Soviet spies in America (1921-1948)

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Chronology and structure of Comintern, Communist Party USA, and Soviet espionage networks in the United States. The CPUSA's secret apparatus operated a very large and successful organization in the United States from about 1921 to about 1948.


Ware group

NY Rezidentura

Sound and Myrna groups

Silvermaster group
  • Anatole Volkov, son of Helen Silvermaster
  • Solomon Adler, United States Department of the Treasury
  • Norman Chandler Bursler, United States Department of Justice Anti-Trust Division
  • Frank Coe, Assistant Director, Division of Monetary Research, Treasury Department; Special Assistant to the United States Ambassador in London; Assistant to the Executive Director, Board of Economic Warfare; Assistant Administrator, Foreign Economic Administration
  • Lauchlin Currie, Administrative Assistant to President Roosevelt; Deputy Administrator of Foreign Economic Administration; Special Representative to China
  • Bela Gold, Assistant Head of Program Surveys, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Agriculture Department; Senate Subcommittee on War Mobilization; Office of Economic Programs in Foreign Economic Administration
  • Sonia Steinman Gold, Division of Monetary Research U.S. Treasury Department; U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Interstate Migration; U.S. Bureau of Employment Security
  • Irving Kaplan, Foreign Funds Control and Division of Monetary Research, United States Department of the Treasury Foreign Economic Administration; chief advisor to the Military Government of Germany
  • George Silverman, civilian Chief Production Specialist, Material Division, Army Air Force Air Staff, War Department, Pentagon
  • William Henry Taylor, Assistant Director of the Middle East Division of Monetary Research, United States Department of Treasury
  • Harry Dexter White, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury; Head of the International Monetary Fund
Perlo group

The “Berg” – “Art” Group

  • Alexander Koral (1939 - 1945), former engineer of the municipality of New York.
  • Helen Koral (1939 - 1945), Berg’s wife, housewife.

  • Louis Adamic, writer and spokesman for Yugoslav immigrants. During World War II, advised the OSS on Balkan questions. Source for Golos-Bentley network via Louis Budenz
  • Otto Alleman, Du Pont chemist.

Atlschuler group

Buben group

  • Louis Budenz, (1935 - 1945) former member of the Central Committee of the CPUSA, former editor of the newspaper Daily Worker, professor at Fordham Catholic University.
  • Robert Menaker, commercial traveler [traveling salesman] to a variety of trade firms.
  • Frank Palmer, Place of employment unknown. Former member of the CPUSA, broke with the Communist Party in 1937. “Buben” was recruited with his assistance.
  • Salmond Franklin, without specific assignments, husband of “Rita.” Used as a “signaller” [Russian: sviazist = communications man].
  • Sylvia Caldwell, technical secretary for a Trotskyite group in New York.
  • Harry Rabinovich (Gregory Rabinovich)


  • Carl Marzani, Deputy Chief Photographic Presentation Branch Office of Strategic Services; United States Department of State



Rosenberg ring

DC Rezidentura

SF Rezidentura

Ottawa Rezidentura

Mexico City Rezidentura

South America

KGB Illegal Rezidentura

Redhead group


    • Arnold Ikal ( - 1937) (Donald L. Robinson), (Adolph A. Rubens)

GRU Rezidentura

GRU San Francisco Rezidentura

GRU Illegals

  • Boris Bykov (Boris Yakovlevich Bukov), Illegal Rezident (1936 - 1939)

Karl group

Naval GRU



- informational line


- political line


- atomic or scientific-technical line

See also


  1. Underground Soviet Espionage (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, FBI Silvermaster file, Vol. 82, pg. 327 pdf, October 21, 1946.
  • National Security Agency Archives Cryptographic Museum, Custodian of Documents for the Army Signals Intelligence Agency.
  • KGB Archives, Gorsky Memo: Translation of KGB file 43173 vol. 2 (v) pp. 46–55. [17]
  • Elizabeth Bentley deposition, 30 November 1945, FBI file 65-14603 (pgs. 2 - 108, pdf).
  • Hoover to Frederick B. Lyon, 24 September 1945, Central Intelligence Agency, Igor Gouzenko file. [18]
  • Anonymous letter to Hoover, undated [received 7 August 1943], National Security Agency Venona Collection, 54-001, box D046 [Russian original with English translation]. [19]
  • "Underground Espionage Agent", Adolf Berle's Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers, Sept. 2, 1939. [20]
  • FBI Headquarters File 100-63, Louis Francis Budenz, Internal Security—C, Serial 122. [21]

External links