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Desecularization

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From a global perspective, religion is seeing a resurgence and scholars of religious [[demographics]] frequently use the term "global resurgence of religion" to describe the process of desecularization which began in the late portion of the 20th century.<ref>[http://www.tomorrowsworld.org/magazines/2005/november-december/the-return-of-religion The return of religion]</ref>
As a percentage of the world's population, [[atheism]] peaked in 1970.<ref>[http://www.science20.com/writer_on_the_edge/blog/atheism_peaks_while_spiritual_groups_move_toward_convergence-156528 Atheism Peaks, While Spiritual Groups Move Toward Convergence] by Nury Vittachi, July 14, 2015, website Sciene 2.0</ref> Global atheism is expected According to decline in the 21st century and beyond in terms ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]'', 2% of its the world's population self-identifies as atheist and the average annual global market sharechange for atheism from 2000 to 2010 was −0.17%.<refname="eb-2010">*[http{{cite web|title=Religion: Year in Review 2010: Worldwide Adherents of All Religions|url=https://www.christianpostbritannica.com/newsEBchecked/studytopic/1731588/Religion-worldYear-isIn-turningReview-more-religious-atheism-declining-1005182010/ Study: World is becoming more religious]*[http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2012298437/05/globallyWorldwide-worldviewsAdherents-of-atheism-andAll-nonReligions|work=Encyclopædia Britannica Online|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.html Globally the worldviews of atheism and non|accessdate=2013-religious (agnostic) are declining while global Christianity 11-21}}</ref> Global atheism is exploding expected to decline in adherents]the 21st century and beyond in terms of its global market share.<ref>
*[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]
*[http://www.christianpost.com/news/study-world-is-turning-more-religious-atheism-declining-100518/ Study: World is becoming more religious]
*[https://examiningatheism.blogspot.com/2019/03/globally-worldviews-of-atheism-and-non.html Globally the worldviews of atheism and non-religious (agnostic) are declining while global Christianity is exploding in adherents]
*[http://www.gordonconwell.edu/resources/documents/StatusOfGlobalMission.pdf Gordon-Conwell Seminary - Status of Global Mission, 2014, in the Context of AD 1800–2025]
*[http://www.science20.com/writer_on_the_edge/blog/atheism_peaks_while_spiritual_groups_move_toward_convergence-156528 Atheism Peaks, While Spiritual Groups Move Toward Convergence] by Nury Vittachi, July 14, 2015, website Sciene 2.0</ref> Presently, there are a number of excellent sources which indicate that atheism is shrinking in global market share (see: [[Global atheism statistics]]).
{{cquote|[[Atheism]] is in [[Global atheism|decline worldwide]], with the number of atheists falling from 4.5% of the world’s population in 1970 to 2.0% in 2010 and projected to drop to 1.8% by 2020, according to a new report by the Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Mass."<ref>[https://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/global-study-atheists-decline-only-18-world-population-2020 Global Study: Atheists in Decline, Only 1.8% of World Population by 2020]</ref>}}
On December 23, 2012, Professor [[Eric Kaufmann]], who teaches at Birbeck [[Birkbeck College, University of London ]], specializes in the academic area of how [[demography|demographic]] changes affect religion/irreligion and politics. Kaufmann is an [[agnosticism|agnostic]]. On December 23, 2012, Kaufmann wrote:
{{cquote|I argue that 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious.
See also: [[Growth of religious fundamentalism]]
 
Dr. [[Steve Turley]] wrote:
{{Cquote|According to University of London scholar [[Eric Kaufmann]]’s detailed study on global demographic trends, we are in the early stages of nothing less than a demographic revolution. In Kaufmann’s words, "religious fundamentalists are on course to take over the world." There is a significant demographic deficit between secularists and conservative religionists. For example, in the U.S., while self-identified non-religionist women averaged only 1.5 children per couple in 2002, conservative evangelical women averaged 2.5 children, representing a 28 percent fertility edge. Kaufmann notes that this demographic deficit has dramatic effects over time. In a population evenly divided, these numbers indicate that conservative evangelicals would increase from 50 to 62.5 percent of the population in a single generation. In two generations, their number would increase to 73.5 percent, and over the course of 200 years, they would represent 99.4 percent. The Amish and Mormons provide contemporary illustrations of the compound effect of endogamous growth. The Amish double in population every twenty years, and projections have the Amish numbering over a million in the U.S. and Canada in just a few decades. Since 1830, Mormon growth has averaged 40 percent per decade, which means that by 2080, there may be as many as 267 million Mormons in the world, making them by 2100 anywhere from one to six percent of the world’s population.
