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Abraham

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/* Final years */Spelling, grammar, and general cleanup, typos fixed: Abraham’s → Abraham's
:''For the first [[Republican]] [[president of the United States]], see [[Abraham Lincoln]]''
 
[[Image:abraham_sacrificing_isaac.jpg|thumb|right|200px|''Abraham Sacrificing Isaac'' by Rembrandt]]
'''Abraham''' ([[Hebrew ]]: '''אַבְרָהָםאברהם''') lived in , ''ʾAḇrāhām''; [[UrArabic]] approximately 1800 : '''ابراهيم''', ''Ibrāhīm'', "father of a multitude") or '''Abram''' ("exalted father") (2008 AM–2183 AM, or 1996 BC. His story is told in -1821 BC) was the book father of [[Genesis]]. He is credited in the [[BibleIsrael]] as ites, the father of [[JudaismArab]] s, and the recipient of a covenant with Godseveral other races. Held up as an example of faith to all He is considered a [[Christiansprophet]], Jews, and [[Muslims]], Abraham migrated to [[Canaan]] in obedience to God's command. In the Bible, Abraham had two important children, [[Ishmael]] and [[Isaac]]. The descendants details of Isaac became the [[Israelite|Israelites]] as chronicled his life are recorded in the Bible. The [[ArabGenesis]]s claim to be descended from Ishmael, although this is not discussed in the Bible itself.
== Life ==Abraham was born in the land of Ur of the chaldeans and named Abram. His family was descended from [[ShemJudaism|Jews]], one of [[Noah]]'s sons. His father's name was [[TerahChristianity|Christians]], his brothers were [[Nahor]] and [[Haran]]. He was married to his half-sister, [[SarahIslam|SaraiMuslims]]. When respect Abraham for his father left Ur, Abram left with him. They stopped at the city of outstanding faith in [[Haran]], where Terah died. Abram was then called by God to leave his land. God promised that, if he followed him, he would give him land, descendants, fame, and riches. Abram obeyed God and left Haran at age 75, and took his nephew, [[Lot]], with him. They went onto the land of [[Canaan]], all the way to [[Shechem]]. He would also move to a mountain, west of [[Bethel]] and east of [[Ai]], where he built an altar to the Lord. <ref> Genesis {{Bible ref|book=Hebrews|chap=11:27|verses=8-12:9. }}</ref>
He also moved on to the south and dwelt there for a time == Abraham’s life ==Abraham, originally called Abram until God changed his name in a famine came and he went to covenant when Abraham was 99 years old,<ref>{{Bible ref|book=Genesis|chap=17|verses=5}}</ref> was born in [[EgyptUr of the Chaldees]] in [[Mesopotamia]]. However, when he arrived he His father was afraid that[[Terah]], because of his wife's beauty, the Egyptians would kill him. So and he lied had two elder brothers named [[Haran]] and said that she was his sister instead[[Nahor]]. Unfortunately, His wife was [[PharoahSarah]] then took Sarai into (who actually was his house. Because niece and daughter of thisHaran), God plagued Pharoh and his house. Pharoh ordered Abram sons were [[Isaac]] and his wife to leave[[Ishmael]]. Abram went back between Bethel and Ai. <ref> Genesis 12:10-20. </ref>
After he left Egypt, Abram's men God told him to leave his country and Lot's men quarreled for journey to a new land and water for herds. Abram selflessly offered Lot , where he would become the best founder of the land to takea new nation. Lot chose to live in the fertile plains of Abraham obeyed God, and when he was 75 years old he journeyed with his wife Sarah (Sarai), his nephew [[JordanLot]], near and many others to the cities land of [[SodomCanaan (land)|Canaan]] and between [[GomorrahSyria]]. Abram moved toward the terebinth trees of Mamre, in and [[HebronEgypt]]. During this time, God renewed his promise of land At each stop along the way he set up an altar and descendants. Abram built an alter where he dwelt to the Lord. <ref> Genesis 13tent-shrine. </ref>
Abram was also a skilled general and fighter. When Lot, The date of his nephewdeparture is 15 Abib 2083 AM (25 April 1921 BC), was taken prisoner during a war between as per the following verses:{{Bible quote|Now the kings sojourning of Shinar, Ellasar, Chedorlaomer, and Goyim against the kings children of SodomIsrael, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiimwho dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and Belah, Abram ambushed them and fought for his nephewthirty years. He won a great victory. After the battle, when Abram went And it came to meet with pass at the King end of Sodom in the King's Valley, he met with [[Melchizedek]], King of Salem. Melchizedek blessed Abram four hundred and Godthirty years, for he was High Priest of God. Abram gave him a [[tithe]] of all he had. The King of [[Sodom]] offered Abram all even the riches of the victory, which had been won. However, Abram had none of selfsame day it. After thiscame to pass, that all the Lord returned to Abram and renamed him as Abraham (meaning father hosts of many nations) and his wife the LORD went out from Sarai (meaning Princess) to [[Sarah]] (meaning Queen.) God also made a covenant with him that included a prophecy the land of captivity for his descendants, and a promise of deliverance and great landEgypt. <ref> Genesis 14|book=Exodus|chap=12|verses=40-15. </ref> 41|version=KJV}}
Abraham was married to Sarah, but was childless. God came to him and told him his descendants would be as numerous as The date of the sand on the shore. As time went on and Sarah had still not conceived, Sarah gave her maidservant [[Hagar]] to Abraham to have children. Ishmael Exodus was born from this union. 15 Abib 2513 AM (Genesis 16: 1-512 April 1491 BC). Abraham was 86 ; therefore the date of Abram's departure from Haran is precisely 430 years old when [[Ishmael]] was bornearlier. (Genesis 16:16See below.) Abraham had his son of the covenant through his wife Sarah when he was 100 years old and his wife Sarah was 90, beyond normal child bearing years at that time. When Isaac was still young, Sarah told Abraham to send away Hagar and Ishmael. Abraham complied.
