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Chile

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|arms =Arms of Chile.png
|capital =Santiago
|government -raw =Democratic Republic
|language =Spanish
|president =Sebastián Piñera
|tld =.cl
}}
'''Chile''' (official name:'''Republic of Chile''') is a [[nation]] on the [[Pacific Ocean|Pacific]] coast of [[South America]] which is organized as a Centralized Unitary Presidential [[Democracy]]. It has a population of 17.5 million and the capital city is [[Santiago|Santiago de Chile]] which is also the biggest one of the country. Chile borders [[Argentina]], [[Bolivia]], and [[Peru]].
Since 1975, Chile follows the path of the [[free market]] and [[Capitalism]] been the best place to make business of [[Latin America]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iberglobal.com/files/2019-1/economic_freedom_index_2019.pdf|title=Economic Freedom Index 2019}}</ref> This has made the country the most developed of the Region according to the [[Human Development Index]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.economiaynegocios.cl/noticias/noticias.asp?id=505045|title=Chile sigue al tope de A. Latina en Índice de Desarrollo Humano|date=September 15, 2018|publisher=Economía y Negocios|language=es}}</ref> Chile went from a [[Gross domestic product]] of 100 in 1973 to 515 in 2012.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://gobierno.udd.cl/files/2016/05/PPT-FPP.pdf|author=Lucas Palacios Covarrubias|title=Pobreza vs Desigualdad|date=April 2016|publisher=[[Universidad del Desarrollo]] - Facultad de Gobierno|language=es}}</ref>
'''Today Chile''' is a country on the Pacific coast of South America, which borders leaded by President [[ArgentinaSebastián Piñera]], with the coalition of parties called [[BoliviaChile Vamos]], . The coalition is center-right and has taken [[Peruprogressive]]stands on some moral issues.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://santiagotimes.cl/2018/11/29/chile-enacts-landmark-gender-identity-law/|title=Chile enacts landmark gender identity law|date=November 29, 2018|publisher=Santiago Times}}</ref>
==Geography==
[[File:Volcano Osorno and Petrohué waterfalls.JPG|thumb|left|Petrohué Waterfalls and Osorno Volcano in the background.]]
The northern Chilean desert [[Atacama Desert]] contains great mineral wealth, principally [[copper]]. The relatively small central area dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources. This area also is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in [[forest]]s and grazing lands and features a string of [[volcano]]es and [[lake]]s. The southern coast located in [[Patagonia]] is a labyrinth of [[fjord]]s, [[inlet]]s, [[canal]]s, twisting [[peninsula]]s, and ''island''s. The [[Andes]] Mountains are located on the eastern border.
*Area: 756,945 km<sup>2</sup>. (302,778 sq. mi.), or nearly twice the size of California.
*Cities: Capital—Santiago Capital—[[Santiago]] (metropolitan area est. 6.25 million). Other cities: Concepcion[[Concepción]]-[[Talcahuano ]] (840,000), [[Viña del Mar]]-Valparaiso [[Valparaíso]] (800,000), [[Antofagasta ]] (245,000), [[Temuco ]] (230,000).
*Terrain: Desert in north; fertile central valley; volcanoes and lakes toward the south, giving way to rugged and complex coastline; Andes Mountains on the eastern border.
*Climate: Arid in north, Mediterranean in the central portion, cool and damp in south.
==People==
[[File:Chilean dance.jpg|left|140px]]
About 85% of Chile's population lives in urban areas, with 40% living in greater Santiago. Most have Spanish ancestry. A small, yet influential number of [[Irish ]] and [[English ]] immigrants came to Chile during the colonial period. [[German ]] immigration began in 1848 and lasted for 90 years; the southern provinces of [[Valdivia]], [[Llanquihue]], and [[Osorno ]] show a strong German influence. Other significant historic immigrant groups are [[Italian]], [[Croatian]], [[Basque]], and [[Palestinian]] and [[Peruvian]]. About 800,000 Native Americans, mostly of the [[Mapuche ]] tribe, reside in the south-central area. The [[Aymara ]] and [[Diaguita ]] groups can be found mainly in Chile's northern desert valleys. Since 2014 Chile has been experiencing [[open borders|mass]] [[immigration]] from [[Haiti]], [[Venezuela]], [[Colombia]] and [[Ecuador]], something that was unusual and has drastically changed the demographics of the country in the recent years (The immigrants went from 1.1% to 6.1% and is still growing)<ref>{{cite web|language=es|url=http://www.diarioestrategia.cl//texto-diario/mostrar/1116871/chile-pais-americano-mayor-aumento-inmigrantes|title=Chile es el país americano con mayor aumento de inmigrantes|publisher=diarioestrategia.cl|date=9 November 2018}}</ref> a lot of them are [[Illegal immigration|illegally]]. 
