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Bill of rights.jpg|thumb| 300px|The Bill of Rights]]During the debates on the adoption of the [[Constitution]], its opponents repeatedly charged that the Constitution as drafted would open the way to tyranny by the central government. Fresh in their minds was the memory of the British violation of civil rights before and during the [[American Revolution]]. They demanded a "'''bill of rights'''" that would spell out the immunities of individual citizens. Several state conventions in their formal ratification of the Constitution asked for such amendments; others ratified the Constitution with the understanding that the amendments would be offered.
September 25, 1789 , the First Congress of the United States therefore proposed to the state legislatures 12 amendments to the Constitution that met arguments most frequently advanced against it. Articles 3 to 12, ratified December 15, 1791, by three-fourths of the state legislatures, constitute the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights. Article 2 concerning “varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives” was finally ratified on May 7, 1992 as the 27th Amendment to the Constitution. The first amendment, which concerned the number of constituents for each Representative, was never ratified.
Beginning in the late 1800's, during the [[Progressive Era]], articles of the Bill of Rights began to be incorporated in favor of the Federal government and against the states in a process known as the [[Incorporation doctrine]]. When the original twelve Bill of Rights were first proposed, it contained the following description as "declaratory and restrictive clauses". Incorporation has the opposite effect.
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
'RESOLVED''' by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
'ARTICLES''' in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.
===Article the first===
===Article the seventh===
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
===Article the eighth===
See also== * [[Bill of Rights Day]] * [[United States Constitution]] * [[Unalienable rights]] * [[Oath Keepers]] ==Further reading==
* Amar, Akhil Reed. ''The Bill of Rights: Creation and Reconstruction.'' (1998). 412 pp. standard history
* Arsenault, Raymond, ed. ''Crucible of Liberty: 200 Years of the Bill of Rights.'' (1991). 215 pp.
* Cogan, Neil H., ed. ''The Complete Bill of Rights: The Drafts, Debates, Sources, and Origins.'' (1997). 708 pp.
*Charles, Robert (March 28, 2018). [
http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2018/03/28/if-second-amendment-falls-our-entire-bill-rights-falls.html If the Second Amendment falls, our entire Bill of Rights falls]. ''Fox News''.
[[Category:United States Constitution]][[Category:American State Papers]]