Donald Trump achievements: Economic policy and labor (2018)

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Main article: Donald Trump achievements: Economic policy and labor

This article is a non-exhaustive list of achievements by U.S. President Donald Trump, his administration, and Congress related to economic and labor policy in 2018.

By May 2018, the Trump Administration had taken numerous steps to reduce banking regulations, both through legislation and through executive actions.[1] It also continued advancing economic nationalist policies.[2] It took steps to roll back the Obama Administration's labor policy.[3]

Legislation signed, 2018

  • May 24, 2018—President Trump signed a bill into law repealing some financial regulations put into place under the Dodd–Frank law, including reducing the amount of regulation and oversight for banks having under $250 billion in assets.[4] The Act was described as the largest change to U.S. banking regulations since the Dodd–Frank law.[5]

Executive actions, 2018

  • February 15, 2018—The Securities and Exchange Commission blocked a Chinese attempt to buy the Chicago Stock Exchange.[6]
  • May 25, 2018—President Trump signed three executive orders reforming federal workforce rules, such as making it easier to fire federal employees for misconduct, weakening the power of federal labor unions, and making the workforce more efficient and less costly.[7] Among these changes, federal workers were required to use at least 75% of their work time to actually do the jobs they were hired to do rather than doing union-related work.[7] That same day, Trump signed another executive order exempting tour operators from an Obama-era regulation that required a certain minimum wage for those working for companies contracting with the federal government.[8] On July 5, 2018, the White House's Office of Personnel Management moved to implement the orders,[9] and on November 8, 2018, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced it would end the practice of "official time" for its medical employees.[10]
  • July 11, 2018—The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services began the process of ending a 2014 Obama Administration regulation that allowed unions to collect dues direct from Medicaid payments to American workers despite a law prohibiting this practice in most cases.[11] The administration finalized this rule on May 2, 2019.[12]
  • July 17, 2018—The Labor Department rescinded an Obama-era regulation – called the "Persuader Rule" – requiring employers to publicly reveal the consultants they hire to help them persuade workers to reject unionization.[13]
  • July 19, 2018—President Trump signed an executive order creating the National Council for the American Worker to help retrain American workers for jobs in a changing economy, and he announced that several major U.S. companies had pledged to retrain workers in the next five years.[14]
  • August 31, 2018—President Trump signed an executive order to make it easier for small businesses to offer retirement plans to their employees.[15] The Department of Labor formally proposed a rule to implement the order on October 22, 2018.[16] The Labor Department released the finalized rule on July 29, 2019.[17]
  • October 24, 2018—The National Labor Relations Board issued a memo making it easier for workers to sue their unions for negligence.[18]
  • December 12, 2018—President Trump signed an executive order creating a White House council to help improve economically depressed communities through the promotion of "opportunity zones."[19]

Proclamations, 2018

  • September 3, 2018—President Trump issued a strongly-worded Labor Day proclamation, praising American workers and highlighting his pro-worker policies, including on trade, deregulation, taxes, and immigration.[20] The proclamation also stated that "in all economic decisions, we believe in our sovereign obligation to defend and protect our country’s workforce, and to seek its economic interests above that of any other country."[20]

Other achievements, 2018

While the following achievements were not official United States government policy actions by the Trump Administration, they were closely related to the Trump Administration and its policies:

  • The media noted that Trump's presidency had caused the Republican and Democrat parties to focus on the working class as an important voting group.[21] Blue-collar and union workers shifted toward the GOP, and vice-versa.[22]
  • In the first quarter of 2018, over $300 billion in overseas profits were repatriated to the U.S., more than the amount of money repatriated in 2016 and 2017 combined.[23] By the end of the second quarter of 2018, $465 billion had been repatriated altogether.[24] Repatriations continued in the third quarter.[25] In 2018 overall, repatriations quadrupled from the previous year.[26]
  • October 23, 2018—The White House released a 72-page report strongly criticizing socialism and the policies resulting from it.[27]