*Population (2019): 17.5 million.
*Annual population growth rate: 0.881%.
*Language: Spanish.
*Education: Years compulsory—12. Attendance—3 million. Adult literacy rate—96%.
*Health: Infant mortality rate—8.9/1,000. Life expectancy—71 expectancy—80 yrs. for men, 78 85 for women.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ipsuss.cl/ipsuss/analisis-y-estudios/esperanza-de-vida-al-nacer-en-chile-llega-a-85-anos-en-mujeres-y-80-anos/2017-09-26/154547.html|title=Esperanza de vida al nacer en Chile llega a 85 años en mujeres y 80 años en hombres|date=September 26, 2017|language=es|publisher=Ipsuss}}</ref>
*Work force (6.94 million); employed 6.45 million: Community, social and individual services—26%; industry—14.4%; commerce—17.6%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing—13.9%; construction—7.1%; financial services—7.5%; transportation and communication—8.0%; electricity, gas and water—0.5%; mining—1.2%.
[[File:Palacio de La Moneda.jpg|thumbnail|250px|[[La Moneda]] Palace, seat of Executive Branch.]]
Chile's Constitution was approved in a September 1980 national plebiscite. It entered into force in March 1981. After Pinochet's defeat in the 1988 plebiscite. In 2005 President Lagos made several reforms to the Constitution, even changing the Pinochet sign with his.
The President term is 4-year long, however is constitutionally barred from serving consecutive terms. The political system of Chile is an exacerbated [[Presidential system|Presidential]] one.Chile has a bicameral Congress, which meets in the port city of Valparaiso[[Valparaíso]], about 140 kilometers (84&nbsp;mi.) west of the capital, Santiago. Deputies are elected every 4 years, and Senators serve 8-year terms.
There are currently 43 Senators and 155 Deputies.
The Chilean elections are judged free and fair.
In 2007 Peru demanded Chile in the International Court of Justice due to a maritime dispute. The case was closed in 2013 in which half of the disputed sea was ceded to Peru and half to Chile. In Chile it was seen as a lost case.
Chile and Bolivia have bad diplomatic relations since [[Evo Morales]], Bolivia's President, has reintegrated the desire to reacquire territory Bolivia lost to Chile in 1879-83 [[War of the Pacific ]] in his Foreign Affairs Policy and he demanded Chile in the Internation Couth of Justice, a case which Chile won. There is currently a case to determine if Silala is a river (Chile's position) or is a spring artificially modificated by Chile (Bolivia's position). The two countries maintain consular relations and are represented at the Consul General level but doesn't have embassies in each other. 
===Political parties and coalitions===
The main coalitions are:
*[[Chile Vamos ]] (center-right) ([[Sebastián Piñera|Piñera]]'s coalition) composed by the [[Independent Democratic Democrat Union]], [[National Renewal]], [[Evópoli]] and PRI.
*New Majority (left) ([[Michelle Bachelet|Bachelet]]'s coalition) composed by old leftist parties such as: the [[Socialist]] Party, [[Communist]] Party, Party for Democracy, the Radical Party and formerly the [[Christian Democracy]].
*Broad Front (left) composed by new leftist parties such as: Democratic Revolution, Liberal Party, Humanist Party, Green Ecologist Party, Commune Party.
A [[Libertarian]] Party is in formation, an [[Evangelical]] one called United in Faith and anti-[[globalist]] [[statist]] one called Social Patriot Party.
 
===Administrative divisions===
[[File:Chile (+Antarctica & Islands), administrative divisions - en - colored.png|230px|thumbnail|Map of the Chilean Regions.]]
{{Main article|Regions of Chile}}
Chile is divided in 16 Regions, 56 provinces and 346 communes. Chile is a Unitary Centralized State in which the law is the same in every place of the country.
