/* Economic impact */
[[File:United Kingdom EU referendum 2016 area results.svg.png|thumb|250px|Brexit results. Blue-shaded areas stand for council areas that voted "Leave". Orange stands for "Remain".]]
:''For the political philosophy in favor of Brexit, see [[Euroskepticism]]''
'''Brexit''' is a campaign slogan for
'Britain's Exit ' from the [[European Union]]. The British people became the first nation to vote on a referendum whether or not to remain in membership to the EU on June 23, 2016. The historic vote shocked the world as the Leave campaign won by a 52–48% margin. Prime Minister [[David Cameron]] campaigned to remain in the EU and with the results public, resigned his position. Former London Mayor [[Boris Johnson]] was a leader of the Leave camp, though previously supporting Remain. Among the reasons for leaving the EU, regaining [[self-governance]] and [[sovereignty]] was a top reason.<ref>[https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/editorials/brexit-is-at-bottom-about-self-rule Brexit is, at bottom, about self-rule]. ''Washington Examiner''. March 24, 2019. Retrieved March 24, 2019.</ref>
Prime Minister [[Theresa May]] officially initiated Brexit on March 29, 2017.<ref>Suarez Sang, Lucia I. (March 29, 2017). [
http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/03/29/brexit-triggered-u-k-prime-minister-sends-letter-to-european-union-to-begin-exit.html Brexit triggered: UK prime minister sends letter to European Union to begin divorce]. ''Fox News''. Retrieved March 29, 2017.</ref><ref>[https://www.breitbart.com/london/2017/03/29/triggered/ TRIGGERED: Britain Invokes Article 50 to Begin Brexit Process]. ''Breitbart News''. March 29, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2017.</ref> In the Brexit negotiations, the EU parliament has a very powerful role, and has ruled out certain things the British Government was hoping to achieve (such as trade agreements with individual nation-states, rather than the European Union as an entity), thus acting as a bully to Britain.<ref>[ http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/04/05/eu-legislators-tell-uk-on-brexit-no-parallel-talks.html EU legislators tell UK on Brexit: no parallel talks]. ''Fox News'' (from the ''Associated Press''). April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 5, 2017.</ref> Run by weak [[establishment]] and [[globalist]] politicians, the UK had serious trouble agreeing to leave the EU as voters demanded .
== Eligible voters ==
Prior to the referendum, the Left and establishment claimed that approving Brexit would lead to terrible economic ruin for the UK. Pro-Brexiteers labeled this hysteria "Project Fear." Financial giants warned the British of credit downgrades. The British Pound dropped significantly as results started pouring in showing Leave doing better than expected.
Contrary to claims by anti-Brexit activists, the British economy did well, and it even improved after the referendum. In early 2017, the chief economist of the Bank of England admitted that hysteric [[establishment]] predictions of economic gloom from a pro-Brexit result were wrong and inaccurate.<ref>[
http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/01/06/bank-england-economist-brexit-predictions-were-wrong.html Bank of England economist: Brexit predictions were wrong]. ''Fox News''. January 6, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.</ref> The British finance ministry admitted the same in January 2018.<ref>[https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/01/26/reuters-treasury-says-pre-referendum-brexit-economy-forecasts-no-longer-valid/ Reuters: Treasury Says Pre-Referendum ‘Project Fear’ Forecasts No Longer Valid]. ''Breitbart News''. January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.</ref> In 2017, British manufacturing grew at its fastest rate since early 2008.<ref>Deacon, Liam (January 11, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/01/11/uk-manufacturing-growing-fastest-rate-decade-brexit-vote/ UK Manufacturing Growing at Fastest Rate in a Decade After Brexit Vote]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved January 11, 2018.</ref> Despite contrary claims by "Remain" campaigners, the British Pound climbed to pre-Brexit vote levels in January 2018.<ref>[https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/01/23/sterling-climbs-1-40-new-post-brexit-vote-high/ Sterling Climbs Above $1.40 to New Post-Brexit-Vote High]. ''Breitbart News''. January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.</ref> Employment also rose.<ref>[https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/01/24/reuters-uk-employment-surges-record-high-wages-increase/ REUTERS: UK Employment Surges to Record High, Wages Increase]. ''Breitbart News''. January 24, 2018. Retrieved January 24, 2018.