1. Approximately when and where did the Renaissance occur?
- The Renaissance occurred during the 1300’s through the 1600’s in Europe. The Renaissance continued on until the 1700’s in Northern Europe. The Renaissance began in Florence, Italy and spread throughout the rest of Europe. (Sandro)
2. Martin Luther: who was he, what did he do, and when did he do it?
- Martin Luther was an Augustinian monk in Germany. He was primarily angry about the selling of indulgences for money to build the new St. Peter’s Basilica, but he had some other related doctrinal disagreements with Catholicism as well, which prompted him to post his 95 Theses to the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517. This is almost universally recognized as the catalyst for the Reformation.
- That was the history: there is debate to this day over what Luther really did, as in, what he accomplished. To Lutherans and almost all subsequent Protestants, Luther once again introduced Christ, not the Pope and his false and far-reaching authority, to the center of the Church. To Catholics, Luther divided, not reformed, the Church by rejecting doctrines going back to the Early Church, and accomplished little except fracturing the once undivided Church of Christ into warring, and often partially erroneous sects. (Addison)
3. What was the Baroque style, and what was its motivation?
- In the arts, Baroque is both a period and the style that dominated it. The Baroque style used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, oil painting, literature, and music. The style started around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe. In music, the Baroque applies to the final period of dominance of imitative counterpoint, where different voices and instruments echo each other but at different pitches, sometimes inverting the echo, and even reversing thematic material. (Jenn V.)
- What was the Baroque style, and what was its motivation? Baroque is an art style that includes stuff like dramatic and large-scale type paintings. Some of its popular artists were Rembrandt and Rubens. The time period that this style occupied was about 1600 – 1700. This style was introduced at the tail end of the Renaissance, and was succeeded by an art style called Rococo (1700 – 1800), which included a light playful subject matter. (Jonathan R.)
- The Baroque style used the revolutionary technique of dramatic, selective illumination of figures out of deep shadow. This technique is a hallmark of a Baroque painting. Baroque realistically presents models from the streets. After the Reformation, painters adopted the Baroque style as part of the Counter-Reformation by the Catholic Church to appeal spiritually to the audience and to make inroads into Protestant regions. (Sandro)
- The Baroque style was a mix between new paintings, new music, new poetry, and plays. The motivation was to just get some new stuff out there. (Benjamin)
- English, which originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects, is a West Germanic language. Germanic settlers brought over the Anglo-Frisian dialects to Britain from northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands. Old English was created with many different dialects which were mostly Late West Saxon, but it was also affected by speakers of the Scandinavian branch and the Normans. Because of these two invasions, English is now a “mixed” language to some extent. Since English flourished by borrowing from others, it now has a voluminous and diverse vocabulary. (Veronika)
- The English language is unique because it comprises of words from many different languages. With an alphabet of only 26 symbols you can make billions of words. Almost all of the letters are based off of straight lines with the exceptions of O, C, U Q, G and S. I think the reason English is so widely known is because of America shipping out goods to the rest of the world. (Aran)
- Chinese dynasties (any one or all), Vietnam, Korea and Cambodia: take your pick and write about one: In A.D. 939 after the fall of the Tang dynasty Vietnam won its independence. The Vietnamese are known for the capability of being able to fight. In the late 1200s they defeated three attempts by the Mongols to conquer Hanoi. Today the population in Vietnam is roughly about 84 million. (Amanda)
- The country of Vietnam won its independence in the year AD 939. The Lu dynasty ruled for a little over two hundred years in 1009-1225 and established its capitol at Hanoi, which is still the capitol today. The fierce fighters of Vietnam defeated the harsh warriors of the Mongols in the late 1200s. The treatment of women in Vietnam was considered to be better then China. (Benjamin)
- My brother is from Vietnam and he escaped from Saigon right before the communists invaded the city. His sister-in-law says that women are treated well, but they are still controlled by their father and husband. During the Vietnam War the South Vietnamese soldiers sometimes had to fight against family from the north just like the Civil War here.
