/* Prominent people who were homeschooled */
Throughout history, a remarkably high percentage of accomplished people were homeschooled, including many great [[mathematician]]s. Here is a growing list of such achievers:
*[[Ansel Adams]], (
1902-1984), the finest landscape photographer of the twentieth century. "At twelve, unable to stand the confinement and tedium of the classroom, he utterly disrupted his lessons with wild laughter and undisguised contempt for the inept ramblings of his teachers. His father decided that Ansel’s formal education was best ended. From that point forward, the boy was homeschooled in Greek, the English classics, algebra, and the glories of the ocean, inlets, and rocky beaches that surrounded their home very near San Francisco."<ref>http://wy.essortment.com/anseladamsbio_rjrq.htm</ref>
*[[John Adams]] (
1735-1826), U.S. President. Learned to read at home, and was then taught in the kitchen by a neighbor with a handful of children. He matriculated to Harvard College at age 15.<ref>http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/notable.htm</ref>
*[[Louisa May Alcott]] (
1832-1888), the author of ''Little Women'' and other great works, was taught by her father.<ref>http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/louisamayalcott.html</ref>
*[[Alexander the Great]] (
356-323 B.C.), the greatest military leader of all time, was taught by his father and, as arranged by his father, by [[Aristotle]].<ref>http://history.boisestate.edu/WESTCIV/alexander/03.shtml</ref>
*[[Susan B. Anthony]], leading pro-life feminist and advocate of women's suffrage. Her father homeschooled her.<ref name="homeschoolutah.org">http://www.homeschoolutah.org/pages/pastandpresent.htm</ref>
*[[Julian Assange]], the founder of WikiLeaks. David Brooks wrote, "His mother didn't enroll him in the local schools because, as Raffi Khatchadourian wrote in a New Yorker profile, she feared 'that formal education would inculcate an unhealthy respect for authority.'" <ref>http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/10335/1107188-109.stm</ref>
*[[Jane Austen]] (
1775-1817), one of the most popular novelists of the early 19th century, was school-educated for only a year, after which she was taught at home by her father, her brothers, and herself, using their large family library.
*[[Benjamin Banneker]] (
1731-1806) wrote the first almanac by a black man and helped survey [[Washington, D.C.]]. Banneker was taught to read and write by his grandmother in rural [[Maryland]]."<ref>http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Banneker.html</ref>
*[[Clara Barton]] (
1821-1912), pioneering nurse during the [[Civil War]], founder of the [[American Red Cross]]. Barton was homeschooled, and at 15 started teaching school. She later attended the Liberal Institute in Clinton, New York.<ref>[http://www.whitehouse.gov/kids/dreamteam/clarabarton.html White House Dream Team: Clara Barton]</ref><ref>Clara Harlowe Barton, Source: "Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War" edited by Patricia L. Faust
*[[Alexander Graham Bell]] (
1847-1922), inventor of the telephone. His deaf mother taught him to read and write, and he returned the favor by inventing the telephone to try to help her (and other deaf persons) communicate.
*[[Dietrich Bonhoeffer]] (
1906-1945), a [[Christian]] who spoke against [[Hitler]] and was martyred for doing so.
*Willard S. Boyle, the inventor of the CCD that is at "the heart of virtually every camcorder, digital camera and telescope" and is used in "every picture on the Internet, every digital and video camera, every computer scanner, copier machine and high-definition television," and for which he was awarded a shared [[Nobel Prize]] in Physics in 2009.<ref>http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/10/science/space/10boyle.html?emc=eta1</ref>
*[[Mary Breckinridge]] (
1881-1965), pioneering American midwife and founder of Kentucky's Frontier Nursing Service. Mary's father was a diplomat, and she was educated in America and abroad by private tutors.<ref>[http://www.frontiernursing.org/History/MaryBreckinridge.shtm Frontier Nursing Service]</ref>
*[[William Jennings Bryan]], [[Secretary of State]] under President [[Woodrow Wilson]] and before that was the founder of the modern [[Democrat Party]]. He was also the leading critic of the [[theory of evolution]] who prevailed in the [[Scopes Trial]] and was perhaps the greatest orator in [[American]] history. He was homeschooled until age 10 as his mother taught him to stand on table to recite his lessons.<ref name="homeschoolutah.org"/>
*[[William F. Buckley]], leading [[conservative]] intellectual. He was homeschooled by his parents and tutors.<ref name="homeschoolutah.org"/>
*[[Robert Burns]] (
1759-1796) [[Scotland]]'s national poet.