Continued economic growth

The U.S. economy, under MAGAnomics, continued growing and beating expectations,[28] and it performed better than the economies of many European and Asian countries.[29] Even many Democrats recognized that the economy was performing well under President Trump.[30] The economic growth helped President Trump in his trade actions, and it despite the fears of anti-tariff economists.[31] Between the beginning of Trump's presidency and the end of 2018, 4.8 million Americans joined the workforce.[32]

  • The stock market continued its record-breaking rise.[33] On January 4, 2018, the DOW Jones passed 25,000 points for the first time, after what was the fastest 1,000-point gain in the DOW's history.[34] The three-day government shutdown in late January 2018 did not stop the market's rise.[35] Later in the year, the solid growth phase ended, and the stock market became more volatile and even fell sharply some days,[36] though it still was performing very well by August 2018, reaching the longest bull market ever on August 22, 2018.[37] On September 20, 2018, the Dow Jones and the S&P 500 both reached new record highs,[38] coinciding with the Dow's 100th record high since the 2016 presidential election.[39] In the third quarter of 2018, the S&P 500 had its largest gains since 2013.[40] Very late in 2018, however, the stock market fell several thousand points.[41]
  • In addition to the stock market, the economy continued going well,[42] and economists credited President Trump for it.[43] U.S. manufacturing continued its expansion at a robust pace in January 2018,[44] and in February 2018 it expanded at its fastest pace since May 2004.[45] It was reported in March 2018 that in the previous 12 months, more manufacturing jobs had been created since 1998,[46] and by the end of June, 362,000 manufacturing jobs had been created since the beginning of Trump's presidency, meaning that the number of employed manufacturing workers reached a ten-year high.[47] The number increased to 400,000 the following month.[48] By July 2018, manufacturing job growth was experiencing its best year since 1995,[49] and it remained that way through early October 2018.[50] The number of manufacturing jobs created in President Trump's first 21 months exceeded the number created in Obama's first 21 months by a factor of ten.[51] Manufacturing had a very strong month in June 2018,[52] and the Institute of Supply Management reported that U.S. manufacturing activity in August 2018 expanded at the strongest pace in fourteen years.[53] The Labor Department reported that 32,000 manufacturing jobs had been created in October 2018, the largest expansion of manufacturing jobs in the month of October since 1998.[54] The Federal Reserve reported that in October 2018, manufacturing output rose more than expected.[55] The ISM reported that manufacturing growth increased in November 2018, better than expected,[56] and the Labor Department reported similar statistics shortly afterward.[57] While manufacturing activity's growth decreased in December, it continued its expansion nonetheless,[58] and the Federal Reserve reported that production saw the largest increase in ten months.[59] The Atlanta Fed reported that in December 2018, manufacturing wage growth reached the highest level since May 2008.[60] In 2018, 284,000 manufacturing jobs were created, making it the best year for manufacturing since 1997.[61]
  • Among other positive statistics, job security increased for factory workers compared to previous periods of economic growth.[62] Between July 2017 and July 2018, blue-collar jobs grew at the fastest rate since 1984, and they also grew faster than service jobs along the more liberal coastlines.[63] The number of homebuilding permits in the U.S. rose in January 2018 to the highest level since 2007,[64] and in May 2018, homebuilding almost reached an 11-year high.[65] Homebuilding in October 2018 performed better than estimates had predicted, though solely because of apartment construction.[66] Because of high shipping demand in the strong economy, truck factories saw very high backlogs.[67] According to the National Federation of Independent Business in July 2018, the hiring of new employees by small businesses reached a 12-year-high, and the percentage of business owners planning on creating new jobs reached a record high.[68] The Labor Department reported that worker productivity in the second and third quarters of 2018 had the best back-to-back performance in four years, even though it did not rise as much as hoped in the third quarter.[69] In 2018 overall, productivity increased at the fastest pace since 2010.[70] Construction spending and home sales both significantly increased in November 2019.[71] According to Cognizant, jobs that it labeled "jobs of the future" saw strong growth in 2018.[72]
