Federalist No. 18

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James Madison

Federalist No. 18, authored by James Madison under the pen name Publius, is the eighteenth of 85 essays. Titled "The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union", Madison Continues the argument advanced by Alexander Hamilton regarding the failures of the Articles of Confederation.

It was published on December 7, 1787.


In Madison's view, a single national body empowered for the defense of the nation would be much more resilient and capable of protecting the whole.

To illustrate, he highlights parallels between the history of Ancient Greece and the American Confederation under the Articles, and uses these points to illustrate the importance of bringing the union closer together. He points out that the Achaean and Amphictyonic Leagues both ended in despotism and dissolution in part because of an insufficient ability to resist the influence of foreign intrigue. As such, the Romans helped to foster distensions among members and hastened their demise.

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