*[[Andrew Carnegie]] (
1835-1919), the brilliant American businessman and philanthropist of the late 1800s, his father was a poor weaver and Andrew dropped out of elementary school<ref>http://www.education-reform.net/dropouts.htm</ref> and had only five years of formal schooling.<ref>http://www.carnegieinstitution.org/carnegiemedal/background.html</ref>
*[[George Washington Carver]] (
1864-1943) Botanical and agricultural researcher and educator. Born a slave, Carver "learned to read, write and spell at home because there were no schools for African Americans in" his area.<ref>http://lib.iastate.edu:9060/gwc/bio.html</ref> He did not attend school until age 12, when he went to a one-room schoolhouse in Missouri; he later graduated from Minneapolis High School in Kansas. Became the first black student at Simpson College in Iowa, transferred to Iowa Agricultural College in 1891. Earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1894 and a Master of Science degree in bacterial botany and agriculture in 1897.<ref>[http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574196/Carver_George_Washington.html MSN Encarta Encyclopedia - George Washington Carver article]</ref><ref>[http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa041897.htm George Washington Carver, By Mary Bellis]</ref>
*[[Augustin-Louis Cauchy]] (
1789-1857), one of the greatest mathematicians of all time, was taught by his father during an 11-year retreat to the country to escape the [[French Revolution]]. His father "wrote his own textbooks, several of them in the fluent verse of which he was master. Verse, he believed, made grammar, history and, above all, morals less repulsive to the juvenile mind."<ref>E.T. Bell, "Men of Mathematics," 273 (1937).</ref><ref>http://james.fabpedigree.com/mathmen.htm#Cauchy</ref>
*[[Pafnuty Chebyshev]] (
1821-1894), one of the greatest Russian [[mathematician]]s, was homeschooled until college.<ref>http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Chebyshev.html</ref>
*[[Agatha Christie]] (
1890-1976), best-selling English mystery writer. Christie was homeschooled by her mother, who encouraged her to write from a very early age. At sixteen she was sent to finishing school in Paris.<ref>[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/mystery/marple/christie.html PBS Mystery Series "Miss Marple" site: Biography of Agatha Christie]</ref>
*[[Winston Churchill]] (1874–1965), [[British]] statesman. It was at home that he was taught how to read, write and do math, and was not enrolled in a school until several months into the school year at the age of seven. After only about two years at that school, he was abruptly pulled out and then spent several years under the instruction of two maiden sisters in a less formal school setting.<ref>William Manchester, "The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill, VISIONS OF GLORY 1874-1932 (Little Brown & Co.).</ref>
*[[Paul Erdos]] (1913–1996), the most prolific mathematician of the 20th century, was taught at home until college.<ref>http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Erdos.html</ref>
*[[Pierre de Fermat]] (1601?
-1665), the greatest mathematician of the 17th century and the founder of the modern theory of numbers, was homeschooled.<ref>E.T. Bell, "Men of Mathematics" 57 (1937)</ref>
*[[Benjamin Franklin]] (
1706-1790), a leading [[Founding Father]] and prolific inventor and statesman, only attended part-time school from ages 8 to 10.<ref>[http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/148 Benjamin Franklin, ''Autobiography.'']</ref>
*[[Robert Frost]], the leading [[American]] poet of the 20th century and winner of the [[Pulitzer Prize]]. He "disliked school so much he became physically ill; what schoolwork he did was done at home until he passed the entrance exams and entered high school."<ref name="homeschoolutah.org"/>
*[[Evariste Galois]] (1811–1832), among the brightest mathematicians ever and the founder of Galois groups and fields and Galois theory. "Until the age of twelve Galois had no teacher but his mother, Adelaide-Marie Demante."<ref>E.T. Bell, "Men of Mathematics," 362 (1937). Galois' life was tragically cut short at age 20 in a [[duel]], and his work was published posthumously.[scidiv.bcc.ctc.edu/Math/Galois.html]</ref>
*[[Alexander Hamilton]] (
1755-1804), one of the main Founding Fathers. He was not allowed to attend school because his parents were not married. Instead, he was homeschooled using Greek and Roman classics in the family library.<ref>http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/alexander-hamilton-108.php</ref>
*[[William Hamilton]] (
1805-1865), the greatest Irish mathematician and biggest contributor since [[Isaac Newton]] of [[mathematics]] to [[physics]]. He was taught by his uncle, the Reverend James Hamilton.<ref>E.T. Bell, "Men of Mathematics," 340-41 (1937).</ref>
*[[Matthew Henry]] (
1662-1714), "nonconformist" Presbyterian minister in England, and author of ''Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible'', perhaps the most esteemed devotional commentary of all time. Under State persecution, Henry was homeschooled by his father, and for a time by a tutor, before moving on to a Christian school in 1680.
*Zac, Taylor, and Isaac Hanson, of the band [[Hanson]]. Educated at home by their mother, and later by a tutor.<ref>[http://www.drdrew.com/DrewLive/article.asp?id=1112 Hanson: The All American Boys]</ref><ref>Hangin With Presents
*[[Julia Ward Howe]] (1819–1910), abolitionist, writer, and women's rights activist. Julia was educated by tutors at home and in girls' schools until age 16.<ref>Open Connections Program, Women Working 1800-1930, Harvard University Library: Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910)[http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ww/people_howe.html]</ref>
*[[Carl Jacobi]] (
1804-1851), a prominent and prolific German mathematician, was taught at home until the age of 12 and was taught the classics and [[mathematics]] by a maternal uncle.<ref>E.T. Bell, "Men of Mathematics," 327 (1937).</ref>
*[[Joan of Arc]] (
1412-1431), one of the greatest military leaders ever. Taught domestic skills and religion by her mother.<ref>"As a child she was taught domestic skills as well as her religion by her mother. ... It was my mother alone who taught me the 'Our Father' and 'Hail Mary' and the 'Creed;' and from none other was I taught my faith."[http://www.stjoan-center.com/#bio A Short Biography of Saint Joan of Arc][http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08409c.htm New Advent - Catholic Encyclopedia - St. Joan of Arc][http://joan-of-arc.org/joanofarc_biography.html Biography of Joan of Arc]</ref>
*[[John the Apostle]] (c. A.D.
20-100), the author of the [[Gospel of John]], considered by many to be the greatest written work ever. He also wrote several other books in the [[New Testament]]. His parents placed him, most likely as a child, under the homeschool-like teaching of [[Jesus]] rather than a more traditional school setting.<ref>In an approach common among homeschoolers, John's parents placed ''both'' their sons under the homeschool-like teaching of Jesus.</ref> John became the first to develop [[Christian]] [[faith]] and his work has since spread Christianity to billions.<ref>For growing evidence that John was a child, see [[Mystery:Was John a Child?]].</ref>
*[[C.S. Lewis]] (
1898-1963), the author of the ''Chronicles of Narnia'' and other famous works, was taught at home by his mother and a governess until age 10, and later sent to be taught by a tutor to prepare him for [[Oxford]].<ref>'''Lewis, C. S.''', ''Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life'', London: Harvest Books (1955) ISBN 0-1568-7011-8</ref>
*[[Abraham Lincoln]] (
1809-1865), American president. "Though his [formal] education was limited to a few months in a one-teacher school, Lincoln avidly read books such as the Bible, ''Pilgrim's Progress'' and Weemss ''Life of Washington''."<ref>http://www.civilwarhome.com/lincolnbio.htm</ref>
*Countess Augusta [[Ada Lovelace]] (
1815-1852), a visionary programmer and namesake of the [[ADA]] programming language, was homeschooled by governesses and tutors hired by her mother.
*General [[Douglas MacArthur]], the leading [[American]] general of the 20th century, both in [[World War II]] against [[Japan]] and in the [[Korean War]]. His mother homeschooled him until the age of 13, at which point he attended West Texas Military Academy.
*[[Mark]], also known as John Mark, the author of the earliest [[Gospel]] who learned by tagging along with his mother, who was a follower of [[Jesus]]; Mark witnessed the teachings and [[Passion]] at an age of perhaps only 10 years old.
*[[Yehudi Menuhin]] (
1916-1999), noted violinist and conductor, never attended school, and was taught Mathematics, History and Hebrew by his father, and French, German, Italian and Spanish by his mother.<ref>Slater, Elinor and Slater, Robert ''Great Jewish Men'' (Jonathon David Publishers; 1996) ISBN 0-8246-0381-8</ref>
*[[John Stuart Mill]] (
1806-1873), influential 19th century political and economic philosopher, was home-schooled by his father, James Mill. He learned Greek at age 3, Latin at age 8, studied economics, history, science, etc. before age 10.
*[[James Monroe]] (
1758-1831), highly successful U.S. President, homeschooled until age 11.<ref>http://www.presidentialavenue.com/jam.cfm</ref>
*[[Gouverneur Morris]] (
1752-1816), primary drafter of the [[U.S. Constitution]], homeschooled until he attended college at [[Columbia University]], from which he graduated at age 16.