  • The Commerce Department reported in August 2018 that corporate profits in the past year had risen at the largest rate in six years.[73]
  • 2018 saw strong wage growth. In January 2018, wages grew at the fastest pace since 2009.[74] In April 2018, the Department of Labor reported that wages were rising at the fastest rate since 2008.[75] According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis in June 2018, wages for manufacturing workers and miners rose by double-digits in the First Quarter of 2018, among other positive news – and prior to Trump's presidency, wages for miners had been shrinking for nine consecutive months.[76] According to the Commerce Department, wages continued to rise in May even as spending on utilities fell.[77] The recruitment and wage-tracking company Glassdoor reported in July 2018 that blue-collar and working-class jobs had seen strong wage growth, even as college-graduate jobs saw wages stagnate,[78] and the Bureau of Labor Statistics also reported that blue-collar wages grew faster than white-collar wages in 2018.[79] Even wages for interns rose due to the tightening job market.[80] According to the Labor Department in July 2018, American workers saw the largest increase in wages and benefits over the previous twelve months since September 2008,[81] and the Commerce Department reported the same day that household incomes were rising on pace with consumer spending.[82] According to the National Federation of Independent Business in July 2018, a relatively large proportion of small businesses were raising their workers' wages.[83] The Labor Department reported in early September 2018 that wages in the previous year grew at the fastest rate since 2009.[84] An October 2018 American Enterprise Institute analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics data found that the working class was seeing large wage growth due to a tight job market.[85] The Labor Department reported that wages for private-sector American workers in the third quarter of 2018 rose at the highest level since the second quarter of 2008,[86] and two days later, it reported that wage growth in the past year was the most since 2009.[87] Credit Suisse reported in November 2018 that 878,000 Americans became millionaires in the previous 12 months.[88] The Commerce Department reported in late November 2018 that income and consumer spending had increased more than expected while inflation rose less than expected.[89] According to the Fed's "Beige Book" reported in December 2018, wages in the U.S. had grown faster than prices, among some other positive statistics.[90] Additionally, young Americans saw the smallest difference between their wages and those of older Americans since 2002.[91] In the third quarter of 2018, the ratio of household debt to income shrank to nearly the lowest level since reliable data began being collected.[92] The Atlanta Fed reported that from January 2018 to January 2019, Americans who switched jobs saw the largest wage increases since 2007.[93] Other examples exist of American workers seeing rising wages in 2018.[94] Despite all this, some government data in 2018 indicated that inflation was rising faster than wage growth, showing that the claimed labor shortage often used to justify mass migration did not actually exist,[95] and businesses continued finding many Americans to hire despite claiming the job market was too tight.[96] Other individuals argued that income stagnation probably did not exist for American workers,[97] and according to Sentier Research, American households in 2018 saw the first year of increased real income since 2000.[98] The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in the fourth quarter of 2018, wage growth for workers surpassed 3% for the first time in just over ten years.[99] U.S. Census data released in September 2019 found that the median income in 2018 reached a record high while poverty fell to the lowest level since 2001,[100] with black poverty also falling to a record low[101] and with women seeing significant employment gains.[102]
  • In January 2018, the Department of Labor reported that the number of jobless claims was far lower than expected and at a 45-year-low.[103] In February 2018, the number of jobless claims dropped to their lowest level since 1969 – 49 years[104] – and the same happened in April 2018.[105] The number of jobless claims remained at record low levels,[106] and it performed better than expected, as illustrated with several reports in June 2018.[107] It was reported in April 2018 that jobless claims stayed below 300,000 for the longest period on record, since records began in 1967.[108] In addition to this, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported in April 2018 that in the past year, 14 states recorded record-low unemployment levels, including eight in the previous month alone.