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Human embryos in medical research

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{{merge|Embryonic stem cells}}'''Embryonic stem cell''' research is the utilization of [[stem cells|stem cells]] from [[embyroembryo]]s which can then be grown in a laboratory culture and produce specialized cells supposedly to treat [[disease]]s or used for research purposes. A The most common source of such cells is discarded embryos at [[fertility clinic]]s- the process of [[IVF]] typically produces two or three 'leftover' embryos for each treatment, which are usually discarded. The use of embryonic stem cells in medicine has met with some controversy, particularly from the [[pro-life]] movement that is concerned about the destruction of embryos that they believe constitute human life.<ref>httphttps://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/29/AR2005072900158.html</ref>
'''Adult stem cell ''' research is similar except it does not use destroyed embryos, and instead is based on stem cells that can be taken from adults. These cells are less versatile than those harvested from discarded embryos, but they do not raise the associated [[ethics|ethical]] dilemasdilemmas.<ref>http://www.isscr.org/Unfortunately, adult embryonic stem cells are of little value to science/faqas a whole.htm</ref>
The primary reason for wanting to use embryonic stem cells is that they are capable of producing any type of tissue in the body. Thus, theoretically, a embryonic stem cell could be used to generate a new livertreatments offer far greater potential than adult cells - while both are capable of repairing some damage, or that same cell embryonic cells could be used go so far as to generate brain tissuereplace entire organs. The failure Conversely though, the greater flexibility of this argument lies in the fact that no one knows how embryonic cells also makes them more difficult to control the cell and make it create the desired tissue. Thus it becomes hit or miss, and there A major obstacle to their use in humans is a tendency for stem cells to create "monsters" commonly found in humans and called "teratomas"form tumors. These mostly consist of hair and teeth. Only when "control" of the cells can be estabalished can there be reliable use of any kind of stem cell. If and when that "control" {{fact}} Much research is established, it would make more sense being carried out to use adult stem cells from a persons own body so there would be no problem with foreign body DNAbetter understand the cellular processes which cause this.
*President Bush's refusal of [[federal funding]] for new embryonic stem cell lines didn't halt major stem-cell advances, any more than the prohibition against life-threatening research on human subjects, such as the infamous Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male, stopped the advance of medical treatments. [http://www.opinionjournal.com/federation/feature/?id== Arguments 110010915 Trading Places] - Will the secular left soon attack the religious right for and Against Embryonic Stem Cell Research ==being pro-science? - Joseph Bottum
A variety of arguments are used both *On March 9, 2007 Barack Obama repealed President Bush's ban on federal funding for and against embryonic stem cell research. Some proponents argue that the embryos do not constitute human lives or that even if they do since the embryos would be destroyed anyways and thus it makes sense to use the embryos.<ref>httphttps://www.spinneypressonenewsnow.com.au/178_book_descCulture/Default.htmlaspx?id=441206</ref>. These arguments have been accepted by some [[Christian]] groups This was a campaign promise and by many [[Jewish]] groups, even Orthodox onesleads to the expectation that he will be one of the most pro-choice Presidents in U.S. history.<ref>http://www.jlawprochoiceamerica.comorg/Articleschoice-action-center/stemcellresus-gov/congressional-record-on-choice/illinois.html</ref>. A typical human blastocyst contains about 150 non-specialized cells. There are no neurons, and thus no brain function present. (By way of comparison, a fly's brain contains over 100,000 cells.) The only way a blastocyst can be considered human is in its potential to become a living human being. However, modern biotechnology has endowed every cell in the human body with the same potential. If we follow this argument to its logical conclusion, a person commits a holocaust every time he scratches his nose.
Opponents to such research have argued that such embryos are human lives with the full rights of humans ==Expectation and that even if they are not human lives the slippery slope is too great. Furthermore, they argue that the sanctity of human life is so great that even the destruction of such embryos for research is not permissible even when they would be destroyed anyways. Opponents have also argued that the potential of embryonic stem cells have been exaggerated and that more research must be done with cord and adult stem cells.<ref>http://www.americancatholic.org/News/StemCell/</ref>, <ref>http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,31748,00.html</ref>, <ref>http://www.breitbart.com/news/2006/07/18/D8IUKSRO0.html</ref>.Potential ==
An alternative approach would be to use parthenogenesis, Jeremy Pearce of the term that's applied to an egg that activates spontaneously on its own'New York Times'' wrote:*Dr. It is common for eggs to activate [[Ira B. Black]], chairman of the neurosciences and often form cysts or benign tumors in cell biology department of the ovaryRobert Wood Johnson Medical School, at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, described the potential of all stem-cell research as threefold. When He said the activated eggs begin expectation in the laboratory was for such cells to divide, they look like early embryos revive damaged and form blastocysts with stem dead cells inside. A young woman with Type 1 ; to act as vehicle cells in introducing [[diabetesgene therapy]] could donate her eggs; and, which could be activated in the laboratory without being fertilized. Her own stem cellsfinally, gathered when the eggs develop to rally and harness the blastocyst stage, could be used to treat her Type 1 [[diabeteshuman body]]'s own existing stem cells.
Stem *The end goal would be to replace [[brain cells developed from an unfertilized monkey egg that went through parthenogenesis are being used ]] lost to treat [[ParkinsonAlzheimer's disease]] in , repair injured nerve cells causing [[monkeyparalysis]]s. This line has proven to be as robust as stem cells from human eggsand treat [[cancers]], malfunctioning [[organs]] and other now-irreparable conditions.
One of *To Dr. Black, the reasons this line use of research has not been pursued is that in embryonic cells ''fundamentally constitutes the Dickey Amendment that was put gold standard'' in place by [[Congress]] in 1996, parthenogenesis was specifically included with the rest of embryo medical research, so scientists cannot get federal funding to do work even on unfertilized human eggsbecause of their purity and versatility. <ref>But he cautioned: ''This is a very young field. Our areas of ignorance are far greater than our areas of knowledge.'' [http://wwwquery.pbsnytimes.orgcom/wgbhgst/nova/sciencenow/3209/04-alternativefullpage.html</ref>?res=9500E3DD1739F93BA25752C0A9629C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print] ==Inducible Pluripotent Stem Cells== Research in 2006 has facilitated the conversion of human adult somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, namely possessing an ability to differentiate into many types of tissue. (Unlike embryonic stem cells from blastocysts, however, IPSCs are not totipotent.) By forcing the expression of certain genes, via the activation of many transcription factors (such as tetramer and hexamer TFs), using a particular medium (e.g. HIF and LIF), pluripotent stem cells can be generated. This research has great potential on account of its ability to resolve the dilemma surrounding the use of embryonic stem cells.
== References ==
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[[categoryCategory:scienceBiology]][[categoryCategory:politicsPolitical Terms]]
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