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Typology

617 bytes added, 16:20, 9 November 2019
/* The types of the covenant of sacrifice fulfilled by the antitype of Christ */ revised "would be spared readings which sounded" to "would be spared intonations of the readings which sounded"
==Levitical sacrifices as types of Jesus==
===Allusions [[Allusion]]s and paronomasia of meaning===
The narrative accounts of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus in the [[The Gospels]], and in particular the [[Epistle to the Hebrews]], feature numerous direct and indirect quotes and allusions to prophetic types seen in the Old Testament sacrifices commanded in the books of [[Leviticus]] and [[Numbers]]. Typology includes the [[paronomasia]] of the meaning of the particular Hebrew words for the various sacrificial offerings: bulls, bullocks, lambs, goats, doves, pigeons, fine flour, bread, wine, oil, incense, and even the act of laying hands on the sacrifice.
===The ''eternal'' covenant of Levitical sacrifice===
The [[Torah]] of Moses declares that the Law of the Lord is an "'''''everlasting covenant'''''", which was first established in [[Genesis]] with [[Noah]] and the bow of the Lord in the clouds<ref>Genesis 9:16</ref>, with [[Abraham]] and the mark of [[circumcision]] in flesh<ref>Genesis 17:7</ref>, and with Moses and the descendants of [[Jacob|Israel/Jacob]] with an everlasting priesthood<ref>Exodus 40:15; Numbers 25:13</ref> having everlasting ordinances and statutes of obedience and an everlasting statute of [[atonement]] for sins<ref>Leviticus 16:34</ref>, and with [[King David|David]]<ref>2 Samuel 23:5</ref> and his house (his descendants) and his throne, a covenant that the L<small>ORD</small> commanded for "a thousand generations, an everlasting covenant"<ref>1 Chronicles 16:14-17. Taking the traditional meaning of a biblical generation as twenty-five years, God established the covenant with Israel for twenty-five thousand years. The number of years since the Exodus (E) subtracted from 25,000 years of the covenant with Israel at Sinai (T) equals the number of years remaining of the covenant (R) — '''T - E = R'''.</ref>.
[[Jeremiah (prophet)|Jeremiah]] declared the word of the Lord that he would "make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah"<ref>Jeremiah 31:31-34</ref>, but nowhere does the prophet say that the covenant they broke was cancelled or "disannulled"<ref>Hebrews 7:18-19 KJV "For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof. For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope ''did''; by the which we draw nigh unto God."</ref>, only that a new covenant would be made. Even St. Paul stated that the Law of Moses was "''established''" by faith in Christ, not done away. "Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law."<ref>Romans 3:31 KJV</ref> Jesus himself declared, "Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach ''them'', the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven."<ref>Matthew 5:17-19</ref>
It is important to emphasize that the covenant God made with Israel at Sinai was binding only on the people of Israel. The Gentiles were not included.
Christian doctrine in the New Testament teaches that ''in the Person of the Incarnate Word of God'', Jesus Christ, Lord and Savior and only-begotten Son of God the Father<ref>John 1:1-4, 14.</ref>, and ''in his blood sacrifice'', all the sacrifices of the Levitical covenant, everlastingly established by an everlasting covenant for a thousand generations, everlastingly ''continue'' to be fulfilled in one unbroken eternal sacrifice without ceasing, forever, in the body of his one unique blood sacrifice of himself as High Priest and Head of the human race on the cross in full reparation for all the outrages committed against the dignity of God and for the redemption of the sins of the whole world<ref>Hebrews 10:1-14</ref>. According to St. Paul, all who are united to him in baptism share in his eternal sacrifice to God<ref>Romans 6:3-11.</ref> in being offered up to God as living sacrifices<ref>Romans 12:1; 15:16</ref>. And in the communion of his body and the communion of his blood<ref>1 Corinthians 10:15-18</ref> all those who believe in him and eat his flesh and drink his blood according to his promise have eternal life<ref>John 6:27-69</ref>, and according to St. Peter they partake of the divine nature<ref>1 Peter 1:3-4</ref>, in a fulfillment of the ''type'' of the eating from the altar of sacrifice under the Levitical covenant of Moses in the [[Tabernacle]] and the [[Temple of Jerusalem]]. The prayer of those who have been redeemed from the wrath to come on the ungodly<ref>Matthew 3:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:10</ref> by "pleading the blood of Jesus" contains the reality of offering up humble acknowledgement of the full satisfaction of the sacrifice of Christ in atonement for their souls, in the continuously ongoing and unbroken eternal fulfillment of an everlasting statute of [[atonement]] for sins<ref>Leviticus 16:34</ref>.