</ref> By 2018, British export levels reached the highest level since 2010.<ref>Montgomery, Jack (March 8, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/03/08/british-exports-strongest-since-2010-pre-referendum-recession-threats/ Brexit Boom: British Exports Strongest Since 2010, Defying Pre-Referendum Recession Threats]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved March 8, 2018.</ref> Car manufacturing and investment also increased significantly in 2018.<ref>Montgomery, Jack (February 4, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/02/04/uk-enjoys-surge-car-manufacturing-millions-invested-new-factories/ Brexit-pocalypse? Surge in UK Car Manufacturing, Huge Investment in Research Centres, New Factories]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved February 4, 2019.</ref> The Office for National Statistics found in February 2019 that the British economy was growing faster than that of the [[Eurozone]].<ref>Montgomery, Jack (February 15, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/02/15/british-economy-defies-anti-brexiteers-outpace-europe/ British Economy Defies Anti-Brexiteers to Outpace Europe]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved February 15, 2019.</ref> European investment more than doubled in nearly three years after the vote.<ref>Friedman, Victoria (March 5, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/03/05/brexit-boost-european-investment-in-uk-more-than-doubles-since-brexit-vote/ Brexit Boost: European Investment in UK More Than Doubles Since Brexit Vote]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved March 5, 2019.</ref>
Despite the economic growth, anti-Brexit activists continued to predict "doom-and-gloom" economic scenarios.<ref>Montgomery, Jack (January 11, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/01/11/project-fear-redux-economy-surges-khan-predict-disaster/ Project Fear Redux: As Economy Surges, Anti-Brexit Economists Predict Disaster in Report Funded by Sadiq Khan]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved January 11, 2018.</ref> However, former prime minister [[David Cameron]], who supported the "Remain" campaign, admitted in January 2018 that Brexit "turned out less badly than we first thought" despite continuing to voice displeasure about it.<ref>Lane, Oliver JJ (January 24, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/01/24/david-cameron-davos-brexit-turned-less-badly-first-thought/ David Cameron at Davos: ‘Brexit Has Turned Out Less Badly Than We First Thought’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved January 24, 2018.</ref>
Anti-Brexit advocates continued promoting Project Fear, or "Project Hysteria," regarding a potential no-deal "Hard Brexit."<ref>Friedman, Victoria (September 17, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/09/17/project-hysteria-dire-predictions-no-deal-brexit-sandwiches-space-debris-falling-sky/ ‘Project Hysteria’: Dire No-Deal Brexit Predictions from the End of Sandwiches to the Sky Falling in]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved September 17, 2018.</ref><ref>Delingpole, James (November 29, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2018/11/29/uk-establishment-ramps-up-brexit-hysteria-more-lies/ Delingpole: Brexit Project Fear Gives Way to Project Hysteria]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved November 29, 2018.</ref>
== Secular leftists, Brexit and mental illness ==
*McCullough, Michael E. and Willoughby, Brian L. B. (2009). [http://www.psy.miami.edu/faculty/mmccullough/Papers/Relig_self_control_bulletin.pdf "Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: associations, explanations, and implications"]. ''Psychological Bulletin'', vol. 135: 1, pp. 69–93. Retrieved from University of Miami, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Psychology website on July 24, 2014.
*University of Colorado at Boulder (May 17, 1999). [https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/05/990517064323.htm "Research shows religion plays a major role in health, longevity"]. ScienceDaily. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.
*Dervic, Kanita, et al. (December 2004). [
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15569904 "Religious affiliation and suicide attempt" [abstract]]. ''The American Journal of Psychiatry'', vol. 161:12, pp. 2303-8. Abstract retrieved from National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Pub Med on July 24, 2014.
*University of Warwick (December 2003). [http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/2003/A/20037338.html "Psychology researcher [Dr. Stephen Joseph] says spiritual meaning of Christmas brings more happiness than materialism"]. Scienceblog. Retrieved on July 24, 2014.</ref> In addition, atheists have higher suicide rates (see: [[Atheism and suicide]] and [[Atheism and depression]]).