[109] In April 2018, the unemployment fell to 3.9%, the lowest level since 2000.[110] According to a Rasmussen Reports rating released in May 2018, the number of Americans who knew an unemployed person fell by nearly half since 2011.[111] On June 1, 2018, the Labor Department released an especially positive report on U.S. economic growth, with significantly more jobs created in May than expected and the unemployment rate reaching an 18-year low.[112] The country saw greater job growth than expected in June 2018,[113] and while the unemployment increased slightly, analysts actually saw this as a good sign for the economy.[114] In July 2018, the number of jobless claims again fell to the lowest level since 1969,[115] and while they rose very slightly later that month, the data indicated a strong labor market.[116] The July 2018 jobs report continued to show a strong economy, though job growth was slower than previous months,[117] and the report found that the proportion of employed prime-aged Americans reached its highest level since May 2008.[118] In early August 2018, jobless claims unexpectedly fell despite trade war fears.[119] The Labor Department reported that the youth unemployment rate in July 2018 fell to its lowest level in 52 years.[120] In early September 2018, the number of jobless claims again fell to the lowest level since 1969,[121] and the Labor Department reported that job growth in August 2018 again beat expectations.[84] The Labor Department reported that in September 2018, the U.S. unemployment rate fell to 3.7%, the lowest level since 1969.[122] In mid-October 2018, the number of continuing jobless claims – as opposed to new jobless claims – fell to the lowest level since 1973, a 45-year low.[123] In November 2018, the Labor Department released a very strong jobs report for the previous month, showing 250,000 jobs created in October and the unemployment rate at a 49-year low, among other positive news.[87] In November 2018, the San Francisco Federal Reserve reported that the U.S. had reached full employment.[124] The Labor Department reported that the unemployment rate remained at 3.7% in November 2018.[125] The Coalition for a Prosperous America estimated in late November 2018 that 2.1 million jobs would be created in 2018 because of the Trump Administration's steel tariffs and other economic policies.[126] ADP/Moody's Analytics reported that private sector hiring strongly increased in December 2018, higher than expectations,[127] and the Labor Department reported a day later that job growth in December significantly surpassed expectations.[128] According to CNSNews, by the end of 2018, the number of employed Americans had reached record highs fourteen times since the beginning of Trump's presidency.[129] In 2018, U.S. veteran unemployment fell to 3.5%, the lowest level since 2001, and the unemployment rate for post-9/11 veterans fell to the lowest level on record.[130]
  • As a sign of how strong the economy was performing and of how well the U.S. had recovered from the 2008 recession, the Labor Department reported that the number of job openings in March 2018 had reached a record high since the data started being recorded and was equal to the number of unemployed workers.[131] The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in April 2018, the number of job openings again hit a record high, now exceeding the number of unemployed Americans looking for jobs.[132] The number of job openings hit another record high in July 2018.[133] In August 2018, the number of job openings exceeded 7 million for the first time and exceeded the number of unemployed Americans,[134] and in September 2018, the number of job openings outnumbered unemployed Americans by over 1 million.[135] This trend continued later in the year,[136] and it was seen throughout the country.[137] In December 2018, the number of job openings reached 7.3 million, another record high.[138]
  • In July 2018, the Commerce Department announced that Second Quarter economic growth reached 4.1% – the highest level since 2014 – among other strong statistics, including rising export levels, decreasing inflation, and high consumer spending.[139] The Trump Administration reported that in the Third Quarter of 2018, economic growth reached 3.5%, higher than expected,[140] and while economic growth slowed in the fourth quarter, it too was higher than expected at 2.6%, with the growth rate in 2018 estimated at 2.9%.[141]
