to plead guilty in voter registration fraud case", Richmond Times Dispatch, June 9, 2017. Retrieved on June 11, 2017.
- "Indiana voter registration group, employees charged with falsifying applications", Chicago Tribune, June 9, 2017. Retrieved on June 11, 2017.
- "Hampton schools critic convicted of election fraud, fined $300", July 24, 2017.
- Study: 8,471 Cases of Double Voting Uncovered in 21 States. Breitbart News. July 24, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- [http://www.g-a-i.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Voter-Fraud-Final-with-Appendix-1.pdf America The Vulnerable: The Problem of Duplicate Voting]. Retrieved on July 24, 2017.
- Scarborough, Rowan (July 23, 2017). Fact-checkers drawn into heated debate over number of noncitizens who vote illegally. The Washington Times. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Scarborough, Rowan (June 19, 2017). Study supports Trump: 5.7 million noncitizens may have cast illegal votes. The Washington Times. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
- Shaw, Adam (June 22, 2017). Study: More Noncitizens May Have Voted Illegally in Elections Than Previously Thought. Breitbart News. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- "The Man Behind Trump’s Voter-Fraud Obsession", New York Times Magazine, June 13, 2017. Retrieved on July 21, 2017.