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Programming language

1,555 bytes added, 04:54, 9 November 2018
/* Imperative programming */ Duplicate links.
The meaning or [[semantics]] of any particular construct in a programming language is most commonly described in fairly precise English. Several unsuccessful attempts have been made to find a useful and formal way of describing the semantics.
The more important programming languages have an internationally-agreed official standard (ISO is the international standards organisation, ANSI is the standards body in the United States). In theory, programs which conform to the relevant standard should be usable on most types of computer; this works in practice most of the time, provided that the programmers have been careful to avoid machine dependencies. Such agreed standards are usually revised every 5 to 15 years, often with new features being added, and sometimes with old features being either removed or marked as obsolete.
Very few programmers learn a programming language directly from the formal definition, which exists primarily as a reference which can be consulted in cases of doubt. There are usually plenty of books and training courses for the more common programming languages.
Early high-level programming languages were often intended for use in a particular problem domain:
:[[COBOL ]] for business purposes,:[[Fortran ]] and Algol 60 for scientific calculations,:[[BASIC programming language|BASIC]] and [[Pascal programming language|Pascal ]] for teaching purposes,:'''[[C''' ]] for systems programming (writing operating systems and compilers),:[[LISP ]] for list processing and artificial intelligence.
Successful programming languages evolve over time to become more general-purpose, or form the basis for other languages (e.g. '''C''' -> '''C++'''). The evolution often involves incorporating good features from other languages. The general trend is for languages to become more general-purpose and provide more levels of abstraction. The concepts of structured programming were put on a sound theoretical basis in the early 1970's 1970s and these have also influenced the evolution of some programming languages (e.g. Fortran 66 -> Fortran 77). The idea of objects (combining data with the applicable operations) was available in Simula in the mid 1960's1960s, but did not become popular until the advent of [[C++ ]] in the early 1980's 1980s and [[Java ]] in the mid 1990's1990s; confusingly, Java and C++ have a lot of syntax in common, but the meaning (semantics) may differ drastically for what looks the same when written down.
====Declarative programming====
:[[SQL]]
:Visual Basic
 
A similar list, which [[Java]] as the most popular programming language, was published for 2011.<ref>http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Application-Development/Java-C-C-Top-18-Programming-Languages-for-2011-480790/?kc=EWKNLBOE12242010FEA1</ref>
According to Professor Alfred V. Aho <ref>{{cite web
:Simula 67 was the first object-oriented language.
:[[C]] showed that operating systems and compilers could be written in a high-level language.
 
==Prescient Quotes on Police State Programming Surveillance==
* "The progress of [[science]] in furnishing the [[big government|government]] with means of [[espionage]] is not likely to stop with [[wiretap]]ping. Ways may some day be developed by which the [[Police state|government]], without removing papers from [[hard disk|secret drawers]], can reproduce them in [[Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court|court]], and by which it will be enabled to expose to a [[jury]] the most intimate occurrences of the home. Advances in the [[computer science|psychic and related sciences]] may bring means of exploring unexpressed beliefs, thoughts and emotions. 'That places the [[liberty]] of every [[citizen|man]] in the hands of every [[tyrant|petty officer]]' was said by James Otis of much lesser [[tyranny|intrusions]] than these. 1 To Lord Camden a far slighter intrusion seemed '[[subversive]] of all the comforts of society.' Can it be that the [[Constitution]] affords no [[Right to Privacy|protection]] against such invasions of [[Fourth Amendment|individual security]]?"
** [[Louis Brandeis]]''' (1856-1941), [[United States Supreme Court]] [[Associate Justice]] Dissenting, ''[[Olmstead v. United States]]'', 277 U.S. 438 (1928).
==References==
{{reflist|2}}
[[Category:Information technologyTechnology]]
[[Category:Computer Science]]
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