  • Unemployment rates for ethnic minorities continued reaching record lows.[142][143] Both the black and Hispanic unemployment rates fell to record lows in April 2018.[144] In May 2018, the black unemployment rate again hit a record low,[145] and in June 2018, the Hispanic unemployment rate also reached another record low.[146] Hispanic unemployment hit another record low in July 2018,[147] and again in December 2018.[148] Asian unemployment fell to the lowest level ever recorded in May 2018.[142][149] According to the Minority 2018 Small Business Trends survey, the number of black-owned businesses increased 400% between 2017 and 2018.[150] The employment to population ratio for blacks rose faster than for white-skinned people, and by 2018, the proportion of employed blacks was the closest to that of whites since the government started tracking that data in 1972.[151] In addition to ethnic minorities, women benefited from the Trump economy.[143][152]
  • The unemployment rate for Americans with the least formal education reached record lows. In July 2018, the unemployment rate for high school dropouts reached a record low,[153] while the unemployment rate for college dropouts remained at a 17-year-low.[154] In December 2018, the labor market for high school dropouts was described as "the best on record."[155] The employment gap between those without a high school degree and better-educated people also became very narrow.[156]
  • The difference between job growth for foreign-born workers versus American-born workers narrowed in May and June 2018, to the advantage of the American-born workers.[157] Because of the Trump Administration's visa policies, American businesses made a stronger effort to American college graduates rather than foreigners.[158] Among other positive developments, the tight job market reported caused businesses to increase their hiring of disabled Americans,[159] and it caused some businesses to relocate to more economically remote areas of the country.[160]
  • Confidence continued to rise. According to a Job Creators Network survey in January 2018, 64% of small business owners believed President Trump's policies had helped their businesses.[161] According to the National Federal of Independent Business in February 2018, a record number of small business owners believed that it was now a good time to expand.[162] Also, in February, consumer confidence rose significantly.[163] The National Federation of Business reported in March 2018 that American small business owners were more optimistic about the economy than any other point in the previous 35 years.[164] According to the University of Michigan in March 2018, consumer confidence reached its highest point since 2004.[165] Consumer confidence remained strong by May 2018.[166] According to the NFIB in May 2018, small business optimism remained at record levels and they were experiencing a record growth in profits,[167] and later that month it reported that a record proportion of small businesses were raising wages for their workers.[168] According to Gallup in May 2018, 67% of Americans – a record number – believed that it was currently a good time to find good jobs.[169] According to the NFIB in June 2018, small business optimism the previous month rose to its highest level in 34 years and second highest level in 45 years.[170] In May 2018, retail sales grew far faster than expected, a sign of consumer confidence,[171] and the University of Michigan also reported increased confidence in June 2018.[172] According to a National Association of Manufacturers survey in June 2018, 95.1% of manufacturers had a "positive outlook for their companies," the highest number in the survey's 20-year existence.[173] According to CNBC's All-American Economic Survey, 51% of Americans approved of President Trump's handling of the economy, and 54% believed the economy was doing excellent or good, the highest-recorded number in the survey's ten-year history.[174] According to the Small Business Optimism Index, small business confidence remained at very high levels in June 2018,[175] and the Confidence Board reported strong consumer confidence – at the highest level since 2001 – in July 2018.[176] In August 2018, the Small Business Optimism Index reached the second highest level in its existence and the highest since 1983,[177] and a CNBC/SurveyMonkey Small Business Survey in late July and early August 2018 found that a record percentage of small business owners were confident about business conditions.[178] Retail sales rose strongly in July 2018, more than expected.[179] According to the National Association of Home Builders, homebuilding confidence remained strong in August 2018.[180] According to the Conference Board, U.S. consumer confidence in August 2018 reached its highest level since October 2000.[181] The Conference Board also reported that job satisfaction reached the highest level since 2005,[182] and Gallup reported about the same time that "employee engagement" tied its highest level in the survey's existence.[183] The National Federation of Independent Business reported that its Small Business Optimism Index reached its highest level ever, surpassing the previous record set in 1983.