Federalist No. 28
Federalist No. 28, authored by Alexander Hamilton under the pen name Publius, is the twenty eighth of 85 essays. Titled "The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered", Hamilton discusses local, state, and federal governments in the context of usurpations.
It was published on December 26, 1787.
Late in 1786 through 1787, Shays' Rebellion threatened to cause significant carnage in the state of Massachusetts. As the insurrection pressed forward, the Congress under the Articles of Confederation sought to assist Massachusetts but could not raise the funds it needed.
This was seen as a huge defect in the Articles that needed to be corrected. In Federalist 28, Hamilton writes that a rebellion on a small scale could be dealt with by a small state, but if "the insurrection should pervade a whole State, or a principal part of it, the employment of a different kind of force might become unavoidable."