The most famous story of Abraham dealt with his son In [[IsaacCanaan (land)|Canaan]], when Abraham was told by God promised Abraham that his descendants would inherit the land from the Nile to take him up into the mountains river Euphrates and sacrifice himhave it for ever. (Genesis 22:1-14) Abraham did as he Although Sarah was toldchildless, but at the last moment an angel of the Lord told him to stop and another sacrifice was there apart from God's promise she would have no reason to be put in his place, "for now I know believe that thou fearest Godshe would ever have children, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only [son] from meAbraham trusted God to fulfill His promise to give them children."<refname=Ussher>Genesis 22:12</ref> [[ChristiansJames Ussher]] see this as a foreshadowing , ''[[The Annals of the sacrifice of World]]'', [[JesusLarry Pierce]], ed., Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2003 (ISBN 0890513600), pghh. 72-75, 77-80, 82-83</ref>
In response === Visit to Egypt ===Early in Abraham's display journey, famine struck the land of love for God by being willing Canaan. Abraham went to [[Egypt]] to escape its effects. There, Abraham instructed Sarah to sacrifice say that she was his only beloved sonsister&mdash;which was not quite true, "because Sarah was Abraham's niece. The angel of then-reigning [[Pharaoh]] took Sarah, who was quite attractive despite her advanced age, into the Lord called palace. [[God]], however, directly warned Pharaoh against being intimate with Sarah, who was another man's wife. Pharaoh returned Sarah to Abraham from heaven a second time 16 and said:politely asked Abraham to leave Egypt, which he did. However, Abraham left Egypt with many gifts and presents. Among these was a handmaid named [[Hagar]].<refname=Ussher2>Genesis 22:15-18Ussher, ''op. cit.'', pgh. 74</ref>
:I swear === Family Strife ===At first, Abraham was accompanied by myselfhis nephew, declares the Lord[[Lot]], who had a household comparable in size to that because you have done this and have not withheld your sonof Abraham, your only sonwith livestock to match. Inevitably, I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as their wranglers fought over the stars in scarce resources of the sky region. So Abraham and as Lot agreed to separate. Lot decided to live in the sand on plains of the seashore. Your descendants will take possession Valley of Siddim (the cities [[Dead Sea]]), while Abraham stayed in the hill country. This happened in the spring of their enemies2084 AM.<ref name=Ussher3>Ussher, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed''op. cit.'', because you have obeyed mepgh.75</ref>
After Eight years after that Abraham's wife Sarah, died. Abraham purchased the cave of Machpelah from Ephron the Lot fell prisoner to [[HittiteChedorlaomer]] for four hundred in the [[sheckelWar of the Ten Kings]]s of silver. There Sarah was buried. After that, Abraham sent his servant back to the land where he came from to find a wife for his son Isaac. His servantheard about Lot's way was prosperous and brought back capture from an escapee from [[RebekahSodom]], daughter of Bethuel, son of Nahorwhere Lot had gone to live. Abraham also remarried armed 318 men of his household, called on three local Amorite confederates to [[Keturah]] and she bore help him six sons: [[Zimran]], [[Jokshan]], [[Medan]], [[Midian]], [[Ishbak]], and [[Shuah]]gave chase. <ref>I Chr 1:32</ref> Abraham gave He successfully rescued Lot and recaptured all he the plunder that Chedorlaomer had to Isaac, and sent his sons away east with giftstaken. Abraham then died at the age of 175 years. He was buried by took no spoil beyond his two sons, Isaac and Ishmaelown troops' rations. <refname=Ussher4> Genesis 23-25:11Ussher, ''op. cit.'', pgh. 77</ref>Scripture does not record that Abraham would ever see Lot again.