[184] A Zogby Analytics in August 2018 found that 83% of business executives believed that their businesses were performing better than they had two years prior, and 76% of these executives were optimistic that their businesses would continue growing.[185] In early September 2018, the University of Michigan again reported strong consumer confidence, the second highest since 2004,[186] and in late September, it found that consumer confidence for lower-income Americans reached the highest level since November 2000.[187] A Gallup poll released in September 2018 found that the proportion of Americans who saw the economy as the most important problem facing the country reached the lowest level the survey ever recorded.[188] The Conference Board reported in late September 2018 that its Consumer Confidence Index rose to the highest level in 18 years.[189] The National Association of Manufacturers reported in October 2018 that manufacturing confidence reached its highest level in the 20 years of the organization's survey's existence.[190] The University of Michigan found in October 2018 that confidence in economic policy reached a 15-year high.[191] According to CNBC's All-America Economic Survey in October 2018, the percentage of Americans optimistic about the current and future economy reached the highest level in the survey's 11-year history and over double the percentage from December 2016.[192] In October 2018, the Conference Board reported that consumer confidence had increased, reaching its highest level since September 2000.[193] A Washington Post poll in November 2018 found that economic optimism had reached an 18-year high.[194] The University of Michigan reported in November 2018 that consumer confidence remained at very high levels, keeping the U.S. on pace to have the highest yearly confidence since 2000.[195] The NFIB reported in November 2018 that small business optimism remained at near-record high levels.[196] The Commerce Department reported that in October 2018, retail sales and consumer spending strongly increased.[197] According to the University of Michigan on December 7, 2018, consumer confidence remained steady despite the stock market's volatility at that time,[198] and it reported later that month that consumer confidence had reached the highest level in 20 years.[199] The National Association of Manufacturers reported in December 2018 that manufacturing confidence reached the highest level since it started its survey.[200]
  • In 2018, the number of Americans voluntarily quitting their jobs rose to a 17-year high, indicating strong economic conditions and high confidence in the job market.[201]
  • Partially due to the high levels of economic growth in the U.S. – though also attributed to the Trump Administration's efforts to crack down on fraud – enrollment on food stamps fell to its lowest level in eight years.[202] By July 2018, the number of people on food stamps fell to the lowest level since November 2009,[203] and participation continued to fall.[204] Between February 2017 and September 2018, the number of people on food stamps fell by 3.5 million,[205] and it reached 3.8 million by November 2018.[206] By October 2018, the number of households on food stamps fell by 1.4 million since the beginning of Trump's presidency.[207] In December 2018, the number of people on food stamps fell to 37 million for the first time since October 2009.[208] In Fiscal Year 2018, the number of people on food stamps declined each month.[209] These reductions in food stamp use saved taxpayers over $8.5 billion by late 2018.[210]
  • By June 2018, the Iron Range of Minnesota was experiencing a strong and rapid economic turnaround after years of poor economic conditions.[211] In the South, the Commerce Department reported that home sales in the region in May 2018 rose 17.9%, the highest level since July 2007.[212] The media also pointed out Iowa's strong economic performance.[213] A tightening labor market helped increase wages in Wisconsin.[214] Peoria County, Illinois, saw 24% wage growth in a year because of a manufacturing boom in the area,[215] and manufacturing contributed to economic growth in the wider Midwest.[216] Factories in Texas expanded at a strong pace,[217] and the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond found strong manufacturing growth in the fifth Federal Reserve district.[218]
  • According to the World Economic Forum's annual Global Competitiveness Report, released in October 2018, the U.S. became the world's most competitive economy for the first time since 2008.[219]
  • In 2018, record numbers of Americans were estimated to have traveled for Memorial Day,[220] Independence Day,[221] and Thanksgiving.[222] Additionally, in 2018, the price of a Thanksgiving dinner reached the lowest level in a decade.[223] Black Friday sales in 2018 reached record highs,[224] and overall Holiday Season sales were estimated to have also been strong.[225]