- I also have a Korean sister who came to this country because her mother abandoned her family. When the husband remarried, the new wife didn't want the children from his first marriage, so he put them up for adoption. Obviously strong family ties weren't important. I was surprised to read that South Korea was so Christian because North Korea is communist and their leader is a little crazy. (Steven)
- One reason the Renaissance occurred in Europe was that Asia had not yet been Christianized, nor did it possess Hellenic culture. There was not such a divide between old and new in Asia. Another reason is that Asia was experiencing more conflict during the Renaissance, while Europe had experienced its major conflicts (especially the Crusades, and earlier the fall of Rome) before the Renaissance- the fall of Rome set the stage for a much later cultural revival, and the Crusades ended feudalism and introduced Eastern culture, both of which led, in different degrees, to the Renaissance.
- Europe had (chronologically) great culture (Rome), rather depressed times along with the silent growth of Christianity (Middle Ages), conflict expanding the worldview and facilitating cultural borrowing and the revival of faith (Crusades), and finally the culmination of all of them (Renaissance). Asia, on the other hand, had oscillating periods of conflict and peace, with cultural developments all the time, but never concentrated in one single period. (Addison)
- The Renaissance probably occurred in Europe as opposed to Asia because there was more trading in Italy after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. Important cities such as Rome, Genoa, Florence, and Milan received more trade from Africa and Greece, as Constantinople was no longer a Christian city. The immense size of Asia also was a factor; it would have been extremely difficult to obtain old Greek works or distribute them widely across the whole of Asia. The spread of knowledge was facilitated by the greater trade in Europe after the Crusades. (Duncan)
7. Current events: Who would you describe as "Machiavellian" today, and why?
- I would describe Obama as Machiavellian today because he did whatever it took to get into office. He might have said something one day and another thing another day. (Nate)
- Rod Blagojevich, former governor of Illinois. Trying to sell the Senate seat, mail fraud, and attempting to bribe the Chicago Tribune, (with state funds), yes, Blagojevich is definitely a prime example. (Michelle)
- This was probably expected, but I think Obama fits the category quite well. I’ve noted that he has been quoted many times talking about “the future of America” as being something great (and saying it as if it was only something that could be accomplished with him in office); that it is his goal for America now, and it would seem that he will mess up just about anything to do so: claiming he is a Christian supposedly to get more Christians to vote for him, support of abortion which is abhorrent murder (no matter what your view of it is), using race-baiting, so that if you were thinking about not voting for him, you’d feel like a racist. (Jonathan R.)
- Most liberal politicians today I would describe as "Machiavellian". ... Barack Obama said he would eliminate earmarks during his campaign, but his stimulus bill is full of earmarks.
- I would describe the United Nations as Machiavellian. The UN has every nation's resource at their disposal and easily exploits countries for another's gain. The United Nations is a terrible entity that would do anything to achieve its goal of "world peace." The UN is a perfect example of something that says the end justifies the means. (Sean)
- Hillary Clinton, because of her determination to run for president after a short term in the Senate. Using Bill Clinton as a springboard for her campaign to the Senate and prior to that having no political experience she used every means available, such as telling the Jewish population of New York that she was pro-Israel and now as Secretary of State is pro-Palestinian. Hillary Clinton has used the people of New York to further her own selfish ends. (Will)
Honors Questions (answer any 3 in addition to the above questions)
H1. What are the particular strengths and advantages of the English language?
- I don't think the English were protesting anything. It was their king, Henry the VIII, who had an issue with the pope. He wanted a divorce and the pope wouldn't give him one. So the king started his own church called the Church of England. He and Martin Luther were protesting different things. (Steven)
H3. What was the effect of the Reformation, or what is your view of it?
- The Reformation really hurt Europe as a whole. I believe that Europe will never be as powerful as it was before it was torn in two by the Reformation. (Jenna N.)
H4. Describe an example of anti-Christians trying to drive a wedge between Christians (have to go beyond the lecture for this one).
- They kept people educated and fueled the drive to become more like Christ and therefore learn. (Anthony)
H6. Chivalry, revisited: write about any aspect of this issue that you like.
