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Chile

306 bytes added, 17 July
Spelling, grammar, and general cleanup, typos fixed: expropiated → expropriated
Since 1975, Chile follows the path of the [[free market]] and [[Capitalism]] been the best place to make business of [[Latin America]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iberglobal.com/files/2019-1/economic_freedom_index_2019.pdf|title=Economic Freedom Index 2019}}</ref> This has made the country the most developed of the Region according to the [[Human Development Index]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.economiaynegocios.cl/noticias/noticias.asp?id=505045|title=Chile sigue al tope de A. Latina en Índice de Desarrollo Humano|date=September 15, 2018|publisher=Economía y Negocios|language=es}}</ref> Chile went from a [[Gross domestic product]] of 100 in 1973 to 515 in 2012.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://gobierno.udd.cl/files/2016/05/PPT-FPP.pdf|author=Lucas Palacios Covarrubias|title=Pobreza vs Desigualdad|date=April 2016|publisher=[[Universidad del Desarrollo]] - Facultad de Gobierno|language=es}}</ref>
Today Chile is leaded by President [[Sebastián Piñera]] with the coalition of parties called [[Chile Vamos]]. The coalition is center-right and has taken [[progressive]] stands on some moral issues.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://santiagotimes.cl/2018/11/29/chile-enacts-landmark-gender-identity-law/|title=Chile enacts landmark gender identity law|date=November 29 , 2018|publisher=Santiago Times}}</ref>
==Geography==
About 85% of Chile's population lives in urban areas, with 40% living in greater Santiago. Most have Spanish ancestry. A small, yet influential number of [[Irish]] and [[English]] immigrants came to Chile during the colonial period. [[German]] immigration began in 1848 and lasted for 90 years; the southern provinces of [[Valdivia]], [[Llanquihue]], and [[Osorno]] show a strong German influence. Other significant historic immigrant groups are [[Italian]], [[Croatian]], [[Basque]], [[Palestinian]] and [[Peruvian]]. About 800,000 Native Americans, mostly of the [[Mapuche]] tribe, reside in the south-central area. The [[Aymara]] and [[Diaguita]] groups can be found mainly in Chile's northern desert valleys.
Since 2014 Chile has been experiencing [[open borders|mass]] [[immigration]] from [[Haiti]], [[Venezuela]], [[Colombia]] and [[Ecuador]], something that was unusual and has drastically changed the demographics of the country in the recent years (The immigrants went from 1.1% to 6.1% and is still growing) <ref>{{cite web|language=es|url=http://www.diarioestrategia.cl//texto-diario/mostrar/1116871/chile-pais-americano-mayor-aumento-inmigrantes|title=Chile es el país americano con mayor aumento de inmigrantes|publisher=diarioestrategia.cl|date=9 November 2018}}</ref> a lot of them are [[Illegal immigration|illegally]].
*Population (2019): 17.5 million.
By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress. In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose.
Continuing political and economic instability resulted with the rule of the quasidictatorial Gen. [[Carlos Ibáñez del Campo]] (1924–32).
In June there was a Coup and between that month and September of 1932 there was an attempt to establish a [[Socialist]] Republic that failed.
When constitutional rule was restored later that year, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932–52), the state increased its role in the economy.
In 1940 Chile started to claim officially the [[Chilean Antarctic Territory]].
In 1962 the "right-wing" President [[Jorge Alessandri]] started the agrarian reform in a small portion, that expropiated expropriated part of big land properties. This reform was deepened by the next two governments.
The 1964 presidential election of [[Christian Democrat]] [[Eduardo Frei Montalva]] by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty," the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionization of agricultural workers. By 1967, however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive. At the end of his term, Frei had accomplished many noteworthy objectives, but he had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals.
Elected with only 36% of the vote and by a plurality of only 36,000 votes, Allende never enjoyed majority support in the Chilean Congress or broad popular support. Domestic production declined; severe shortages of consumer goods, food, and manufactured products were widespread; and inflation reached 1,000% per annum. Mass demonstrations, recurring strikes, violence by both government supporters and opponents, and widespread rural unrest ensued in response to the general deterioration of the economy.
The 22th of August of 1973 the Chamber of Deputies called for a military intervention since the Allende's Government was Unconstitutional for not respecting basic laws like [[private property]].<ref>[https://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/opinion/2013/08/23/40-anos-del-acuerdo-de-la-camara-que-declaro-la-ilegitimidad-del-gobierno-de-allende/]</ref> By the time the Christian Democrats stopped supporting Allende and started to support an intervention.
[[Carlos Altamirano]], General Secretary of the Socialist Party in July 1973 called to "crush the opposition" and to "not negotiate with the enemies of Chile"<ref>https://www.cepchile.cl/cep/site/artic/20160304/asocfile/20160304093123/rev91_documento.pdf</ref> he also called for a violent Marxist revolution in 1968.
*[[Gallery of Latin-American painting]]
*[[Terrorism in the South of Chile and Argentina]]
*[[Gallery of Chilean Heroes]]*[[La Moneda]]
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