Setbacks, 2018

The following setbacks to the MAGA agenda were often caused by Congress or officials in the Trump Administration, rather than President Trump himself. Some of them can also be considered partial achievements.

  • By mid-2018, the Trump Administration had come to fully support the Export-Import Bank of Washington, despite its numerous problems.[226] This came after President Trump made statements supporting the bank in 2017 despite opposing it during his 2016 presidential campaign,[227] and after the U.S. Senate rejected the administration's nomination of Scott Garrett, a critic of the bank, to lead it.[228]
  • Foreign workers saw greater economic gains than American citizen workers.[229]

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  96. Multiple references:
  97. Multiple references:
  98. Street, Chriss (January 4, 2019). MAGA: First Real US Household Income Gain Since 2000. American Thinker. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  99. Multiple references:
  100. Multiple references: Mainstream media bias in the reporting of this achievement: See also:
  101. Munro, Neil (September 10, 2019). Black Poverty Hits Record Low Under President Trump. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
  102. Carney, John (September 10, 2019). U.S. Workers’ Earnings Rose 3.4% in 2018, Women See Strong Employment Gains. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
  103. Multiple references: See also:
  104. Multiple references:
  105. Multiple references:
  106. Multiple references:
  107. Multiple references: For June 22, 2018:
  108. Multiple references:
  109. Multiple references:
  110. Multiple references: See also:
  111. Bedard, Paul (May 11, 2018). Jobless rating at 8-year low, huge confidence in jobs market. Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  112. Multiple references:
  113. Multiple references: See also:
  114. Multiple references: Jobless claims fell again shortly afterward:
  115. Multiple references:
  116. Multiple references:
  117. Multiple references: See also:
  118. Caplan, Joshua (August 3, 2018). Jobs for Everyone! Largest Share of Working Age Americans with Jobs in a Decade. Breitbart News. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
    See also:
  119. Multiple references: Jobless claims fell again the following weeks:
  120. Duehren, Andrew (August 16, 2018). Youth Unemployment Hits 52-Year Low. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
    See also:
  121. Multiple references: They remained at a record low the following week: The Labor Department reported on September 20, 2018, that jobless claims fell again to the lowest level since 1969: Jobless claims remained at very low levels in the week ending September 29:
  122. Multiple references: See also:
  123. Multiple references: Continuing claims remained low: They again remained at record low levels according to the Labor Department's November 1, 2018, report:
  124. Foster, Sarah (November 19, 2018). Fed Study of Labor Participation Finds U.S. at Full Employment. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  125. Multiple references:
  126. Adelmann, Bob (November 30, 2018). Tariffs’ Upside: Two Million New Steel Industry Jobs. The New American. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  127. Multiple references: Jobless claims were reported on that same day:
  128. Multiple references: See also: Other positive statistics in December 2018:
  129. Jones, Susan (January 4, 2019). 156,945,000: 2018 Ends With Record Employment; Participation Rate Hits Trump-Era High. CNS News. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
    See also:
  130. Multiple references: Statistics earlier in the year: President Trump's reaction:
  131. Multiple references:
  132. Multiple references: See also:
  133. Multiple references:
  134. Multiple references: See also:
  135. Multiple references:
  136. Multiple references:
  137. Lange, Jason; Saphir, Ann (January 8, 2019). More U.S. regions see job openings outnumbering jobless. Reuters. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  138. Multiple references: See also:
  139. Multiple references: See also: In August 2018, the Q2 growth rate was revised upward to 4.2%: See also:
  140. Multiple references: See also: The revised estimate was largely the same:
  141. Multiple references: See also: In March 2019, the fourth quarter economic growth rate was revised downward, to 2.2%: Subsequent revisions:
  142. 142.0 142.1 Multiple references: Specifically regarding Hispanics: See also:
  143. 143.0 143.1 Munro, Neil (January 11, 2019). WashPost Admits Trump’s Economy Aiding Minorities, Women. Breitbart News. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  144. Woods, Randy (May 4, 2018). Black and Hispanic Unemployment in America Reach Record Lows. Bloomberg. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  145. Multiple references: The black unemployment rate fell below 7% for the first time ever recorded:
  146. Multiple references: The same report also showed low black unemployment numbers:
  147. Multiple references:
  148. Multiple references: See also:
  149. Record-low jobless rates for black Americans and Asians. Chicago Tribune (from the Associated Press). June 5, 2018. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  150. Multiple references: See also:
  151. Brown, Courtenay (October 6, 2018). Black people are jumping back faster into the workforce. Axios. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  152. Multiple references:
  153. Multiple references:
  154. Binder, John (August 3, 2018). Unemployment Rate for College Dropouts Remains at 17-Year Low. Breitbart News. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  155. Real Time Economics: U.S. Labor Market Is the Best On Record for High-School Dropouts. The Wall Street Journal. December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  156. Brown, Courtenay (January 5, 2019). A good run for unskilled workers. Axios. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  157. Binder, John (July 17, 2018). Job Growth for Foreign-Born Workforce Falls, Native-Born Americans Gain. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
