|Social Democratic Party
The Social Democratic Party or SPD is the main left-wing political party in Germany. From 2005 to 2009 it formed a "grand coalition government" (a coalition between the two largest parties) with the rival CDU. In the German elections in 2009, the SPD suffered a historical loss of 9,2 % of the vote, reaching only 23% in total. This gave the CDU (which reached 33,8% combined with its sister-party CSU) the possibility to form a conservative coalition with the 'Free Democratic Party of Germany', the FDP. This was considered a 'dream marriage', as opposed to the 'shotgun marriage'-coalition with the SPD. In the elections in 2013 the FDP got only 4,8 %, why it left the parliament. So the SPD formed a coalition with the CDU again.
Current leader of the SPD is Andrea Nahles, succeeding Martin Schulz, who had been vice chancellor and minister of foreign affairs during the grand coalition. The SPD is a member of the Socialist International and its youth organization is called "Jusos" (Young Socialists).
The SPD approached the problems of German reunification and the establishment of a European Defense Community (EDC) on the assumption of the possibility of peaceful coexistence between the USSR and the Western powers. The SPD objected to the EDC, preferring to find an answer to the problem of security through the UN. According to the SPD, the EDC would give the Soviet Union an excuse for blocking German reunification. The SPD feared that the policies of Robert Schuman in France and of Germany's Konrad Adenauer would result in the domination of Europe by Catholics and conservatives, and therefore the SPD sided with Pierre Mendès-France, the French premier, on the question of Western military integration, while continuing to give priority to German reunification. SPD-candidate Willy Brandt won the election of 1969.
After the Cold War
Many far-left extremists in the SPD criticized the then leader Gerhard Schröder and formed the party "Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative". In 2007 it merged with the "Party of Democratic Socialism", that is the follower of the "Socialist Unity Party of Germany". The followed party is called "The Left". Since the SPD is in opposition it built a coalition with the ecologic party "Alliance '90/The Greens". Its candidate for the election in 2013 was Peer Steinbrück, who lost against the Conservative CDU. But the ally of CDU, the Free Democratic Party (FDP) left the parliament, because it got not enough votes. Therefore, the CDU needed a new coalition partner and took the SPD. So the SPD and the CDU created a "grand coalition".