Politically, most atheists fall on the left side of the political spectrum (see: [[Atheism and politics]] and [[Secular left]]).
The [[New Atheism|new atheist]] [[Richard Dawkins]] was against Brexit.<ref>[
http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-39218108 Richard Dawkins: Brits have not spoken on Brexit], BBC</ref> Dawkins is a liberal/leftist.<ref>[https://richarddawkins.net/2013/08/religion-and-politics/ Religion and Politics], Richard Dawkins' website</ref> Most leftists were against Brexit.
A Eurobarometer poll in 2010 reported that 37% of UK citizens "believed there is a God", 33% believe there is "some sort of spirit or life force" and 25% answered "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".<ref>[http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_341_en.pdf Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, p. 204"]. Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010.</ref> See also: [[British atheism]]
==Process for leaving the EU==
Despite British leaders' reluctance for achieving a "no deal" hard Brexit, Professor Patrick Minford of Cardiff University estimated that such an exit would actually cost the EU £507 billion with the UK gaining £641 billion.<ref>Montgomery, Jack (January 15, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/01/15/study-no-deal-cost-eu-507bn-britain-gains-641bn/ Study: ‘No Deal’ Will Cost the EU £507bn, While Britain Gains £641bn]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved January 15, 2018.</ref> The British establishment claimed that a "no deal" Brexit would have disastrous consequences for Britain, similar to "Project Fear" prior to the referendum, despite the lack of evidence.<ref>Multiple references:
*Jasper, William F. (December 24, 2018). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/31015-will-no-deal-brexit-cause-horrible-chaos-as-globalist-elites-claim Will “No Deal” Brexit Cause “Horrible Chaos” as Globalist Elites Claim?] ''The New American''. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
*Jasper, William F. (January 3, 2019). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/31081-project-fear-intensifies-with-cumberbatch-brexit-film-andy-serkis-mock-video Project Fear Intensifies With Cumberbatch Brexit Film, Andy Serkis Mock Video]. ''The New American''. Retrieved January 7, 2019.</ref>
The UK parliament passed a bill implementing the referendum decision, becoming law on June 27, 2018, about a year after being introduced.<ref>Gaydos, Ryan (June 26, 2018). [
http://www.foxnews.com/world/2018/06/26/brexit-bill-becomes-law-allowing-uk-to-leave-european-union.html Brexit bill becomes law, allowing UK to leave European Union]. ''Fox News''. Retrieved June 27, 2018.</ref><ref>Manchester, Julia (June 26, 2018). [https://thehill.com/policy/international/394124-british-brexit-bill-becomes-law British Brexit bill becomes law]. ''The Hill''. Retrieved June 27, 2018.</ref> [[Globalist]]s of the EU<ref>Jasper, William F. (January 7, 2019). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/31129-brexit-betrayal-and-the-eu-liars-club Brexit Betrayal and the EU Liars Club]. ''The New American''. Retrieved January 7, 2019.</ref> and in the UK refused to admit their defeat in the referendum by trying to undermine and even reverse Brexit – thus undermining democracy.<ref>Multiple references:
*Newman, Alex (June 27, 2018). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/29398-brexit-is-now-law-but-globalists-refuse-to-surrender Brexit Is Now Law, but Globalists Refuse to Surrender]. ''The New American''. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
*Hannan, Dan (December 24, 2018). [https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/how-the-europhiles-are-blowing-up-britain How the Europhiles are blowing up Britain]. ''Washington Examiner''. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
*Murphy, James (January 13, 2019). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/31176-uk-in-brexit-turmoil-as-calls-for-a-new-referendum-grow UK in Brexit Turmoil as Calls for a New Referendum Grow]. ''The New American''. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