    See also:
  158. Multiple references:
  159. Binder, John (August 1, 2018). Trump’s Tight Labor Market: Businesses Increasingly Hiring Disabled Americans. Breitbart News. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  160. Saphir, Ann (December 8, 2018). Red-hot U.S. jobs market drives some to seek cooler options. Reuters. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  161. Meyer, Ali (January 25, 2018). Survey: 64% of Small Business Owners Believe Trump’s Policies Have Helped Their Business. The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  162. Multiple references:
  163. Multiple references:
  164. Carney, John (March 13, 2018). Small Business Optimism Jumps to Highest Since 1983. Breitbart News. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  165. Multiple references:
  166. Multiple references:
  167. Multiple references: Freeman, James (May 3, 2018). Small Business Still Soaring. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  168. Multiple references:
  169. Multiple references:
  170. Multiple references:
  171. Multiple references: See also:
  172. Multiple references: The University of Michigan's data for early July 2018:
  173. Multiple references:
  174. Multiple references:
  175. Carney, John (June 10, 2018). Small Business Optimism Beats Expectations, Near All-Time High in June. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
    See also:
  176. Multiple references:
  177. Multiple references:
  178. Multiple references: See also:
  179. Multiple references: See also:
  180. Carney, John (August 15, 2018). Home Builder Sentiment Remains Strong in August. Breitbart News. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
    However, home constructions grew less than expected:
  181. Multiple references:
  182. Multiple references:
  183. Harter, Jim (August 26, 2018). Employee Engagement on the Rise in the U.S. Gallup. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  184. Multiple references: Small business optimism remained at high levels:
  185. Bedard, Paul (August 31, 2019). Boom Times: 83% execs say business is better, 76% see more growth. Washington Examiner. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  186. Multiple references: See also:
  187. Multiple references: See also:
  188. Multiple references:
  189. Multiple references:
  190. Multiple references:
  191. Multiple references:
  192. Multiple references:
  193. Multiple references: The Conference Board reported in November 2018 that consumer confidence had decreased, but levels were still high:
  194. Bedard, Paul (November 4, 2018). Boom: Highest economic optimism in nearly 18 years, 85% doing well. Washington Examiner. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  195. Multiple references:
  196. Multiple references:
  197. Multiple references:
  198. Multiple references:
  199. Multiple references:
  200. Multiple references: See also:
  201. Multiple references:
  202. O'Reilly, Andrew (June 18, 2018). Food stamp enrollment falls to 8-year low as Trump clamps down on fraud, economy improves. Fox News. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
    See also:
  203. Rodriguez, Katherine (October 8, 2018). Food Stamp Enrollment Dips to Lowest Level Since November 2009. Breitbart News. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  204. Rodriguez, Katherine (November 11, 2018). Food Stamp Participation Reaches Lowest Level in Nearly a Decade. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  205. Rodriguez, Katherine (December 10, 2018). 3.5 Million People Drop Off Food Stamps Under Trump. Breitbart News. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
    By December 2018:
  206. Rodriguez, Katherine (March 3, 2019). 3.8 Million Drop Off Food Stamps Under Trump. Breitbart News. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  207. Multiple references:
  208. Rodriguez, Katherine (March 18, 2019). Food Stamp Usage Falls to 37 Million for First Time Since October 2009. Breitbart News. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  209. Rodriguez, Katherine (February 18, 2019). Food Stamp Participation Declines for 12 Straight Months. Breitbart News. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  210. Svab, Petr (March 4, 2019). Food Stamp Enrollment Declines Under Trump, Saving Taxpayers Billions. The Epoch Times. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  211. Multiple references: See also:
  212. Multiple references:
  213. Multiple references:
  214. Binder, John (July 25, 2018). Trump’s Tight Labor Market Delivers Wage Increases for Wisconsin Rust Belt. Breitbart News. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  215. Multiple references:
  216. Akan, Emel (November 14, 2018). Manufacturing Boosts Economic Growth in the Midwest. The Epoch Times. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  217. Carney, John (September 24, 2018). Texas Factories Keep Expanding Production Despite Trade War Worries. Breitbart News. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
    See also:
  218. Multiple references:
  219. Multiple references: See also:
  220. Multiple references:
  221. Multiple references:
  222. Starr, Penny (November 20, 2018). Highest Number of Thanksgiving Travelers Since 2005: Americans ‘Have a Lot to Be Thankful For’. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  223. Carney, John (November 20, 2018). Winning: The Price of Thanksgiving Dinner Falls to Lowest Level in a Decade. Breitbart News. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  224. Multiple references:
  225. Multiple references:
  226. Multiple references: On May 8, 2019, the U.S. Senate confirmed President Trump's nominees for the agency, allowing it to fully function: See also:
  227. Multiple references:
  228. Multiple references: See also:
  229. Multiple references: See also: