BMW of North America v. Gore

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In BMW of North America v. Gore, 517 U.S. 559 (1996), a 5-4 U.S. Supreme Court held that a punitive damage award of $2 million to customer who purchased a "new" car without knowledge that it had been repainted was grossly excessive and hence violative of the Due Process Clause.

Justice John Paul Stevens wrote the opinion for the court, and the dissenters were Justices Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Chief Justice William Rehnquist.

In a subsequent decision Justice Stevens later changed his view and dissented against a constitutional limit on punitive damages, but the Court continued to maintain that the U.S. Constitution does limit punitive damages.

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