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Bill of Rights

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[[Image:Bill of rightsBoR.jpg|thumb|140px]][[Image:BoR2.jpg|thumb|300px140px|The Bill of Rights]]During the debates on the adoption of the [[Constitution]], its opponents repeatedly charged that the Constitution as drafted would open the way to tyranny by the central general government. Fresh in their minds was the memory of the British violation of civil rights before and during the [[American Revolution]]. They demanded a "'''bill of rights'''" that would spell out the immunities of individual citizens. Several state conventions in their formal ratification of the Constitution asked for such amendments; others ratified the Constitution with the understanding that the amendments would be offered.
The intention of these enumerated rights were expressly as limitations upon the general government. At their introduction, they opened with the following: :''The Conventions of a Number of the States having, at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added''<ref>[https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbc0001.2010madison38253/?sp=1 The conventions of a number of the states having, at the time of their adopting the Constitution...], [[LOC]]</ref><ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=bMNgAAAAcAAJ&pg=PP90 Laws of the United States of America ; from the 4th of March, 1789]</ref> ==Background==On September 25June 8th, 1789, Madison proposed a series of amendments to the Constitution which would become the Bill of Rights. These were intended for one specific purpose: to keep government small and constrained. In his opening speech proposing the Bill of rights, James Madison said the following:<ref>[http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1786-1800/madison-speech-proposing-the-bill-of-rights-june-8-1789.php Madison speech proposing the Bill of Rights June 8 1789]</ref> :The exceptions here or elsewhere in the constitution, made in favor of particular rights, '''shall not be so construed''' as to diminish the just importance of other rights retained by the people; or '''as to enlarge the powers delegated by the constitution'''; but either as actual limitations of such powers, or as '''inserted merely for greater caution'''. Later, the First Congress of the United States therefore proposed on September 25 to the state legislatures 12 amendments to the Constitution that . These amendments met arguments most frequently advanced against itthe Constitution. Articles 3 to 12, ratified December 15, 1791, by three-fourths of the state legislatures, constitute the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights. Article 2 concerning “varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives” was finally ratified on May 7, 1992 as the 27th Amendment to the Constitution. The first amendment, which concerned the number of constituents for each Representative, was never ratified.
Beginning in the late 1800's, during the [[Progressive Era]], articles of the Bill of Rights began to be incorporated in favor of the Federal government and against the states in a process known as the [[Incorporation doctrine]]. When the original twelve Bill of Rights were first proposed, it contained the following description as "declaratory and restrictive clauses". Incorporation has the opposite effect.
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
'''THE''' Conventions The conventions of a number of the Statesstates, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And ; and as extending the ground of public confidence in the Governmentgovernment, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution;-<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=zotKAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA338 The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution as Recommended by the General Convention at Philadelphia in 1787]</ref>
'''RESOLVED''' Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled'', two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
'''ARTICLES''' Articles in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.''
===Article the first===
===Article the seventh===
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall [[private property ]] be taken for public use, without just compensation.
===Article the eighth===
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==See also==* [[Bill of Rights Day]]* [[United States Constitution]]* [[Unalienable rights]]* [[Oath Keepers]] ==Further readingBibliography==
* Amar, Akhil Reed. ''The Bill of Rights: Creation and Reconstruction.'' (1998). 412 pp. standard history
* Arsenault, Raymond, ed. ''Crucible of Liberty: 200 Years of the Bill of Rights.'' (1991). 215 pp.
===Primary sources===
* Cogan, Neil H., ed. ''The Complete Bill of Rights: The Drafts, Debates, Sources, and Origins.'' (1997). 708 pp.
 
==See also==
* [[Bill of Rights Day]]
* [[United States Constitution]]
* [[Unalienable rights]]
 
==References==
{{reflist|1}}
==External links==
*Charles, Robert (March 28, 2018). [httphttps://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2018/03/28/if-second-amendment-falls-our-entire-bill-rights-falls.html If the Second Amendment falls, our entire Bill of Rights falls]. ''Fox News''.
{{US amendments}}
[[Category:Bill of Rights]][[Category:United States Constitution]][[Category:American State Papers]]
[[Category:Human Rights]]
[[Category:American Revolution]]
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