 
'''List of the Regions and their Capital''':
*[[Arica & Parinacota Region|Arica & Parinacota]] - Capital: [[Arica]]
*[[Tarapacá Region|Tarapacá]] - Capital: [[Iquique]]
*[[Antofagasta Region|Antofagasta]] - Capital: [[Antofagasta]]
*[[Atacama Region|Atacama]] - Capital: [[Copiapó]]
*[[Coquimbo Region|Coquimbo]] - Capital: [[La Serena]]
*[[Valparaíso Region|Valparaíso]] - Capital: [[Valparaíso]]
*[[Metropolitan Region|Metropolitan]] - Capital: [[Santiago]]
*[[O'Higgins Region|O'Higgins]] - Capital: [[Rancagua]]
*[[Maule Region|Maule]] - Capital: [[Talca]]
*[[Ñuble Region|Ñuble]] - Capital: [[Chillán]]
*[[Biobío Region|Biobío]] - Capital: [[Concepción (Chile)|Concepción]]
*[[Araucanía Region|Araucanía]] - Capital: [[Temuco]]
*[[Los Ríos Region|Los Ríos]] - Capital: [[Valdivia]]
*[[Los Lagos Region|Los Lagos]] - Capital: [[Puerto Montt]]
*[[Aysén Region|Aysén]] - Capital: [[Coyhaique]]
*[[Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica Region|Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica]] - Capital: [[Punta Arenas]]
==Defense==
===Navy===
The Navy has 23,000-person, including 2,500 Marines. Of the fleet of 29 surface vessels, only eight are operational major combatants (frigates). Those ships are based in Valparaiso[[Valparaíso]]. The Navy operates its own aircraft for transport and patrol; there are no Navy fighter or bomber aircraft. The Navy also operates four submarines based in [[Talcahuano]].
===Air Force (FACH)===
The FACH is a force of 12,500. Air assets are distributed among five air brigades headquartered in Iquique, Antofagasta, Santiago, Puerto Montt, and Punta Arenas. The Air Force also operates an airbase on [[Villa Las Estrellas]], [[King George Island]], [[Antarctica]]. The FACH was created in 1930 by Gen. [[Carlos Ibáñez del Campo]].
===Carabineros===
Carabineros de Chile is the national police force of 30,000 men and women who are responsible for law enforcement, traffic management, narcotics suppression, border control, and counter-terrorism throughout Chile. The Carabineros were created in 1927 by Gen. [[Carlos Ibáñez del Campo]].
==Economy==
About 10,000 years ago, migrating Indians settled in fertile valleys and along the coast of what is now Chile. The Incas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the area's barrenness prevented extensive settlement. The first European to see Chilean land was [[Ferdinand Magellan]] when he discovered the [[Strait of Magellan]] in 1520, however the first one to arrive in Chile were [[Diego de Almagro]] and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru seeking gold in 1535. The Spanish encountered hundreds of thousands of Indians from various cultures in the area that modern Chile now occupies. These cultures supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by [[Pedro de Valdivia]], one of [[Francisco Pizarro]]'s lieutenants, who founded the city of [[Santiago]] on February 12, 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
===XIX 19th Century, Independence, State Consolidation and Wars with neightbours===
[[File:Pedro Subercaseaux Jura de la Independencia Chile.jpg|thumb|300px|Fray Pedro Subercaseaux, Jura de la Independencia de Chile.]]
[[File:Diego Portales-2.jpg|150px|thumbnail|left|[[Diego Portales]] author of the 1833 Constitution which prioritized order over democracy.]]
[[File:Arturo Prat Chacón.jpg|150px|thumbnail|left|[[Arturo Prat|Arturo Prat Chacón]], the maximum naval hero of the Chilean Nation.]]
[[File:Sinking of the Esmeralda during the battle of Iquique.jpg|300px|thumbnail|Sinking of the Esmeralda during the [[battle of Iquique|naval battle of Iquique]].]]