 
In Europe, immigration is making the continent more religiously conservative, not less; in fact, London and Paris are some of the most religiously dense areas within their respective populations. In Britain, for example, Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Jews constitute only 17 percent of the Jewish population but account for 75 percent of Jewish births. And in Israel, Haredi schoolchildren have gone from comprising a few percent to nearly a third of all Jewish pupils in a matter of five decades, and are poised to represent the majority of the Jewish population by 2050. Since 1970, charismatic Christians in Europe have expanded steadily at a rate of 4 percent per year, in step with Muslim growth. Currently, Laestadian Lutherans in Finland and Holland’s Orthodox Calvinists have a fertility advantage over their wider secular populations of 4:1 and 2:1 respectively.
 
In contrast, Kaufmann’s data projects that secularists, who consistently exemplify a low fertility rate of around 1.5 (significantly below the replacement level of 2.1), will begin a steady decline after 2030 to a mere 14 to 15 percent of the American population. Similar projections apply to Europe as well. Kaufmann thus appears to have identified what he calls "the soft underbelly of secularism," namely, demography. This is because secular liberalism entails its own “demographic contradiction,” the affirmation of the sovereign individual devoid of the restraints of classical moral structures necessitates the freedom not to reproduce. The link between sex and procreation having been broken, modernist reproduction translates into mere personal preference. It thus turns out that the radical individualism so celebrated and revered by contemporary secular propagandists is in fact the agent by which their ideology implodes.<ref>(source: Text below the YouTube video ''[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1O2bsh6oHnM Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth''] and the text was written by Dr. Steven Turley).</ref>}}
=== Future of desecularization via the continued global resurgence of religion ===
*[http://kitmantv.blogspot.com/2011/05/eric-kaufmann-shall-religious-inherit.html Eric Kaufmann: Shall The Religious Inherit The Earth?]
*[http://kitmantv.blogspot.com/search/label/atheist%20demographics Eric Kaufmann's Atheist Demographic series]
*[httphttps://forawww.tv/2010/09/05youtube.com/Eric_Kaufmann_Shall_the_Religious_Inherit_the_Earth watch?v=VwmgFZsgSo0 Eric Kaufmann: Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation]</ref>]]
Eric Kaufmann using a wealth of demographic studies, argues that there will be a significant decline of global atheism in the 21st century which will impact the [[Western World]].<ref>
*[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]
*[http://kitmantv.blogspot.com/2011/05/eric-kaufmann-shall-religious-inherit.html Eric Kaufmann: Shall The Religious Inherit The Earth?]
*[http://kitmantv.blogspot.com/search/label/atheist%20demographics Eric Kaufmann's Atheist Demographic series]</ref><ref>[httphttps://forawww.tv/2010/09/05youtube.com/Eric_Kaufmann_Shall_the_Religious_Inherit_the_Earth watch?v=VwmgFZsgSo0 Eric Kaufmann: Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation]</ref> In addition, Kaufmann argues that religious conservatism has a long term trend of rising and that their influence in the world will significantly increase.<ref>[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]</ref> Kaufmann is author of the book ''Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?''.<ref>[https://books.google.com/books/about/Shall_the_Religious_Inherit_the_Earth.html?id=nXVylycU2gQC Shall the religious inherit the earth by David Kaufmann]</ref><ref>[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Early paper - Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]</ref> In the [[Western World]] due to immigration and the higher birth rates of religious people, Kaufman writes: "Committed religious populations are growing in the West, and will reverse the march of secularism before 2050."<ref>[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Early paper - Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]</ref>
Kaufmann told a secular audience in Australia: "The trends that are happening worldwide inevitably in an age of globalization are going to affect us."<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6NtvDErEmBY Shall the religious inherit the earth - Festival of Dangerous Ideas - Eric Kaufmann]</ref> Furthermore, Kaufmann also argues that secularization may reverse itself significantly earlier than 2050 in the West due to religious immigration and a religious population which is increasingly resistant to secularization in Europe.<ref>*[http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2012/08/european-christian-immigration-will.html European immigration will pour Christian creationists into Europe]
''See also:'' [[European desecularization in the 21st century]] and [[Secular Europe|Decline of secular Europe]]
[[Eric Kaufmann]] is a professor of politics at Birkbeck, University of London and author. His academic research specialty is how demographic changes affect religion/irreligion and politics. In April 2010, Eric Kaufmann, who is an [[agnosticism|agnostic]], declared "the rate of secularisation has flattened to zero in most of [[Protestantism|Protestant]] [[Europe]] and [[France]]."<ref>[https://www.mercatornet.com/articles/view/shall_the_religious_inherit_the_earth/ Shall the religious inherit the earth?] by Eric Kaufmann</ref> Kaufmann also declared that [[secularism]] "appears exhausted and lacking in confidence".<ref>[http://www.sneps.net/RD/uploads/1-Shall%20the%20Religious%20Inherit%20the%20Earth.pdf Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?: Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century by Eric Kaufmann, Belfer Center, Harvard University/Birkbeck College, University of London]</ref>
In 2011, Kaufmann declared concerning the population of [[Secular Europe]]:
=== Desecularization and France ===
In April 2012, French scholars reported that [[evangelicalism|evangelical Christianity]] was likely the fastest growing religion in France.<ref>[httphttps://www.csmonitor.com/World/2012/0712/In-a-France-suspicious-of-religion-evangelicalism-s-message-strikes-a-chord France and evangelicalism - Christian Post]</ref>
In addition, France has Europe's second largest Muslim population.<ref>[httphttps://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/19/5-facts-about-the-muslim-population-in-europe/ 5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe]</ref>
=== Desecularization and Germany ===
On March 17, 2014, the news website ''Deutsche Well'' reported that evangelical Christianity has doubled in [[Germany]] in the last 10 years.<ref>[http://www.dw.de/ghanaian-pastor-seeks-to-re-christianize-germany/a-17501259 Ghanaian pastor seeks to 're-Christianize' Germany]</ref>
Germany also has Europe's largest Muslim population.<ref>[httphttps://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/19/5-facts-about-the-muslim-population-in-europe/ 5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe]</ref>
=== Desecularization and Britain ===
According to Pew Research:
{{Cquote|In recent decades, the Muslim share of the population throughout Europe grew about 1 percentage point a decade, from 4% in 1990 to 6% in 2010. This pattern is expected to continue through 2030, when Muslims are projected to make up 8% of Europe’s population.<ref>[httphttps://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/19/5-facts-about-the-muslim-population-in-europe/ 5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe]</ref>}}
[[Phillip Jenkins]] predicts that by 2100 the Muslim population of Europe will be 25% of the European population.<ref>Philip Jenkins, Demographics, Religion, and the Future of Europe, Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 533, summer 2006</ref>
Far-right European political parties seek to expel Muslims from Europe.<ref>[http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2017/02/19/511219/Europe-Netherlands-Geert-Wilders-Morocco-Muslims-France-immigrants Far-right parties in Europe seek to expel Muslims: Scholar], Press TV</ref> In June 2014,'' Forbes'' reported that it is undeniable that politically right wing parties are ascendant in Europe.<ref>[httphttps://www.forbes.com/sites/stratfor/2014/06/04/europes-deep-right-wing-logic/ Europe's Deep Right-Wing Logic] By Robert D. Kaplan</ref>
=== European desecularization and illegal immigration ===
''See also:'' [[East Asia and global desecularization]] and [[Asian atheism]] and [[Growth of Christianity in China]] and [[Growth of evangelical Christianity in irreligious regions]]
Razib Khan points out in ''Discover Magazine'', "most [[secular]] nations in the world are those of East Asia, in particular what are often termed “[[Confucianism|Confucian]] societies.” It is likely therefore that the majority of the world’s [[Atheism|atheists]] are actually East Asian."<ref>[http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2010/11/most-atheists-are-not-white/ Most atheists are not white & other non-fairy tales], Discover magazine</ref> See: [[Asian atheism]] and [[Global atheism]] One of the steepest declines of atheism that is expected to occur is in [[China]] which currently has the largest atheist population in the world. China is experiencing a rapid an explosive growth of theologically [[conservative]] [[Christianity]] which will have a significant effect on the global atheist population.<ref>[http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2014/04/7-reasons-why-chinese-creationist.html 10 reasons why biblical Christianity will flood the UK in the 21st century]</ref>To see the magnitude of the explosive growth of Christianity in China, look at [https://www.dw.com/en/in-xi-we-trust-is-china-cracking-down-on-christianity/a-42224752 this graph about the growth of Christianity in China] in a DW news story about Chinese Christianity (DW is a mainstream news outlet in Germany).
== United States, irreligion vs. religion, demographics and desecularization ==
Research indicates that among ethnic minority immigrants religion is a source of group ethnic identification which makes them more resistant to secularization.<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7vCDeKPRSo Eric Kaufmann - Religion, Demography and Politics in the 21st Century]</ref> In most countries, with the exception of France, Muslim immigrants have nearly 100% retention rates for the second generation.<ref>[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7vCDeKPRSo Eric Kaufmann - Religion, Demography and Politics in the 21st Century]</ref>
[[File:France location.png|thumbnail|200px|left|French scholars say, [[evangelicalism]] is likely the fastest-growing religion in [[France]] – defying all stereotypes about one of Europe's most secular nations. In 2011, The number of evangelical churches increased from 769 to 2,068 in 2011.<ref>[httphttps://www.csmonitor.com/World/2012/0712/In-a-France-suspicious-of-religion-evangelicalism-s-message-strikes-a-chord In a France suspicious of religion, evangelicalism's message strikes a chord]</ref> ]]
In 2010, Kaufmann reported that the rate of secularisation flattened to zero in most of Protestant Europe and France.<ref>[http://www.mercatornet.com/articles/view/shall_the_religious_inherit_the_earth/ Shall the religious inherit the earth]</ref>
{{cquote|French scholars say, evangelicalism is likely the fastest-growing religion in [[France]] – defying all stereotypes about Europe’s most secular nation...
Daniel Liechti, vice-president of the French National Evangelical Council, found that since 1970, a new evangelical church has opened in France every 10 days. The number of churches increased from 769 to 2,068 last year.<ref>[httphttps://www.csmonitor.com/World/2012/0712/In-a-France-suspicious-of-religion-evangelicalism-s-message-strikes-a-chord In a France suspicious of religion, evangelicalism's message strikes a chord]</ref>}}
Due to religious immigrants, many of whom are evangelical Christians, church attendance in Greater [[London]] grew by 16% between 2005 and 2012.<ref>[http://www.brin.ac.uk/news/2013/london-churchgoing-and-other-news/ London Churchgoing and Other News]</ref> In 2013, it was reported that 52% of people who attended church in London attended evangelical churches.<ref>[http://www.brin.ac.uk/news/2013/london-churchgoing-and-other-news/ London Churchgoing and Other News]</ref>
''See also:'' [[Postsecularism]]
Jens Köhrsen, a professor for religion and economics at the Centre for Religion, Economy and Politics (ZRWP),<ref>[https://religionswissenschaft.unibas.ch/de/personen/jens-koehrsen/ Prof. Dr. Jens Köhrsen], University website faculty page</ref>, wrote:
{{Cquote|[ [[Jürgen Habermas]] ] ...argues that a new age, the age of [[Postsecularism|post-secularity]], has begun. Previously vastly secularized societies, like the highly developed countries of Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, would experience a new awareness of religion and attribute a new public role to religion. From now on, religion would constitute a relevant dialogue partner in the public debates of these societies (Habermas, 2008). Moreover, Habermas presents a normative argument about public religion: he recommends that post-secular societies should facilitate religious contributions to the public sphere. Religious reasoning could contribute to public debates about the ethical values of contemporaneous and future societies. Habermas believes that modern societies might find some answers to the moral questions of our time by listening to religion in public debates (Habermas, 2001, 2005, 2006, 2008). A similar position to that of Habermas is proposed by Leclerc (2001) and French sociologist Willaime (2004a, 2004b, 2005[1995]: 76-78, 2008). Willaime observes that even the highly secularized public and political sphere of France is exhibiting a new, more open attitude towards religion. The hypersecularity of France would stimulate a restructuration process of religion. According to Willaime, religion can form an important resource for public debates and be engaged in the identity construction process of individuals and collectives.<ref>[https://edoc.unibas.ch/50856/3/20170119190142_5880ff06238b8.pdf How religious is the public sphere? – A critical stance on the debate about public religion and post-secularity], Draft Version, Jens Koehrsen (Köhrsen). Bielefeld Graduate School in History and Sociology, Germany. École des hautes études en sciences socials, France. Published in: Acta Sociologica 55 (3), S. 273-288.</ref>}}
However, even WIN/Gallup International now agrees that atheism is shrinking in terms of its global percentage of adherents (see: [[WIN/Gallup International studies on global atheism and religion]]).