*[[Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart]] (
1756-1791), German composer. "He was educated by his father, Leopold Mozart, a violinist of high repute in the service of the archbishop of Salzburg."<ref>[http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica]</ref>
*[[Isaac Newton]] (
1643-1727), considered the greatest physicist of all time. He was homeschooled until age ten, and then was an underachiever at school until he lodged with the headmaster.<ref>http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Newton.html</ref>
* Christopher Paolini (
1983-), the author of the best-selling Inheritance Cycle ([[Eragon]], [[Eldest]], [[Brisingr]], and [[Inheritance (Book)|Inheritance]]). He was homeschooled by his parents, through an accredited correspondence course from the American School in Chicago, Illinois, from which he graduated with his high school diploma at 15 years of age.<ref>[http://www.bookbrowse.com/biographies/index.cfm?author_number=934 Book Browse Author Biography: Christopher Paolini]</ref>
* [[Blaise Pascal]] (
1623-1662), one of the greatest mathematicians and philosophers of all time, was homeschooled by his father.<ref>E.T. Bell, "Men of Mathematics," 74-76 (1937).</ref>
* [[George Patton]] (1885–1945), one of America's greatest generals. He was taught at home until age 11 based on his "father's theory of education" that "youthful mind should be led along a path that parallels the development of the mind of the race" by being read to by elders.<ref>[http://www.pattonhq.com/unknown/chap01.html The Patton Society ("The Early Years")]</ref><ref>;http://www.freeinfosociety.com/site.php?postnum=517</ref>
* [[Henri Poincaré]] (
1854-1912), one of the greatest mathematicians ever and an original developer of the [[Theory of Relativity]]. Poincaré, who had diphtheria as a child, received special instruction from his gifted mother and excelled in written composition while still in elementary school. He entered the Lycée in Nancy (now renamed the Lycée Henri Poincaré in his honor), in 1862 and spent eleven years there. He entered the École Polytechnique in 1873, graduating in 1875. After graduating from the École Polytechnique, Poincaré continued his studies at the École des Mines.<ref>[http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Poincare.html Jules Henri Poincaré]</ref>
* [[James Polk]] (
1795-1849), President of the United States from 1845-1849, one of the few presidents who actually did what he promised to do (annex Texas, acquire western territory, and not run for a second term). He was homeschooled until age 18.<ref>http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/james-k-polk-3278.php</ref>
* [[Alexander Pope]] (
1688-1744), one of the greatest and most-often quoted [[English]] poets and essayists. "From Twyford School he was expelled after writing a satire on one of the teachers. At home, Pope's aunt taught him to read. Latin and Greek he learned from a local priest and later he acquired knowledge of French and Italian poetry."<ref>http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/apope.htm</ref>
*[[Ferdinand Porsche]] (
1875-1951), designer of the [[German]] Volkswagen Beetle automobile and founder of the [[Porsche]] motor company. He was homeschooled in addition to attending Regensburg ''Reichstechnikschule'',<ref>http://famousbrandnames.blogspot.com/2007/02/porsche.html</ref> which is ironic given that homeschooling is illegal in [[Germany]] today.
* [[Eleanor H. Porter]] (
1868-1920), author of the classic 1913 novel ''[[Pollyanna]]'' and its sequel ''Pollyanna Grows Up'', about an eternally optimistic missionary child who, by playing the "glad game", transforms an entire community. Porter, a Christian and a member of the [[Daughters of the American Revolution]], was "educated in public schools during her childhood until illness caused her to turn to private tutors. She then attended the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts."<ref>Bestsellers, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, ''Pollyanna'' [http://www3.isrl.illinois.edu/~unsworth/courses/bestsellers/search.cgi?title=Pollyanna]</ref><ref>Bestsellers, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, ''Pollyanna Grows Up'' [http://www3.isrl.illinois.edu/~unsworth/courses/bestsellers/search.cgi?title=Pollyanna+Grows+Up]</ref>
*[[Joseph Priestley]] (
1733-1804), the father of modern chemistry and the discoverer of oxygen, dropped out of school as a teenager and privately learned geometry, algebra and numerous languages.<ref>Robert E. Schofield, ''The Enlightenment of Joseph Priestley.''</ref>
*[[Bernhard Riemann]] (
1826-1866), a German recognized as the greatest modern mathematician. He was taught at home by his father, a Lutheran minister, until he was ten. After that he was tutored by a teacher from a local school until he entered the Lyceum in Hannover at 14.<ref>School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland -- Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, by: J J O'Connor and E F Robertson [http://www-groups.dcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Riemann.html]</ref><ref>http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/biograph/199899/bioriema.htm</ref>
*[[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] (
1882-1945), U.S. President. He was educated by private tutors at home through age 14, then entered Groton, an elite private school in Massachusetts, in 1896.<ref>The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers. "Franklin D. Roosevelt." Teaching Eleanor Roosevelt, ed. by Allida Black, June Hopkins, et. al. (Hyde Park, New York: Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site, 2003).