The drive for independence from Spain was precipitated by usurpation of the Spanish throne by Napoleon's brother Joseph in 1808. A national junta in the name of Ferdinand—heir to the deposed king—was formed on September 18, 1810. The junta proclaimed Chile an autonomous republic within the Spanish monarchy. A movement for total independence which [[José Miguel Carrera]] started soon won a wide following. After the [[Battle of Rancagua]], a Spanish attempts attempt to reimpose arbitrary rule started, during what was called the "Reconquista" led to a prolonged struggle.
Intermittent warfare continued until 1817, when an army led by [[Bernardo O'Higgins]], Chile's most renowned patriot, and [[José de San Martín]], hero of Argentine independence, crossed the Andes into Chile and defeated the royalists. On February 12, 1818, Chile was proclaimed an independent republic under O'Higgins' leadership.
The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th century Chilean society preserved During the essence of Ramón Freire Presidency in 1826 the stratified colonial social structure, which last royalist bastion was greatly influenced by family politicsdefeated, the Roman Catholic Church and the 1833 Constitution made by [[Diego PortalesChiloé]]. A strong presidency eventually emerged, but wealthy landowners remained extremely powerful. Toward archipelago and the end of the 19th century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by ruthlessly suppressing the Mapuche IndiansTantauco Treaty was signed between Chile and Spain.
Between 1823 and 1829 there was a period of Constitutional Attempts, and there were four of them. The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, which was greatly influenced by family politics, the Roman Catholic Church and the 1833 Constitution made by [[Diego Portales]]. After the [[Civil War]] of 1829-30, a strong presidency emerged, but wealthy landowners remained extremely powerful.  Between 1836 and 1839, Chile fought a [[War against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation]] which Chile won and separated Peru and Bolivia again. In 18811865 and 1866 Chile, Peru and Ecuador fought against Spain in the [[Chincha Islands War]], Chile and it 's allies won. Toward the end of the 19th century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by founding the [[Fort Bulnes]] in 1843 (near the current city of [[Punta Arenas]] in the [[Strait of Magellan]]) and incorporating the zone of the south of the [[Biobío river]] in a process called the [[Pacification of the Araucanía]], the government plan was to building roads, schools, and public infrastructure where the [[Mapuche]] Indians live, they were incorporated as citizens, however the rebel Mapuches were crushed.  There was also a process of Colonization in which the Government gave [[German]] [[settlers]] lands in [[Valdivia]] and the [[Llanquihue Lake]] where they founded several towns and cities. To this day the German influence can be noted in cities like Valdivia, [[Puerto Varas]], [[Frutillar]], [[Puerto Octay]], [[Nueva Braunau]], Ensenada, [[Puerto Montt]] and [[Osorno]]. In 1881, Chile signed a treaty with Argentina confirming Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellanbut also loosing its colonial rights over Eastern Patagonia. As a result of the [[War of the Pacific]] with Peru and Bolivia (1879–83), Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence. Chile established After a [[Civil war]] in 1891 in which President [[José Manuel Balmaceda]] committed suicide, a parliamentary democracy in the late 19th centurywas established, but degenerated into a system protecting the interests of the ruling oligarchy.
In 1888 Chile incorporated [[Easter Island]] to the national territory.
{{clear}}
===XX 20th Century===
By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress. In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose.
Continuing political and economic instability resulted with the rule of the quasidictatorial Gen. [[Carlos Ibáñez del Campo]] (1924–32). In June there was a Coup and between that month and September of 1932 there was an attempt to establish a [[Socialist]] Republic that failed.
When constitutional rule was restored later that year, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932–52), the state increased its role in the economy.
In 1940 Chile started to claim officially the [[Chilean Antarctic Territory]].
In 1962 the "right-wing" President [[Jorge Alessandri ]] started the agrarian reform in a small portion, that expropiated expropriated part of big land properties. This reform was deepened by the next two governments.
The 1964 presidential election of [[Christian Democrat]] [[Eduardo Frei Montalva ]] by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty," the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionization of agricultural workers. By 1967, however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive. At the end of his term, Frei had accomplished many noteworthy objectives, but he had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals.
He also made the "Chileanization of the copper" which introduced the State into the copper industry.
====Unidad Popular Marxist Regime (1970-1973)====
{{Main article|Salvador Allende}}
[[File:Salvador Allende & Fidel Castro.jpg|200px|thumbnail|Salvador Allende and [[Fidel Castro]] in 1971.]]