- Like I stated in the previous homework, chivalry is the most attractive quality a guy can have, in my opinion. There’s nothing more comforting than knowing your boyfriend won’t cease to impress your parents, grandparents, teachers or any other adult elders. Chivalry makes a guy stand out, and that’s a good thing; however, peers have turned their views of chivalry into negative opinions. Many think chivalry leaves men wide open to be exploited or taken advantage of by women and feminists. Some believe that everyone is equal, and as equal partners in relationships, we should treat each other the same. If men can hold the door open, so can woman. Many feminists insist that chivalry makes a woman appear weak, as if she can’t take care of herself. I strongly disagree with all of these opinions. Chivalry is basic politeness and manners. Politeness and manners leave a person looking very respectable. I love chivalry, and I totally respect any guy who gives it. (Jenn V.)
- Chivalry is a great quality to have. Most women greatly appreciate chivalry, but there is that select group of women that believe that chivalry towards them is a sign that they are week, which is completely false. Respect towards women is undervalued in today’s society. Chivalry is something that we should infuse back into our culture. (Jonathan L.)
- Chivalry recognizes that both man and woman have certain responsibilities and strengths, rather than trying to erase physical and mental distinctions (no, I am not saying that girls are dumber or smarter, they simply usually do better at different things), feminizing men, masculinizing women, and pretending that we are exactly the same. God intended specific roles for both man and woman. (Duncan)
- Chivalry is something that is not seen often in society today. But are we supposed to blame the lack of this quality all on the boys? I don’t think so. I think one reason chivalry is missing from our society today is partially due to girls. So many girls and women think that when guys open doors for us and pull out our chair before we sit, it is saying that we as woman are incapable of doing things for ourselves. Therefore we let our pride get in the way of the respect they are trying to show us. Females need to put their feminism views behind them and allow men to respect and cherish us through their gentlemanly ways. So we shouldn’t put all the blame on the boys for lack of chivalry, but instead show them our appreciation when they do show it. I think this would encourage guys to be more chivalrous and gentleman like. (Amanda)
- I like how chivalry gives men and women a chance to realize each other's strengths. It really helps us to appreciate each other more. And when we realize their strengths, we realize their weaknesses too. That way we can see how we benefit the other gender and work to improve ourselves. (Sarah)
- I like chivalry because it gives me a sense of safety when I'm around respectful and polite guys. I think guys are a lot more fun to be around and hang out with they aren't being rude or treating me with disrespect. (Kara)
H7. Dante's great work about Hell: something we should hear more about today? Your view, please.
- We should definitely talk more about hell in the church today… We talk about heaven, which is great, but hell is a fundamental aspect of Christianity. It is illogical to have heaven without hell, just as there is not good without evil. Hell is not talked about because it scares people… That is exactly what is was supposed to do. The church of today only gives half the story when it comes to Christianity. (Jonathan L.)
- I believe Dante's view of Hell is false. ... I do however believe that Hell needs to be more plainly brought up in the church. It is surprising how so many acclaimed believers do nto even believe in Hell. If there is no Hell, what is God's grace, that you claim to believe in, saving you from? (John)
- ... Does our government prevent crimes by saying, "it's wrong to do these things, because they hurt other people," or by threatening and enforcing punishment? Therefore, to help humans from giving into their inclinations to sin The Eternal Lord has told us of the threat of eternal torture. This leads us to the conclusion that humans should indeed be told that, if you lead a life that blasphemes the Lord, an Abyss of despair gapes wide to engulf you. (Cole)
- I think that Dante’s work on hell, the “Inferno” is a very important piece, because I do not think that many people acknowledge hell as a real issue in their lives, and they do not think about the consequences of their actions. Because of this I think that people are more likely to commit crimes and do wrong things. So I think that we should hear more about Dante’s “Inferno”. (Joseph M.)
H8. Write about any other aspect of the material covered by the lecture.
- When we discussed genocide in class, I was of the opinion that there must be examples of genocide that occurred prior to the 20th century. When I researched this later, I discovered that it was, in fact, invented to describe the Holocaust. The Holocaust was a horrible event, unprecedented, and one that will hopefully never be repeated. And as I looked at the other examples, they just didn’t seem to fit the definition, probably because they were not as horrible or shocking as the event that “genocide” was first used to describe. (Michelle)