*[[Theodore Roosevelt]] (1858–1919), U.S. President. "Roosevelt never enrolled in a public school. He was mostly instructed by private tutors until he entered Harvard College in 1876."<ref>http://law.enotes.com/presidential-biography/theodore-roosevelt-administrations/education</ref>
*[[Erwin Schrodinger]] (
1887-1961), was one of the developers of the theory of [[quantum mechanics]] in physics. "He was not sent to elementary school, but received lessons at home from a private tutor up to the age of ten ...."<ref>http://bdaugherty.tripod.com/berlin/schrodinger.html</ref>
*[[Joseph Smith]] (
1805-1844), was a mayor, a lieutenant general, a political theorist, a city planner, and a religious organizer and the founder of the Mormon Church. He was deprived of a formal education but was mainly self-taught and "instructed in reading, writing, and the ground rules of arithmetic.".<ref>History of Joseph Smith, Jr., by himself, in Joseph Smith's Letter Book at Kirtland, November 27, 1832 to August 4, 1835 (Church Historian's Library, Salt Lake City, Utah).</ref><ref>http://www.pbs.org/americanprophet/joseph-smith.html</ref> His mother said that he was often "given to meditation and deep study."<ref>History of the Prophet Joseph, Improvement Era, vol. 5, p. 257.</ref>
*[[George Bernard Shaw]] (
1856-1950), author. Tutored in the classics by a clerical uncle until he entered school at age 10. Left school by age 15.<ref>[http://www.bookrags.com/biography/george-bernard-shaw/ Encyclopedia of World Biography on George Bernard Shaw]</ref><ref>[http://www.bookrags.com/biography/george-bernard-shaw-dlb/ Dictionary of Literary Biography on George Bernard Shaw]</ref><ref>[http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/research/fa/shaw.gb.bio.html George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950 Biographical Sketch]</ref>
*[[Mark Twain]] (real name was Samuel Clemens) (
1835-1910), American author and satirist who said, "I have never let my schooling interfere with my education." Attended school through the 5th grade, where he "excelled only in spelling" and was frequently truant, then worked as a printer's apprentice for a local newspaper. His mother said, "He was always a great boy for history, and could never get tired of that kind of reading; but he hadn't any use for schoolhouses and text books."<ref>The Mark Twain House and Museum: Biography of Samuel Clemens/Mark Twain [http://www.marktwainhouse.org/theman/bio.shtml]</ref><ref>[http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/6/8/7/6873/6873.txt The Project Gutenberg E-Book of Mark Twain, by Archibald Henderson]</ref>
*[[Alexis de Tocqueville]], a Frenchman who came to America in 1831, when he was 25 years old, and wrote a two-volume definitive study of American culture entitled ''Democracy in America''.
*[[Laura Ingalls Wilder]], the author of the "Little House on the Prairie" series of books.<ref name="homeschoolutah.org"/>
*[[Andrew Wyeth]] (
1917- ), American artist, was tutored at home until he was 18.<ref>The Homeschooling of Andrew Wyeth, A Conversation with the Artist, Gifted Children Monthly, May 1986, Vol 7 No. 5.[http://www.nfgcc.org/51.htm]</ref>
*[[Frank Lloyd Wright]] (
1867-1959), considered the finest architect ever, was taught at home by his mother who dreamed that he would become an architect. She used "Froebel's geometric blocks to entertain and educate her son" as his father led the family among various Baptist churches, where he preached.<ref>http://freenet.buffalo.edu/bah/a/archs/wright/bio/index.html</ref> Wright then attended high school but dropped out of college.<ref>http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0942394/bio</ref>
*[[Brigham Young]], first governor of Utah, the leader of the [[Mormon Church]], and founder of 200 towns and villages. He was homeschooled and had only "11 days of formal education."<ref name="homeschoolutah.org"/>