In 1970, Senator [[Salvador Allende]], a [[Marxist]] and member of Chile's Socialist Party, who headed the "Popular Unity" (UP) coalition of socialists, communists, radicals, and dissident Christian Democrats (the lasts ones supported him with the condition of respecting the laws and private property), won a plurality of votes in a three-way contest and was named President by the Chilean Congress. His program included the nationalization of private industries and banks, massive land expropriation, and collectivization, implementation of a Marxist education system, repartition of food collectively (with a limit of one stock per family). Allende's program also included the nationalization of U.S. interests in Chile's major copper mines.
[[Fidel Castro]] visited Chile in 1971 where he stayed for months.
Allende said in the same year "The major role of a journalist is not to server the truth, but to server the revolution" and in 1972 "I'm the President of the Unidad Popular, but I'm not the president of all Chileans".
Elected with only 36% of the vote and by a plurality of only 36,000 votes, Allende never enjoyed majority support in the Chilean Congress or broad popular support. Domestic production declined; severe shortages of consumer goods, food, and manufactured products were widespread; and inflation reached 1,000% per annum. Mass demonstrations, recurring strikes, violence by both government supporters and opponents, and widespread rural unrest ensued in response to the general deterioration of the economy.
The 22th of August of 1973 the Chamber of Deputies called for a military intervention since the Allende's Government was Unconstitutional for not respecting basic laws like [[private property]].<ref>[https://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/opinion/2013/08/23/40-anos-del-acuerdo-de-la-camara-que-declaro-la-ilegitimidad-del-gobierno-de-allende/]</ref> By the time the Christian Democrats stopped supporting Allende and started to support an intervention.
[[Carlos Altamirano]], General Secretary of the Socialist Party in July 1973 called to "crush the opposition" and to "not negotiate with the enemies of Chile"<ref>https://www.cepchile.cl/cep/site/artic/20160304/asocfile/20160304093123/rev91_documento.pdf</ref> he also called for a violent Marxist revolution in 1968.
 
====Military Government (1973-1990)====
{{Main article|Augusto Pinochet regime (Chile, 1973–90)}}
[[File:Augusto Pinochet foto oficial coloreada.jpg|200px|thumbnail|General [[Augusto Pinochet|Augusto Pinochet Ugarte]], President of Chile (1973-1990), fighter against [[Marxism]], father of Chile's development, and restorer of the order and the institutions.]]
[[File:Jaime Guzmán2.png|150px|thumbnail|left|[[Jaime Guzmán]] founder of the [[Independent Democratic Democrat Union]] party, writer of part of the 1980 Constitution and its complementary laws, including the binomial system.]]A military coup overthrew Allende on September 11, 1973. As the armed forces bombarded the presidential palace, Allende reportedly committed suicide. A military government, led by General Augusto Pinochet, took over control of the country. The first years of the regime in particular were marked by serious human rights violations against [[Left Wing Terrorism in Chile|leftist terrorists]] who wanted a violent Marxist revolution. The Rettig Report chronicles 2,279 politically motivated killings under Pinochet's reign, few of them weren't involved in Communist armed groups.<ref>[http://www.rrojasdatabank.info/crime1.htm http://www.rrojasdatabank.info/crime1.htm]</ref> A new Constitution was approved by a plebiscite on September 11, 1980, and General Pinochet became President of the Republic for an 8-year term. The Constitution was mainly writed by [[Jaime Guzmán]] who also founded the [[Independent Democratic Democrat Union]]. In its later years, the regime gradually permitted greater freedom of assembly, speech, and association, to include trade union activity. In contrast to its authoritarian political rule, the military government pursued decidedly [[laissez-faire]] economic policies.
[[Milton Friedman]] said,
The Chilean mountains have important ski centers like Valle Nevado.
The [[Arica ]] city in the north has the best waves of the country, something ideal for surfing. The Chilean [[Patagonia]] is a famous place for trekking and out-door sports, The Carretera Austral (Southern Highway) and many National Parks (including the [[National Park Torres del Paine|Torres del Paine]] one) are visited by people all over the world.
==References==
*[[Gallery of South-American painting]]
*[[Gallery of Latin-American painting]]
*[[Terrorism in the South of Chile and Argentina]]*[[Gallery of Chilean Heroes]]*[[La Moneda]]
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