==See Also==Abraham then made what some have considered a mistake. Not willing to believe that a seventy-five-year-old woman (Sarah's age at the time) could conceive, Abraham allowed Sarah to prevail upon him to accept Hagar as her surrogate. By her he had a son, [[Ishmael]] ("God hears"). Ishmael was not, however, the son that God had promised that Abraham ''and Sarah'' would have.
=== The Covenant ===God established his covenant with Abraham on 2107 AM (1897 BC). On that occasion God told Abraham that he and Sarah ''would'' have a son, and that the descendants of that son would be too numerous to count.<ref name=Ussher5>Ussher, ''op. cit.'', pgh. 82</ref> And not only was Abraham to be the father of multitudes of physical descendants, he would also be the spiritual father of all who believe in the true God. But God also warned Abraham that the Hebrews would sojourn in a land that was not theirs, that some group of persons, identified only as "they," would "afflict" them, and that after a span of four hundred years, God would see that the Hebrew people would despoil those who had ill-used them. In this same year came the destruction of [[MidrashSodom]]and [[Gomorrah]]. Abraham interceded for Sodom, for Lot's sake. Instead of forbearing to destroy the city, God sent two angels to make sure that Lot and his household would leave Sodom. (They barely escaped in time, and Lot's wife, because she looked back, did not survive.) Abraham did have his son, [[Isaac]] ("he shall laugh"), by his wife [[Sarah]] when he was 100 years old and Sarah 90 years old. === The Expulsion of Ishmael ===When Isaac was five years old, Abraham held a feast in his honor. Ishmael, who was nineteen, mocked Isaac. This prompted Sarah to demand that Abraham send Hagar and Ishmael away, and he did. Many commentators, among them [[James Ussher]], [[Larry Pierce]], and [[Floyd Nolen Jones]], date the four hundred years' persecution of the Hebrew people from this incident. But other commentators point out that the Ishmaelites were not the Egyptians, nor did any systematic persecution begin until after the Israelites had all entered Egypt. == Abraham's faith ==The most famous story of Abraham dealt with his son [[Isaac]], when Abraham was told by God to take him up onto Mount Moriah and sacrifice him. ({{Bible ref|book=Genesis|chap=22|verses=1-14}}) Abraham did as he was told, but at the last moment an angel of the Lord told him to stop and another sacrifice was there to be put in his place, "for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only [son] from me." ({{Bible ref|book=Genesis|chap=22|verses=12}}) [[Christians]] see this as a foreshadowing of the sacrifice of [[Jesus]]. In response to Abraham's display of love for God by being willing to sacrifice his only beloved son,{{Bible quote|The angel of the Lord called to Abraham from heaven a second time and said: I swear by myself, declares the Lord, that because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me.|book=Genesis|chap=22|verses=15-18}} == Abraham’s character ==Abraham was a man with many admirable characteristics. He was a righteous man, wholeheartedly committed to [[God]]. He was a man of peace, compassionate when working to persuade God to spare the people of [[Sodom and Gomorrah]], hospitable in welcoming three visiting [[angels]], and quick to act when rescuing Lot and his family from attackers. Although he was a man of great spiritual depth, he also had common human weaknesses. To save his life, he twice passed off Sarah as his sister to foreign kings, allowing them to choose her for their harems. == Final years ==Sarah died at the age of 127, and Abraham bought a cave at Machpelah in which to bury her. As his own death drew near he made his servant Eliezer swear that he would find a wife for Isaac from his kinfolk near Haran. He did, and Isaac married [[Rebekah]]. Also in Abraham's advancing years he married [[Keturah]], whose sons became the ancestors of the tribes of Dedan and Midian. The sons of Abraham by Keturah included [[Zimran]], [[Jokshan (son of Abraham)|Jokshan]], [[Medan]], [[Midian]], [[Ishbak]], and [[Shuah]]. ({{Bible ref|book=I_Chronicles|chap=1|verses=32}}) After he gave all he had to Isaac, and gifts to his other sons, [[Abraham died]], having lived for 175 years. [[Isaac]] and [[Ishmael]] buried him in the cave at Machpelah in which Sarah lay. == Legacy ==: ''Main Article: [[Abrahamic religion]]'' Jews trace their lineage to Abraham through his son Isaac. One of the core tenets of the Jewish faith is that the [[Hebrews]] are the "chosen people of God" following God's covenants with Abraham.  