Federalist No. 37
Federalist No. 37, authored by James Madison under the pen name Publius, is the thirty seventh of 85 essays. Titled "Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government", Madison writes about many of the challenges that the Founders faced at the Philadelphia Convention.
Overall, the largest challenge was trying to create a government that was energetic enough to complete the functions that it is supposed to do, but at the same time keeping it in a box so as to not become a threat to the people's Liberty. They sought a stable government, based on the Republican form – not a democracy, which utilized strong separations of power as an important feature.
It was published on January 11, 1788.