*Hannan, Daniel (April 8, 2019). [https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/op-eds/the-uks-remainers-will-tear-down-democracy-and-all-its-rules-to-get-their-way The UK's 'Remainers' will tear down democracy and all its rules to get their way]. ''Washington Examiner''. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
*Woodfinden, Benjamin (February 6, 2019). [https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/no-deal-brexit-might-be-bad-but-remaining-in-the-eu-would-be-worse No-deal Brexit might be bad, but remaining in the EU would be worse]. ''Washington Examiner''. Retrieved February 7, 2019.</ref> By July 2018, Prime Minister Theresa May had hurt her country's chances of securing a real Brexit because of several poor decisions and refusal to stand firm against the EU in negotiations.<ref>Friedman, Victoria (July 11, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/11/five-things-know-about-may-bungled-brexit/ Concessions, Threats, No Confidence: Five Ways ‘Zombie May’ Bungled Brexit]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 11, 2018.<br>See also:
*Murphy, James (April 1, 2019). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/31898-may-ponders-fourth-vote-on-her-brexit-deal May Ponders Fourth Vote on Her Brexit Deal]. ''The New American''. Retrieved April 1, 2019.</ref>
May then began negotiations with the far-left [[Jeremy Corbyn]] on a Brexit agreement.<ref>Carbone, Christopher (April 7, 2019). [https://www.foxnews.com/world/may-defends-approaching-labour-on-brexit-deal-as-clock-ticks-down May makes last-ditch Brexit effort with Labour as clock ticks down]. ''Fox News''. Retrieved April 7, 2019.</ref> Her government also announced the UK would participate in the [[European Parliament]] elections,<ref>Lane, Oliver JJ (April 5, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/04/05/theresa-may-confirms-brits-will-vote-in-eu-elections-despite-having-voted-to-leave-bloc-three-years-earlier/ Theresa May Confirms Brits Will Vote in EU Elections, Despite Having Voted to Leave Bloc Three Years Earlier]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved April 5, 2019.</ref><ref>Lane, Oliver JJ (April 8, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/04/08/despite-brexit-referendum-and-endless-promises-uk-govt-lays-legal-groundwork-to-host-eu-elections/ Despite Brexit Referendum And Endless Promises, UK Govt Lays Legal Groundwork to Host EU Elections]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved April 8, 2019.</ref> something anti-Brexit [[deep state]] officials set aside money for in 2018.<ref>Montgomery, Jack (April 5, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/04/05/flashback-uk-deep-set-aside-cash-eu-elections-may-2018/ FLASHBACK: UK Deep State Set Aside Cash for EU Elections in May 2018]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved April 5, 2019.</ref> May even threatened to keep the UK in the EU.<ref>Hervey, Ginger (April 7, 2019). [https://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-warns-of-stark-choice-between-a-deal-and-no-brexit/ Theresa May warns of ‘stark choice’ between a deal and no Brexit]. ''Politico''. Retrieved April 7, 2019.</ref> This came even though her own government had prepared extensively for a "no deal."<ref>Montgomery, Jack (April 6, 2019). [https://www.breitbart.com/europe/2019/04/06/britain-officially-ready-no-deal-reveals-govt-minister-responsible-plans/ Britain ‘Officially Ready’ for No Deal Brexit, Reveals Govt Minister Responsible for Plans]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved April 6 , 2019.</ref>
=== Article 50 ===
The main concern of the British government is to ensure access to the single market for its banking and manufacturing sectors - both major income streams for the UK. Along with this the UK business sector are very concerned about the potential loss of EU (especially Eastern European) labour for many agricultural and low paid roles. Negotiations are proceeding very slowly because of the obstructive tactics of the EU negotiators. They are insisting that Britain must agree to an "exit fee" of over £50 billion before they will start trade talks.<ref>
http://www.express.co.uk/news/politics/797852/Brexit-news-EU-expand-Britain-exit-fee-bill-budget-black-hole</ref> They also wanted to discuss the "rights" of EU citizens before such talks.