Christians also trace their faith back to Abraham through Isaac, via [[Jesus Christ|Jesus]] and his original followers, who were Jewish. Abraham's descendant Midian is also tied to the Jewish faith through [[Moses]], whose wife, Zipporah, was a Midianite. [[Arab]] [[Islam|Muslims]] trace their lineage back to Abraham (known as Ibrahim) through his son [[Ishmael]]. == Chronological problems ==: ''Main Article: [[Biblical chronology dispute]]'' Abraham's life story poses two different problems in [[biblical chronology]]. The first is whether Abraham was born early, or late, in the life of his father [[Terah]]. The age of Terah when Abraham was born is a chronological anchor for the year of Terah's birth. Many commentators believe that Abraham was born when Terah was 70 years old, on the basis of this verse:{{Bible quote|After Terah had lived 70 years, he became the father of Abram, Nahor and Haran.|book=Genesis|chap=11|verses=26}} However, the Bible describes Abraham's departure from Haran ''after'' the death of his father.<ref name=Ussher5>[[James Ussher|Ussher]], ''[[The Annals of the World|op. cit.'']], pgh. 71-72</ref><ref name=Jones>Jones, Floyd N. ''The Chronology of the Old Testament'', Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2004 (ISBN 9780890514160), pp. 25, 259 and Charts 1 and 6</ref> In addition, Stephen clearly stated to the Sanhedrin that Abraham left Haran after his father died.<ref name=Stephen>{{Bible ref|book=Acts|chap=7|verses=4}}</ref> The second problem concerns the length of the Sojourn in Egypt. This period serves as an anchor for Abraham's departure from Haran. The book of Exodus tells us that {{Bible quote|Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.|book=Exodus|chap=12|verses=40|version=KJV}} Interestingly, the [[Samaritan Pentateuch]] adds the phrase "and Canaan" after the name "Egypt" in the above verse. However, God seems to say to Abraham that the Egyptians would afflict the Israelites for four hundred years:{{Bible quote|And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;...|book=Genesis|chap=15|verses=13|version=KJV}} Two problems appear above: # Does the 430 years refer to the length of time that the Hebrews spent in Egypt, or to the total span of time from Abraham's entry into Canaan to the [[Exodus of Israel]]?# When does the 400 years begin and end? With regard to the 430 years, [[Paul]] provides an answer:{{Bible quote|And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.|book=Galatians|chap=3|verses=17}} The law referred to above is the [[Ten Commandments]], which were given in the same year as the Exodus. Therefore, the "covenant" refers to the departure. In addition, [[Genesis]] tells us that ''four generations'' would elapse during the actual time in Egypt.<ref name=generations>{{Bible ref|book=Genesis|chap=15|verses=16|version=KJV}}</ref> Those generations are the lives of [[Levi]], [[Kohath]], [[Amram]], and [[Moses]], which are a direct line of descent. [[Exodus]] gives the lengths of the lives of each of these men, and furthermore states that Amram married his own aunt. (I Chronicles also attests to this.) If the Israelites spent 430 years living in Egypt, this line of descent would be impossible. With regard to the 400 years, Jones cites E. W. Bullinger's ''Companion Bible'', which points out that the text of {{Bible ref|book=Genesis|chap=15|verses=13}} is a curious type of text called an ''introversion.'' It states four facts, of which the first and last are related to one another, and the second and third are related to one another, though ''not'' to the other two. Thus the passage should read: * Thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs,** and shall serve them;** and they shall afflict them* four hundred years. The two facts listed in the indented text are a parenthetical note in the broader [[context]] of a four-hundred-year period that begins when Isaac was weaned and ends with the Exodus.<ref name=Jones2>Jones, ''op. cit.'', pp. 53-61 and Charts 3, 3A, and 3B.</ref>
== References ==
{{reflist}}
== See also ==
* [[Judaism]]
** [[Midrash]]
* [[Christianity]]
* [[Islam]]
 
== External links ==
*[http://www.swartzentrover.com/cotor/Bible/Timelines/2210-2090%20BC.htm Timeline 2210-2090 BC]
*[http://www.swartzentrover.com/cotor/Bible/Timelines/2090-1970%20BC.htm Timeline 2090-1970 BC]
*[http://www.swartzentrover.com/cotor/Bible/Bible/OT/Law/Genesis/patriarchal_timeline_from_adam_through_Isaac.htm Patriarchal Timeline from Adam through Isaac]
*[http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/bakers-evangelical-dictionary/abraham.html About Abraham - Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology] on BibleStudyTools.com
*[http://www.swartzentrover.com/cotor/Bible/Bible/OT/Ages%20Of%20The%20Patriarchs.html Ages Of The Patriarchs]
*[http://www.swartzentrover.com/cotor/Bible/Bible/OT/Law/Genesis/Genealogical%20Table%20of%20Abrahams%20Family.htm Genealogical Table of Abraham’s Family]
<references/>{{nb patriarch}}{{nb hebrews}}
[[Category:Book of Genesis Persons]]
[[Category:Ancient History]]
[[Category:Abrahamic Religions]]
[[Category:Orthodox JewsJewish People]]
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