==The types of the covenant of sacrifice fulfilled by the antitype of Christ==
The [[Hebrew]] alphabet has no vowels. Every letter is a consonant. Many Hebrew words can be sounded in various ways by the speaker, allowing for latitude in interpretive readings by the speaker. This often presents opportunity to alter the meaning of the reading by changing the sound. Occasionally this can be done as a form of ''[[paronomasia]]'' as a form of humor, but more seriously to open up depths of meaning in the inspired text that traditional readings do not reveal. The ancient [[Hebrew]] text of the Torah which is read in the [[synagogue]] originally had no markings indicating how the words should be pronounced. The Hebrew scriptures normally read aloud with melodic intonation by cantors in the synagogue, who realized their obviously evident potential for clearly manifesting prophetic witness to the arrival of the [[Messiah]] in the person of Jesus of Nazareth, saw in the text opportunities to either support the claims of the Jewish Christians, that the Law and the Prophets and the Psalms testified to Jesus as the Anointed of God, the Prophet foretold by Moses, or to negate and even oppose them by the way the scriptures of Israel were read with intonated inflections that would not suggest such an interpretation. The leading scholars of Israel, distressed by the use of the [[Septuagint]] by the Nazarene sect as an aid in converting the people to belief in Jesus of Nazareth, after the destruction of the temple and the city of Jerusalem, determined to reject it in favor of only those scriptures written in Hebrew or Aramaic, which were written in Palestine before the time of [[Ezra]], and which they believed supported the Torah of Moses. Then after the development of the [[Talmud]], scholars known as [[Masoretes]] set themselves the task of standardizing the intonation of the Hebrew text of the ''Torah'' in particular, and more generally the whole of the more clearly defined Jewish canon of the ''[[Tanakh]]'', so that the people in the synagogue would be spared intonations of the readings which sounded too clearly like prophecies of Jesus. For this reason various ''diacritical marks'' were added to the text of the scriptures indicating the approved traditional method of intonation and pronunciation in accordance with the traditional readings of Judaism. Also various corrections to the text were made, to remove or revise and correct all readings they considered to be corruptions of the text. The result is known today as the [[Masoretic Text]]. When the Torah, and in particular the book of Leviticus with its regulations of sacrificial offerings to God, is read with the consonantal text only, without the Masoretic diacritical marks, those established and accredited scholars who believe in Jesus, and who truly know the ancient Hebrew language, are easily able to see even more clearly portrayed the vividly evident ''typology'' of Christ Jesus in the scriptures of Israel. The [[connotation]]s of the words [[Denotation|denoting]] each of the sacrifices of Israel as ''types'' of the expected Messiah of Israel are rich with meanings pointing to the Sacrificial High Priestly Lordship of Jesus as the true ''antitype'' of their fulfillment.
===bulls and bullocks===
'''Genesis 2:7; 13:16; Leviticus 14:40-41; 17:13; Psalm 22:1, 15; 103:14; Ezekiel 24:7; Numbers 4:3-14'''
"thou dost lay me in the dust of death"–"My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"–"For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might [[Holy|sanctify ]] the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate." Psalm 22:15; Psalm 22:1 / Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34; Hebrews 13:11-12a. The Hebrew word '''עפר''' can mean both dust, and the covering over of blood that was shed. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[https://biblehub.com/hebrew/6083.htm 6083 '''עפר'''] –dry earth, dust, covering over
'''Exodus 27:20; 29:1-2, 40; 35:14; Deuteronomy 24:20-21; Isaiah 49:6'''
Oil was light, a source of light. "I am the light of the world"–"Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane"–"and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground" John 9:5; Matthew 26:36a; Mark 14:32; Luke 22:44b. The Hebrew words '''שמן, כתית, זית''' words mean oil, beaten, olive, light. See Strong's Hebrew lexicon
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/8081.htm 8081 '''שמן'''] –liquid (as from the olive, often perfumed), richness, anointing, fruitful, oil, olive
*[http://biblehub.com/hebrew/3795.htm 3795 '''כתית'''] –beaten (oil)
*[http://biblehub.com/interlinear/luke/22-19.htm Luke 22:19] and [http://biblehub.com/commentaries/luke/22-19.htm commentaries];
*[http://biblehub.com/interlinear/1_corinthians/11-24.htm 1 Corinthians 11:24] and [http://biblehub.com/commentaries/1_corinthians/11-24.htm commentaries];
*[http://biblehub.com/interlinear/hebrews/10-3.htm Hebrews 10:3] and [http://biblehub.com/commentaries/hebrews/10-3.htm commentaries]
==See also==
[https://www.catholic.com/tract/the-institution-of-the-mass The Institution of the Mass - Catholic Answers (catholic.com)] —"[The Church] ''does not teach that the Mass is a re-crucifixion of Christ.''"
[http://arnesen.co.uk/anamnesis.html Anamnesis (arnesen.co.uk)] —''making the past present''. Citing the expertise of C.F. Evans, Darwell Stone, Stephen Beale, D.R. Jones, Buchanan Grey, Dom Gregory, Westcott, Ignatius, Justin, Irenaeus, James Barr, Mercea Eliade, D.R. Davies, J.D. Crichton, George Guiver CR, Dom Ode Casel, Käsemann, John Jewel, Hooker, Colin Buchanan, and ''The Anglo-Roman Catholic International Commission'' (ARCIC).
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