In July 2018, [[Theresa May]] and her cabinet agreed to a very weak negotiating position that would leave the country under the European Court of Justice, effectively in the single market, and under the jurisdiction of many of the EU's regulations.<ref>Montgomery, Jack (July 6, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/06/total-capitulation-theresa-may-proposes-sub-norway-brexit-deal/ TOTAL CAPITULATION: May Proposes Sub-Norway Brexit Deal – Concedes on Goods, Rules, EU Court, and More]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 7, 2018.</ref> Anti-Brexit [[Europhile]]s applauded the negotiating position.<ref>Friedman, Victoria (July 9, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/09/remainers-congratulate-may-brexit-betrayal/ Remainers Congratulate May’s Brexit Betrayal]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.</ref> In opposition to such a weak agreement, several of her pro-[[sovereignty]] ministers resigned,<ref>Piper, Elizabeth; James, William; MacAskill, Andrew (July 8, 2018). [https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-davis/uk-brexit-secretary-david-davis-has-resigned-source-close-to-davis-idUSKBN1JY10K British eurosceptic ministers quit in blow to May's Brexit plan]. ''Reuters''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.</ref><ref>Murphy, James (July 10, 2018). [https://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/europe/item/29501-uk-government-reels-in-the-wake-of-brexit-related-resignations U.K. Government Reels in the Wake of Brexit-related Resignations]. ''The New American''. Retrieved July 10, 2018.</ref> including Brexit Minister David Davis<ref>Multiple references:
*Montgomery, Jack (July 8, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/08/rebellion-brexit-secretary-david-davis-resigns-over-mays-turd-deal-couldnt-sell-out-his-own-country/ REBELLION: Brexit Secretary David Davis Resigns Over May’s ‘Turd’ Deal, ‘Couldn’t Sell Out His Own Country’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
http://www.foxnews.com/world/2018/07/08/top-uk-official-in-charge-brexit-quits-in-fresh-blow-to-may.html Top UK official in charge of Brexit quits in fresh blow to May]. ''Associated Press''. July 8, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
*Montgomery, Jack (July 10, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/10/ex-brexit-minister-slams-may-establishment-dont-want-to-leave-eu-exit-plan-led-by-fear-and-supplication/ Ex-Brexit Minister Slams May: Establishment ‘Don’t Want to Leave EU’, Exit Plan Led by ‘Fear and Supplication’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
*Montgomery, Jack (July 9, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/09/boris-speaks-brexit-is-dying-white-flags-are-fluttering-may-deal-will-make-britain-an-eu-colony/ BORIS SPEAKS: ‘Brexit is Dying, White Flags Are Fluttering, May Deal Will Make Britain an EU Colony’]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 9, 2018.</ref> Several other officials also resigned.<ref>Multiple references:
*Friedman, Victoria (July 16, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/16/theresa-may-government-implodes-9th-mp-resigns-soft-brexit-plan/ Theresa May’s Government Implodes as 9th MP Resigns over Soft Brexit Plan]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
*Sang, Lucia I. Suarez (July 16, 2018). [
http://www.foxnews.com/world/2018/07/16/theresa-may-dismisses-calls-for-2nd-brexit-vote-as-ninth-parliament-member-resigns.html Theresa May dismisses calls for 2nd Brexit vote as ninth parliament member resigns]. ''Fox News''. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
*Mikhailova, Anna (July 15, 2018). [https://www.telegraph.co.uk/politics/2018/07/15/theresa-may-faces-eighth-resignation-brexit-plans-nine-days/ Theresa May hit by her eighth resignation over Brexit plans in nine days, as ministerial aide quits]. ''The Telegraph''. Retrieved July 16, 2018.</ref> Pro-"Remain" officials in May's government consolidated their influence over the exit negotiations.<ref>Deacon, Liam (July 17, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/17/power-grab-may-brexit-bureaucrat-purges-50-brexit-department-staff/ Power Grab: May’s Brexit Bureaucrat Purges 50 Brexit Department Staff]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 17, 2018.</ref><ref>Deacon, Liam (July 24, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/24/pms-bureaucrats-officially-take-charge-brexit-talks-brexit-department-snubbed/ PM’s Bureaucrats Officially Take Charge of Brexit Talks, Brexit Department Snubbed]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 24, 2018.</ref> The UK government also gave the [[Europhile]] European Court of Justice the final say over any Brexit issue in the negotiations.<ref>Deacon, Liam (July 30, 2018). [https://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/07/30/eu-courts-have-final-say-brexit-divorce-bill-millions-migrants/ EU Courts to Have Final Say on Brexit ‘Divorce Bill’ and Millions of Migrants]. ''Breitbart News''. Retrieved July 30, 2018.</ref>