The website Science 2.0 reportsdeclared on July 14, 2015:{{cquoteCquote|THE WORLD IS TURNING ATHEIST, the media tells us. Europe is already dominated by non-believers Atheism as a belief system has peaked and plummeting church attendance figures elsewhere indicate that religion itself could disappear within a generation. Christianity its share of humanity is shrinking fast, extremism has soured Islam, demographic studies indicate. Win/Gallup’s 2012 global poll on religion and the fastest growing belief-system is to have no beliefsatheism put atheists at 13%, which could lead while its 2015 poll saw that category fall to 11%. Other figures suggest the world becoming a peacefulchanges have deep, atheist utopia. So says conventional wisdom in some quartersbroad roots.1
Are there figures to back this up? Actually, no. IndeedFirst, a close examination community’s possession of empirical data about atheistic world-views tells a story that is different in almost every way—and especially in regard to humanity’s next chapterviews—for whatever reason—correlates with low or negative birth rates. The most significant examples are East Asian and European countries, which are at “below replacement” rates of birth, shrinking at speed.
Atheism as a belief system Second, [[Atheist state|“forced” atheism]] has peaked been disappearing steadily over the past 40 years and we see a corresponding surge of people towards spiritual clusters. In percentage terms, 1970 may be considered the high point for global atheism and agnosticism. As communism weakened, and eventually collapsed in 1989, there was a significant resurgence of religious belief (see chart below). The same thing is now happening in China. Third, the surge of popularity for a [[New Atheism|novel type of “evangelical atheism”]] which began about a decade ago appears to be [[Decline of militant atheism in the West|losing some of its steam]]. The movement’s celebrity leaders have fallen out of the bestseller lists, and are often now criticized by their former cheerleaders in newspaper columns. After a high-publicity start in 2013, Sunday Assemblies have plummeted out of the limelight and growth has been glacial. And the near future? The latest global data also shows that young people, classified as those under 34, tend to be measurably more religious (66%) than older ones (60%). “With the trend of an increasingly religious youth globally, we can assume that the number of people who consider themselves religious will only continue to increase,” said Jean-Marc Leger, President of WIN/Gallup International Association. ..the view that atheism will sweep the globe to produce a non-believing utopia is extremely unlikely. The shrinking of the skeptical share of humanity is shrinkinginevitable, demographic studies indicateas Welsh geneticist Steve Jones has stated. Win/Gallup’s 2012  ..the data suggests that the global poll on religion and atheism put proportion of atheists at 13%will fall, while its 2015 poll saw that category fall to 11%. Other figures suggest the changes have deepnumber of pro-spiritual, broad rootspro-science middle group will grow.<ref>[http://www.science20.com/writer_on_the_edge/blog/atheism_peaks_while_spiritual_groups_move_toward_convergence-156528 Atheism Peaks, While Spiritual Groups Move Toward Convergence] by By Nury Vittachi | , July 13th 14, 2015 09:31 PM, website Science 2.0 website</ref>}}
== Atheism vs. Christian revival ==
The direct approach of confronting atheism is important, but the indirect approach of preventing atheism through the cutting off of its air supply is also far more efficient. If Christendom is going to conquer atheist ideology, it makes perfect sense to do so in the quickest and most efficient manner possible. Let's cut atheism off at the knees and vigorously spread the Question evolution! campaign on the internet and in our local communities.<ref>[http://questionevolution.blogspot.com/2011/12/cutting-off-air-supply-of-atheism.html Cutting off the air supply of atheism]</ref>}}
The atheist [[Michael Ruse]], evolutionist science philosopher admitted, “Evolution is a religion. This was true of evolution in the beginning, and it is true of evolution still today.”<ref>[httphttps://creation.com/15-questions 15 questions for evolutionists]</ref> See also: [[Evolution as a secular origins myth]]
== Financial instability and desecularization ==
*[[Global atheism|Decline of global atheism]]
*[[Decline of the atheist movement]]
*[[Atheism and motivation]]
*[[Militant atheism vs. Christianity, Islam and right-wing ideology]]
*[[Resources for leaving atheism and becoming a Christian]]
''
Videos:
 
*[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1O2bsh6oHnM Eric Kaufmann: Why the Religious Will Inherit the Earth]
*[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2apnnyBMXU Atheists are dying out] by Dr. Steve Turley
*[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93OE8drIFeE&list=PLc2eSR_oncVjfW8ZOMYzgLtt1Bf6FQ7AC Resurgence of religion video series], Baylor University
 
Essay:
 
*[[Essay: Atheism: A house divided and in global decline|Atheism: A house divided and in global decline]]
== Notes ==
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